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ASME B31.1 (2007), Code for Pressure Piping, 
Section on Power Piping, as required by the 
laws of the States of Arizona, Alaska, Colorado, 
Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, 
Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, 
Ohio, Oregon, Wisconsin, et . alia. 



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ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31 



AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD 




Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 

(Revision of ASME B31.1-2004) 



Power Piping 



ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31 



AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD 




Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. X|X 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^£ 



Date of Issuance: December 7, 2007 



The 2007 edition of this Code is being issued with an automatic update service that includes addenda, 
interpretations, and cases. The use of addenda allows revisions made in response to public review 
comments or committee actions to be published on a regular basis; revisions published in addenda 
will become effective 6 months after the Date of Issuance of the addenda. The next edition of this 
Code is scheduled for publication in 2010, 



ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National 
Standards. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from 
competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made 
available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia, 
regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large. 

ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity. 

ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any 
items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for 
infringement of any applicable letters patent, nor assumes any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly 
advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of Infringement of such rights, is 
entirely their own responsibility. 

Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as 
government or industry endorsement of this code or standard. 

ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the established 
ASME procedures and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals. 



No part of this document may be reproduced in any form, 

in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, 

without the prior written permission of the publisher. 



The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 



Copyright © 2007 by 

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

All rights reserved 

Printed in U.S.A. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



CONTENTS 



Foreword vi 

Committee Roster vii 

Introduction x 

Summary of Changes xii 

Chapter I Scope and Definitions 1 

100 General 1 

Chapter 1! Design 10 

Part 1 Conditions and Criteria 10 

101 Design Conditions 10 

102 Design Criteria 11 

Part 2 Pressure Design of Piping Components 16 

103 Criteria for Pressure Design of Piping Components 16 

104 Pressure Design of Components 16 

Part 3 Selection and Limitations of Piping Components 29 

105 Pipe 29 

106 Fittings, Bends, and Intersections 30 

107 Valves 31 

108 Pipe Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, Gaskets, and Bolting 32 

Part 4 Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints 33 

110 Pipi n S Joints 33 

111 Welded Joints 33 

112 Flanged Joints 33 

113 Expanded or Rolled Joints 33 

114 Threaded Joints 33 

11.5 Flared, Flareless, and Compression Joints, and Unions 38 

116 Bell End Joints 39 

117 Brazed and Soldered Joints 39 

1 18 Sleeve Coupled and Other Proprietary Joints 39 

Part 5 Expansion, Flexibility, and Pipe Supporting Element 39 

1 19 Expansion and Flexibility 39 

120 Loads on Pipe Supporting Elements 42 

121 Design of Pipe Supporting Elements 43 

Part 6 Systems 46 

122 Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Piping Systems 46 

Chapter HE Materials 61 

123 General Requirements 61 

124 Limitations on Materials — 62 

125 Materials Applied to Miscellaneous Parts 63 

Chapter IV Dimensional Requirements , 64 

126 Material Specifications and Standards for Standard and Nonstandard 

Piping Components 64 

Chapter V Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection 72 

127 Welding 72 

128 Brazing and Soldering 81 

129 Bending and Forming 82 

130 Requirements for Fabricating and Attaching Pipe Supports 82 

131 Welding Preheat 83 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



132 Postweld Heat Treatment 83 

133 Stamping 89 

135 Assembly 89 

Chapter VI Inspection, Examination, and Testing 91 

136 Inspection and Examination . . 91 

137 Pressure Tests 95 

Chapter VII Operation and Maintenance 98 

138 General 98 

139 Operation and Maintenance Procedures 98 

140 Condition Assessment of CPS 98 

141 CPS Records 99 

Figures 

100.1.2(A) Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Forced Flow Steam 

Generator With No Fixed Steam and Water Line 2 

100.1.2(B) Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Drum-Type Boilers 3 

100.1.2(C) Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Spray-Type Desuperheater 4 

102.4.5 Nomenclature for Pipe Bends 15 

104.3.1(D) Reinforcement of Branch Connections 20 

1043.1(G) Reinforced Extruded Outlets 24 

104.5.3 Types of Permanent Blanks 27 

104.8.4 Cross Section Resultant Moment Loading 29 

122.1.7(C) Typical Globe Valves 50 

122.4 Desuperheater Schematic Arrangement 55 

127.3 Butt Welding of Piping Components With Internal Misalignment 73 

127.4.2 Welding End Transition — Maximum Envelope 74 

127.4.4(A) Fillet Weld Size - 76 

127.4.4(B) Welding Details for Slip-On and Socket- Welding Flanges; Some 

Acceptable Types of Flange Attachment Welds 77 

127.4.4(C) Minimum Welding Dimensions Required for Socket Welding 

Components Other Than Flanges 77 

127.4.8(A) Typical Welded Branch Connection Without Additional 

Reinforcement 77 

127.4.8(B) Typical Welded Branch Connection With Additional Reinforcement 77 

127.4.8(C) Typical Welded Angular Branch Connection Without Additional 

Reinforcement 77 

127.4.8(D) Some Acceptable Types of Welded Branch Attachment Details 

Showing Minimum Acceptable Welds 78 

127.4.8(E) Typical Full Penetration Weld Branch Connections for NPS 3 and 

Smaller Half Couplings or Adapters 79 

127.4.8(F) Typical Partial Penetration Weld Branch Connection for NPS 2 and 

Smaller Fittings 79 

135.5.3 Typical Threaded Joints Using Straight Threads 90 

Tables 

102.4.3 Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency Factors 14 

102.4.5 Bend Thinning Allowance 15 

1 02.4. 6(B. 1.1) Maximum Severity Level for Casting Thickness 4V 2 in. (114 mm) or 

Less 16 

102.4.6(B.2.2) Maximum Severity Level for Casting Thickness Greater Than 4 l / 2 in. 

(114 mm) 16 

104.1.2(A) Values of y 18 

112 Piping Flange Bolting, Facing, and Gasket Requirements 34 

114.2.1 Threaded Joints Limitations 38 

121.5 Suggested Pipe Support Spacing 44 

121.7.2(A) Carrying Capacity of Threaded ASTM A 36, A 575 , and A 576 

Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel 45 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



122.2 Design Pressure for Blowoff/ Blow down Piping Downstream of BEP 

Valves 51 

122.8.2(B) Minimum Wall Thickness Requirements for Toxic Fluid Piping 58 

126.1 Specifications and Standards 65 

127.4.2 Reinforcement of Girth and Longitudinal Butt Welds 75 

129.3.2 Approximate Lower Critical Temperatures 82 

132 Postweld Heat Treatment 85 

132.1 Alternate Postweld Heat Treatment Requirements for Carbon and 

Low Alloy Steels 89 

136.4 Mandatory Minimum Nondestructive Examinations for Pressure 

Welds or Welds to Pressure-Retaining Components 93 

136.4.1 Weld Imperfections Indicated by Various Types of Examination 94 

Mandatory Appendices 

A Table A-l, Carbon Steel 102 

Table A-2, Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel 114 

Table A-3, Stainless Steels 126 

Table A-4, Nickel and High Nickel Alloys 160 

Table A-5, Cast Iron 172 

Table A-6, Copper and Copper Alloys 174 

Table A-7, Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 178 

Table A-8, Temperatures 1,200°F and Above 186 

Table A-9, Titanium and Titanium Alloys 192 

B Table B-l, Thermal Expansion Data < . 197 

Table B-l (SI), Thermal Expansion Data 200 

C Table C-l, Moduli of Elasticity for Ferrous Material 204 

Table C-l (SI), Moduli of Elasticity for Ferrous Material 205 

Table C-2, Moduli of Elasticity for Nonferrous Material 206 

Table C-2 (SI), Moduli of Elasticity for Nonferrous Material 208 

D Table D-l, Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors 210 

Chart D-l, Flexibility Factor, k, and Stress Intensification Factor, i ....... 214 

Chart D-2, Correction Factor, c 215 

Fig. D-l, Branch Connection Dimensions 216 

F Referenced Standards 217 

G Nomenclature 220 

H Preparation of Technical Inquiries 227 

J Quality Control Requirements for Boiler External Piping (BEP) 228 

Nonmandatory Appendices 

II Rules for the Design of Safety Valve Installations 230 

III Rules for Nonmetallic Piping and Piping Lined With Nonmetals 250 

IV Corrosion Control for ASME B31.1 Power Piping Systems 269 

V Recommended Practice for Operation, Maintenance, and 

Modification of Power Piping Systems 273 

VI Approval of New Materials 284 

VII Procedures for the Design of Restrained Underground Piping 285 

index 295 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



FOREWORD 



The general philosophy underlying this Power Piping Code is to parallel those provisions of 
Section I, Power Boilers, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, as they can be applied 
to power piping systems. The Allowable Stress Values for power piping are generally consistent 
with those assigned for power boilers. This Code is more conservative than some other piping 
codes, reflecting the need for long service life and maximum reliability in power plant installations. 

The Power Piping Code as currently written does not differentiate between the design, fabrica- 
tion, and erection requirements for critical and noncritical piping systems, except for certain stress 
calculations and mandatory nondestructive tests of welds for heavy wall, high temperature 
applications. The problem involved is to try to reach agreement on how to evaluate criticality and 
to avoid the inference that noncritical systems do not require competence in design, fabrication, 
and erection. Some day such levels of quality may be definable, so that the need for the many 
different piping codes will be overcome. 

There are many instances where the Code serves to warn a designer, fabricator, or erector against 
possible pitfalls; but the Code is not a handbook, and cannot substitute for education, experience, 
and sound engineering judgment. 

Nonmandatory Appendices are included in the Code. Each contains information on a specific 
subject, and is maintained current with the Code. Although written in mandatory language, these 
Appendices are offered for application at the user's discretion. 

The Code never intentionally puts a ceiling limit on conservatism. A designer is free to specify 
more rigid requirements as he feels they may be justified. Conversely, a designer who is capable of 
a more rigorous analysis than is specified in the Code may justify a less conservative design, 
and still satisfy the basic intent of the Code. 

The Power Piping Committee strives to keep abreast of the current technological improvements 
in new materials, fabrication practices, and testing techniques; and endeavors to keep the Code 
updated to permit the use of acceptable new developments. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING, B31 



OFFICERS 

D. R. Frikken, Choir 

K. C. Bodenhamer, Vice Chair 
N. Lobo, Secretory 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



H. A, Ainsworth, Consultant 

R. ). T. Appleby, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co. 

C. Becht IV, Becht Engineering Co. 
A. £. Beyer, Fluor Daniel, Inc. 

K. C. Bodenhamer, Enterprise Products Co. 
J. S. Chin, TransCanada Pipeline U.S. 

D. L. Coym, Worley Parsons 

J. A. Drake, Spectra Energy Transmission 

D. M. Fox, Atmos Energy 

J. W. Frey, Stress Engineering Service, Inc. 

D. R. Frikken, Becht Engineering Co. 

R. A. Grichuk, Fluor Corp. 

L E. Hayden, Jr., Consultant 

G. A. Jolly, Vogt Valves/Flowserve Corp. 

W. J. Koves, UOP LLC 

N. Lobo, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 



R. P. Merrill, Evapco, Inc. 
J. E. Meyer, Louis Perry & Associates, Inc. 
E. Michalopoulos, University of Macedonia 
M. L Nayyar, Bechtel Power Corp. 
T. J. O'Grady II, BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. 
R. G. Payne, Alstom Power, Inc. 
j. T. Powers, Worley Parsons 
E. H. Rinaca, Dominion Resources, Inc. 
M. ]. Rosenfeld, Kiefner & Associates, Inc. 
R. j. Silvia, Process Engineers and Constructors, inc. 
W. J. Sperko, Sperko Engineering Services, Inc. 
G. W, Spohn 131, Coleman Spohn Corp. 
K. A. Viiminot, Black & Veatch 
A. L. Watkins, First Energy Corp. 
P. D. Flenner, Ex-Officio, Fienner Engineering Services 
R. W. Haupt, Ex-Ojficio, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, 
Inc. 



B31.1 POWER PIPING SECTION COMMITTEE 



M. L. Nayyar, Chair, Bechtel Power Corp. 

P. D. Flenner, Vice Chair, Flenner Engineering Services 

S. Vasquez, Secretary, The American Society of Mechanical 

Engineers 
H. A. Ainsworth, Consultant 
W. R. Broz, CTG Forensics, inc. 
M. J. Cohn, Aptech Engineering Services, Inc. 

D. H. Creates, Ontario Power Generation, Inc. 
G. J. Delude, Penpower 

R, P. Deubler, Fronek Power Systems, LLC 

A. S. Drake, Constellation Energy Group 

S. J. Findlan, Electric Power Research Institute 
J. W. Frey, Stress Engineering Service, Inc. 

E. C. Goodling, Jr., Worley Parsons 

R. W. Haupt, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, Inc. 
C. L Henley, Black & Veatch 

B. P. Holbrook, Riley Power, Inc. 
J. Kaliyadan, Dominion 

R. J. Kennedy, Detroit Edison Co. 



D. J. Leininger, Parsons Engineering & Chemical Group, inc. 

S. P. Licud, Bechtel Power Corp. 

W, M. Lundy, U.S. Coast Guard 

W. J. Mauro, American Electric Power 

D. C. Moore, Southern Co. Services, Inc. 

R. D. Patel, GE Energy Nuclear 

R. G. Payne, Alstom Power, Inc. 

D. W. Rahoi, CCM 2000 
K. I. Rapkin, FPL 

R. K. Reamey, Turner Industries Group, LLC 

E. H. Rinaca, Dominion Resources, inc. 

R. D. Schueler, Jr., National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel 

Inspectors 
J. P. Scott, Dominion 
J. J. Sekely, Welding Services, Inc. 
H. R. Simpson, PM&C Engineering 
S. K. Ssnha, Lucius Pitkin, Inc. 
K. A. Viiminot, Black & Veatch 
A. L. Watkins, First Energy Corp. 



B31.1 SUBGROUP ON DESIGN 



K. A. Viiminot, Chair, Black & Veatch 

W. R. Broz, CTG Forensics, Inc. 

D. H, Creates, Ontario Power Generation, Inc. 

S. D. Cross, Utility Engineering 

M. K. Engelkemier, Stanley Consultants, Inc. 

J. W. Goodwin, Southern Co. 

R. W. Haupt, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, Inc. 

B. P. Holbrook, Riley Power, Inc. 

M. W. Johnson, Reliant Energy 



R. J. Kennedy, Detroit Edison Co. 

W. M. Lundy, U.S. Coast Guard 

D. C. Moore, Southern Co. Services, inc. 

A. D. Nance, Consultant 

R. D. Patel, GE Energy Nuclear 

R. G. Payne, Alstom Power, Inc. 

D. D. Pierce, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard 

K. I. Rapkin, FPL 

A. L. Watkins, First Energy Corp. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



B31.1 SUBGROUP ON FABRICATION AND EXAMINATION 

P. D. Flenner, Chair, Flenner Engineering Services T. E. Hansen, American Electric Power 

R. B. Corbit, Exelon Nuclear D. J. leininger, Parsons Energy & Chemicals Group, inc. 

C. Emslander S. P. Licud, Bechtel Power Corp. 
S. J. Findlan, Electric Power Research institute T. Monday, Team Industries, Inc. 

J. W. Frey, Stress Engineering Service, inc. R. K. Reamey, Turner Industries Group, LLC 

E. F. Gerwin J. J. Sekely, Welding Services, Inc. 

J. Hainsworth, The Babcock & Wilcox Co. E. F. Summers, Jr., Babcock & Wilcox Construction Co. 

B31.1 SUBGROUP ON GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

W. J. Mauro, Chair, American Electric Power J. Kaliyadan, Dominion 

H. A. Alnsworth, Consultant R. D. Schueler, Jr., National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel 

D. D. Christian, Victaulic inspectors 
G. j. Delude, Penpower 

B31.1 SUBGROUP ON MATERIALS 

C. L. Henley, Choir, Black & Veatch A. S. Drake, Constellation Energy Group 
R. P. Deubler, Fronek Power Systems, LLC M. L Nayyar, Bechtel Power Corp. 

P. J. Dobson, Cummins & Barnard, Inc. D. W. Rahoi, CCM 2000 

B31.1 SUBGROUP ON PIPING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE 

J. W. Frey, Chair, Stress Engineering Service, Inc. A/L D. Johnson, PCS Phosphate 

M. J, Cohn, Aptech Engineering Services, Inc. R. J. Kennedy, Detroit Edison Co. 

D. H. Creates, Ontario Power Generation, Inc. D. C. Moore, Southern Co. Services, Inc. 
P. D. Flenner, Flenner Engineering Services R. G. Payne, Alstom Power, Inc. 

E. C. Goodling, Jr., Worley Parsons K. I. Rapkin, FPL 

J. W. Goodwin, Southern Co. R. K. Reamey, Turner Industries Group, LLC 

R. W. Haupt, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, Inc. E. H. Rinaca, Dominion Resources, Inc. 

B. P. Holbrook, Riley Power, Inc. J. P. Scott, Dominion 

B31.1 SUBGROUP ON SPECIAL ASSIGNMENTS 

E. H. Rinaca, Chair, Dominion Resources, Inc. J, P. Scott, Dominion 

M. J. Cohn, Aptech Engineering Services, Inc. H. R. Simpson, PM&C Engineering 

E. C. Goodling, Jr M Worley Parsons S. K. Sinha, Lucius Pitkin, inc. 

B31 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

N. Lobo, Secretary, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers W. J. Koves, UOP LLC 

K. C. Bodenharner, Enterprise Products Co. R. P. Merrill, Evapco, Inc. 

P. A. Bourquin E. Michalopoulos, University of Macedonia 

J. A. Drake, Spectra Energy Transmission M. L Nayyar, Bechtel Power Corp. 

D, R. Frikken, Becht Engineering Co. R. G. Payne, Alstom Power, Inc. 

B. P. Holbrook, Riley Power, Inc. W. J. Sperko, Sperko Engineering Services, Inc. 

G. A. Jolly, Vogt Valves/Flowserve Corp. G. W. Spohn BSi, Coleman Spohn Corp. 

B31 FABRICATION AND EXAMINATION COMMITTEE 

P. D. Flenner, Chair, Flenner Engineering Services A. D. Nalbandian, Thielsch Engineering, Inc. 

P. D. Stumpf, Secretary, The American Society of Mechanical A. P. Rangus, Bechtel 

Engineers R. I. Seals, Consultant 

j. P. EUenberger R. J. Silvia, Process Engineers and Constructors, Inc. 

R. J. Ferguson, Xaloy, Inc. W. J. Sperko, Sperko Engineering Services, Inc. 

D. j. Fetzner, BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. E. F. Summers, Jr., Babcock & Wilcox Construction Co. 

W. W. Lewis, E. I. DuPont P. L. Vaughan, Oneok Partners 
S. P. Licud, Bechtel Power Corp. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



B31 MATERIALS TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 



M. L Nayyar, Chair, Bechtel Power Corp. 

H. Lobo, Secretory, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

M. H. Barnes, Sebesta Blomberg & Associates 

J. A. Cox, Lieberman Consulting LLC 

R. P. Deubler, Fronek Power Systems, LLC 

P. J. Dobson, Cummins & Barnard, Inc. 

W. H. Eskridge, jr., Aker Kvaerner Engineering & Construction 

R. A. Grichuk, Fluor Corp. 



C L Henley, Black & Veatch 

R. P. Merrill, Evapco, Inc. 

D. W. Rahot, CCM 2000 

R. A. Schmidt, Hackney Ladish, Inc. 

H. R. Simpson, PM&C Engineering 

j. L Smith, Jacobs Engineering Group 

Z, Djilali, Contributing Member, BEREP 



B31 MECHANICAL DESIGN TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 



W. j. Koves, Chair, UOP LLC 

G, A. Antaki, Vice Chair, Washington Group 

T. Lazar, Secretary, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

C. Becht IV, Becht Engineering Co. 

J. P. Breen, Alion Science and Technology 
J. P. Ellen berger 

D, J. Fetzner, BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. 
J. A. Graziano, Tennessee Valley Authority 
j. D. Hart, SSD, Inc. 

R. W, Haupt, Pressure Piping Engineering Associates, inc. 
B. P. Holbrook, Riley Power, Inc. 



G. D. Mayers, Alion Science & Technology 

T. Q. McCawley, TQM Engineering, PC 

R. J, Medvick, Swagelok 

J. C. Minichiello, Bechtel National, Inc. 

T. J. Q'Grady II, BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. 

A. W. Paulin, Paulin Research Group 

R. A. Robleto, Senior Technical Advisor 

M. J. Rosenfeld, Kiefner & Associates, Inc. 

G. Stevsck, Berkeley Engineering & Research, Inc. 

E. A, Wais, Wais and Associates, Inc. 

E. C. Rodabaugh, Honorary Member, Consultant 



B31 CONFERENCE GROUP 



A. Bell, Bonneville Power Administration 

G. Bynog, The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel 

Inspectors 
R. A. Coomes, Commonwealth of Kentucky, Dept. of Housing/Boiler 

Section 
D. H. Hanrath 

C J. Harvey, Alabama Public Service Commission 
D. T. Jagger, Ohio Department of Commerce 
M. Kotb, Regie du Batiment du Quebec 
K. T. Lau, Alberta Boilers Safety Association 
R. 6. Marini, New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission 
I. W. Mault, Manitoba Department of Labour 



A. W. Meiring, Division of Fire and Building Safety/Indiana 
R. F. Mullaney, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Branch/ 

Vancouver 
P. Sher, State of Connecticut 
M. E. Skarda, Arkansas Department of Labor 
D. A. Starr, Nebraska Department of Labor 
D. J, Stursma, Iowa Utilities Board 
R. P. Sullivan, The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel 

Inspectors 
J. E. Troppman, Division of Labor/State of Colorado Boiler 

Inspections 
W. A. M. West, Lighthouse Assistance, Inc. 
T. F. Wickham, Rhode Island Department of Labor 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



INTRODUCTION 



The ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping consists of 
a number of individually published Sections, each an 
American National Standard, under the direction of 
ASME Committee B31, Code for Pressure Piping. 

Rules for each Section have been developed consider- 
ing the need for application of specific requirements for 
various types of pressure piping. Applications consid- 
ered for each Code Section include: 

B31.1 Power Piping: piping typically found in electric 
power generating stations, in industrial and institutional 
plants, geothermal heating systems, and central and dis- 
trict heating and cooling systems; 

B31.3 Process Piping: piping typically found in petro- 
leum refineries, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, 
semiconductor, and cryogenic plants, and related pro- 
cessing plants and terminals; 

B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid 
Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids: piping transporting 
products which are predominately liquid between plants 
and terminals and within terminals, pumping, regulat- 
ing, and metering stations; 

B31 .5 Refrigeration Piping: piping for refrigerants and 
secondary coolants; 

B31..8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping 
Systems: piping transporting products which are pre- 
dominately gas between sources and terminals, includ- 
ing compressor, regulating, and metering stations; and 
gas gathering pipelines; 

B31.9 Building Services Piping: piping typically found 
in industrial, institutional, commercial, and public build- 
ings, and in multi-unit residences, which does not 
require the range of sizes, pressures, and temperatures 
covered in B31.1; 

B31.ll Slurry Transportation Piping Systems: piping 
transporting aqueous slurries between plants and termi- 
nals and within terminals, pumping, and regulating sta- 
tions. 

This is the B31.1 Power Piping Code Section. Here- 
after, in this Introduction and in the text of this Code 
Section B31.1, where the word Code is used without 
specific identification, it means this Code Section. 

It is the owner's responsibility to select the Code 
Section which most nearly applies to a proposed piping 
installation. Factors to be considered by the owner 
include: limitations of the Code Section; jurisdictional 
requirements; and the applicability of other codes and 
standards. All applicable requirements of the selected 
Code Section shall be met. For some installations, more 
than one Code Section may apply to different parts of the 
installation. The owner is also responsible for imposing 



requirements supplementary to those of the selected 
Code Section, if necessary, to assure safe piping for the 
proposed installation. 

Certain piping within a facility may be subject to other 
codes and standards, including but not limited to: 

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III: 
nuclear power piping; 

ANSI Z223.1 National Fuel Gas Code: piping for fuel 
gas from the point of delivery to the connection of each 
fuel utilization device; 

NFPA Fire Protection Standards: fire protection sys- 
tems using water, carbon dioxide, halon, foam, dry 
chemical, and wet chemicals; 

NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities: medical and labora- 
tory gas systems; 

NFPA 8503 Standard for Pulverized Fuel Systems: 
piping for pulverized coal from the coal mills to the 
burners; 

Building and plumbing codes, as applicable, for pota- 
ble hot and cold water, and for sew 7 er and drain systems. 

The Code sets forth engineering requirements deemed 
necessary for safe design and construction of pressure 
piping. While safety is the basic consideration, this factor 
alone will not necessarily govern the final specifications 
for any piping system. The designer is cautioned that 
the Code is not a design handbook; it does not do away 
with the need for the designer or for competent engi- 
neering judgment. 

To the greatest possible extent, Code requirements for 
design are stated in terms of basic design principles and 
formulas. These are supplemented as necessary with 
specific requirements to assure uniform application of 
principles and to guide selection and application of pip- 
ing elements. The Code prohibits designs and practices 
known to be unsafe and contains warnings where cau- 
tion, but not prohibition, is warranted. 

The specific design requirements of the Code usually 
revolve around a simplified engineering approach to a 
subject. It is intended that a. designer capable of applying 
more complete and rigorous analysis to special or 
unusual problems shall have latitude in the develop- 
ment of such designs and the evaluation of complex or 
combined stresses. In such cases the designer is responsi- 
ble for demonstrating the validity of his approach. 

This Code Section includes the following: 

(a) references to acceptable material specifications 
and component standards, including dimensional 
requirements and pressure- temperature ratings 

(b) requirements for design of components and 
assemblies, including pipe supports 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ,$& 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^D 



(c) requirements and data for evaluation and limita- 
tion of stresses, reactions, and movements associated 
with pressure, temperature changes, and other forces 

(d) guidance and limitations on the selection and 
application of materials; components, and joining 
methods 

(e) requirements for the fabrication, assembly, and 
erection of piping 

(f) requirements for examination, inspection, and 
testing of piping 

(g) requirements for operation and maintenance of 
piping systems 

It is intended that this Edition of Code Section B31.1. 
and any subsequent Addenda not be retroactive. Unless 
agreement is specifically made between contracting par- 
ties to use another issue, or the regulatory body having 
jurisdiction imposes the use of another issue, the latest 
Edition and Addenda issued at least 6 months prior to 
the original contract date for the first phase of activity 
covering a piping system or systems shall be the govern- 
ing document for all design, materials, fabrication, erec- 
tion, examination, and testing for the piping until the 
completion of the work and initial operation. 

Users of this Code are cautioned against making use 
of revisions without assurance that they are acceptable 
to the proper authorities in the jurisdiction where the 
piping is to be installed. 

Code users will note that clauses in the Code are not 
necessarily numbered consecutively. Such discontinu- 
ities result from following a common outline, insofar as 
practicable, for all Code Sections. In this way, corres- 
ponding material is correspondingly numbered in most 
Code Sections, thus facilitating reference by those who 
have occasion to use more than one Section. 

The Code is under the direction of ASME Committee 
B31, Code for Pressure Piping, which is organized and 
operates under procedures of The American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers which have been accredited by 
the American National Standards Institute. The Com- 
mittee is a continuing one, and keeps all Code Sections 
current with new developments in materials, construc- 
tion, and industrial practice. Addenda are issued period- 
ically New editions are published at intervals of three 
to five years. 

When no Section of the ASME Code for Pressure 
Piping, specifically covers a piping system, at his discre- 
tion the user may select any Section determined to be 
generally applicable. However, it is cautioned that sup- 
plementary requirements to the Section chosen may be 



necessary to provide for a safe piping system for the 
intended application. Technical limitations of the vari- 
ous Sections, legal requirements, and possible applica- 
bility of other codes or standards are some of the factors 
to be considered by the user in determining the applica- 
bility of any Section of this Code. 

The Committee has established an orderly procedure 
to consider requests for interpretation and revision of 
Code requirements. To receive consideration, inquiries 
must be in writing and must give full particulars (see 
Mandatory Appendix H covering preparation of techni- 
cal inquiries). The Committee will not respond to inquir- 
ies requesting assignment of a Code Section to a piping 
installation. 

The approved reply to an inquiry will be sent directly 
to the inquirer. In addition, the question and reply will 
be published as part of an Interpretation Supplement 
issued to the applicable Code Section, 

A Case is the prescribed form of reply to an inquiry 
when study indicates that the Code wording needs clari- 
fication or when the reply modifies existing require- 
ments of the Code or grants permission to use new 
materials or alternative constructions. The Case will be 
published as part of a Case Supplement issued to the 
applicable Code Section. 

A case is normally issued for a limited period after 
which it may be renewed, incorporated in the Code, or 
allowed to expire if there is no indication of further need 
for the requirements covered by the Case. However, the 
provisions of a Case may be used after its expiration 
or withdrawal, provided the Case was effective on the 
original contract date or was adopted before completion 
of the work; and the contracting parties agree to its use. 

Materials are listed in the Stress Tables only when 
sufficient usage in piping within the scope of the Code 
has been shown. Materials may be covered by a Case. 
Requests for listing shall include evidence of satisfactory 
usage and specific data to permit establishment of allow- 
able stresses, maximum and minimum temperature lim- 
its, and other restrictions. Additional criteria can be 
found in the guidelines for addition of new materials 
in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 
II and Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix B. (To develop 
usage and gain experience, unlisted materials may be 
used in accordance with para. 123.1.) 

Requests for interpretation and suggestions for revi- 
sion should be addressed to the Secretary, ASME B31 
Committee, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016- 
5990. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 
SUMMARY OF CHANGES 



Following approval by the B31 Committee and ASME, and after public review, ASME B31. 1-2007 
was approved by the American National Standards Institute on May 30, 2007. 

Changes given below are identified on the pages by a margin note, (07), placed next to the 
affected area. 



Page 

1 

5-9 

12-14 

15 
19 

20,21 

22 

28 

32 

34-37 

38 

39-42 
44 
45 
46 

54 

55 

57 

58 



Location 

100.1/1 

100.2 

102.3.2 
102.4.5(B) 
Fig. 102.4.5 
104.3.1(D.2) 

Fig. 104.3.1(D) 

104.3.1(D.2.2) 

104.3.1(0.2.3) 

104.8.2 

104.8.3 

107.8.3 

Table 112 

114.2.1 

114.2.3 

119 

1.21.7.2(A) 

Table 121.7.2(A) 

122.1.1 

122.4 



Fig. 122.4 
122.8 

122.8.1(B.1.2) 
122.8.2(C2) 



Change 

First paragraph revised 

Covered piping systems, Operating Company, 
and stresses added 

Revised in its entirety 

Last paragraph revised 

Fig. 104.2.1 redesignated as Fig. 102.4.5 

(1) First paragraph revised 

(2) Nomenclature for t r revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Equations revised 

Nomenclature for A 6 added 

Nomenclature for M B revised 

Revised 

Revised 

For items (d), (h), and (i), and for Notes 
(9) and (11), cross-references to 
ASME B16.5 revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised in its entirety 

First paragraph revised 

Revised in its entirety 

First paragraph revised 

(1) Title revised 

(2) Subparagraphs (A.4) and (A.10) 
revised 

Bottom callout revised 

Revised 

Revised 

Revised 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Page 

59 

67 

68 



69 
86 



164, 165 



166, 167 



168, 169 



Location 
122.8.3(B) 
Table 126.1 

Table 126.1 



Table 126.1 
Table 132 



92 


136.4.1 


95 


136.4.6 


98,99 


Chapter VII 


154-157 


Table A-3 


160, 161 


Table A-4 


162, 163 


Table A-4 



Table A-4 



Table A-4 



Table A-4 



176, 177 



Table A-6 



Change 

Revised 

Under Seamless Pipe and Tube, ASTM 
B 622 added 

(1) Under Welded Pipe and Tube, 
ASTM B 619 and B 626 added 

(2) Under Pipe, Sheet, and Strip, 
ASTM B 435 added 

(3) Under Rods, Bars, and Shapes, 
ASTM B 572 added 

(1) MSS SP-106 added 

(2) ASME B16.50 added 

(1) For P-No. 4, in General Note (c), 
cross-reference to (a)(3) deleted by- 
errata 

(2) For P-No. 5A, General Notes (b) and 
(c) redesignated as (c) and (d), 
respectively, and new General Note 
(b) added 

(3) For P~No. 5A, in General Note (c), 
cross-reference to (a)(3) deleted by 
errata 

Revised 

(1) In first paragraph, cross-reference 
revised 

(2) Subparagraph (A) revised 

Added 

For A 479 materials, Type revised 

(1) Under Seamless Pipe and Tube, two 
B 622 R30556 lines added 

(2) Second B 677 N08925 line added 

(1) Under Welded Pipe and Tube, two 
B 619 R30556 and. two B 626 R30556 
added 

(2) Second B 673 N08925 and B 674 
N08925 lines added 

(1) Under Plate, Sheet, and Strip, two 
B 435 R30556 lines added 

(2) Second B 625 N08925 line added 

(1) Under Bars, Rods, Shapes, and 
Forgings, two B 572 R30556 lines 
added 

(2) Second B 649 N08925 line added 

(1) Under Seamless Fittings, tw 7 o B 366 
R30556 lines added 

(2) Under Welded Fittings, second B 366 
N08925 line added 

(3) Two B 366 R30556 lines added 

(1) Under Bolts, Nuts, and Studs, third 
B 150 C61400 added 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Page 



210-213 



218 



220 
260 

261 

273 

278 



Location 



Table EM 



Mandatory Appendix F 



Mandatory Appendix G 
II.I-3.4.2(B) 

Table III-4.2.1 

Nonmandatory Appendix 
V Definitions 

Fig. V-6.5 



Change 

(2) Note (2) revised 

(1) Notes renumbered in order 
referenced 

(2) Fillet welds entry revised 

(3) Note (12) [formerly Note (11)] revised 

(1) ASTM B 366 revised 

(2) ASTM B 435, B 572, B 619, B 622, and 
B 626 added 

(3) MSS SP-106 added 

(4) ASME B16.50 added 

Nomenclature for A 6 added 

Cross-reference corrected by errata to 
read para. LT-1.2.2 

Revised in its entirety 

Operating Company transferred to para. 
100.2 

Note (2) revised 



SPECIAL NOTE: 

The Interpretations to ASME B31.1 issued between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2006 follow 
the last page of this Edition as a separate supplement, Interpretations Volume 42. After the 
Interpretations, a separate supplement, Cases No. 32, follows. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ^ 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ™ 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



POWER PIPING 

Chapter 1 
Scope and Definitions 



100 GENERAL 

This Power Piping Code is one of several Sections of 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code for 
Pressure Piping, B31. This Section is published as a sepa- 
rate document for convenience. 

Standards and specifications specifically incorporated 
by reference into this Code are shown in Table 126.1. It 
is not considered practical to refer to a dated edition of 
each of the standards and specifications in this Code. 
Instead, the dated edition references are included in an 
Addenda and will be revised yearly. 

100.1 Scope 

Rules for this Code Section have been developed con- 
sidering the needs for applications which include piping 
typically found in electric power generating stations, in 
industrial and institutional plants, geothermal heating 
systems, and central and district heating and cooling 
systems. 

(07) 100.1.1 This Code prescribes requirements for the 

design, materials, fabrication, erection, test, inspection, 
operation, and maintenance of piping systems. 

Piping as used in this Code includes pipe, flanges, 
bolting, gaskets, valves, relief devices, fittings, and the 
pressure containing portions of other piping compo- 
nents, whether manufactured in accordance with Stan- 
dards listed in Table 126.1 or specially designed. It also 
includes hangers and supports and other equipment 
items necessary to prevent overstressing the pressure 
containing components. 

Rules governing piping for miscellaneous appurte- 
nances, such as water columns, remote water level indi- 
cators, pressure gages, gage glasses, etc., are included 
within the scope of this Code, but the requirements for 
boiler appurtenances shall be in accordance with Section 
I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, PG-60. 

The users of this Code are advised that in some areas 
legislation may establish governmental jurisdiction over 
the subject matter covered by this Code. However, any 
such legal requirement shall not relieve the owner of 
his inspection responsibilities specified in para. 136.1. 



100.1.2 Power piping systems as covered by this 
Code apply to all piping and their component parts 
except as excluded in para. 100.1.3. They include but 
are not limited to steam, water, oil, gas, and air services. 

(A) This Code covers boiler external piping as defined 
below for power boilers and high temperature, high 
pressure water boilers in which: steam or vapor is gener- 
ated at a pressure of more than 15 psig [100 kPa (gage)]; 
and high temperature water is generated at pressures 
exceeding 160 psig [1 103 kPa (gage)] and /or tempera- 
tures exceeding 250°F (120°C). 

Boiler external piping shall be considered as that pip- 
ing which begins where the boiler proper terminates at 

(1) the first circumferential joint for welding end 
connections; or 

(2) the face of the first flange in bolted flanged 
connections; or 

(3) the first threaded joint in that type of connec- 
tion; and which extends up to and including the valve 
or valves required by para. 122.1. 

The terminal points themselves are considered part 
of the boiler external piping. The terminal points and 
piping external to power boilers are illustrated by Figs. 
100.1.2(A), 100.1.2(B), and 100.1.2(C). 

Piping between the terminal points and the valve or 
valves required by para. 122.1 shall be provided with 
Data Reports, inspection, and stamping as required by 
Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 
All welding and brazing of this piping shall be per- 
formed by manufacturers or contractors authorized to 
use the appropriate symbol shown in Figs. PG-105.1 
through PG-105.3 of Section I of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code. The installation of boiler external 
piping by mechanical means may be performed by an 
organization not holding a Code symbol stamp. How- 
ever, the holder of a valid S, A, or PP Certificate of 
Authorization shall be responsible for the documenta- 
tion and hydrostatic test, regardless of the method of 
assembly. The quality control system requirements of 
Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 
shall apply. These requirements are shown in Appendix J 
of this Code. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 100.1.2(A) Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Forced Flow Steam Generator With No Fixed Steam and 

Water Line 

Turbine valve or 
Code stop valve 
para. 122.1.7(A) 

Superheater >-%. J *^*\ 

\y=* » — 1 — ^ < -^ Turbine 



Reheater 

-O 



-JX]d To equipment 



=» \Xf>- 



c 



■O 



Convection L 
and radiant , 
section 



-Xp- 




Start-up system 
may vary to suit 
boiler manufacturer 



„L-J.^ 



CI 



conomizer 




Para. 122.1.7(B) 

[X] l^>- 



Q =SH _^ — ^O ^x] l^>- 

Q==9 « — 4X£---V^" H ^'''r~ 



From feed 
pumps 



Alternatives 

para. 122.1.7{B.9) 



Administrative Jurisdiction and Technical Responsibility 

Boiler Proper — The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) has total administrative jurisdiction and 
technical responsibility. Refer to ASME BPVC Section I Preamble. 

Boiler External Piping and Joint (BEP) - The ASME BPVC has total administrative jurisdiction (mandatory 
certification by Code Symbol stamping, ASME Data Forms, and Authorized Inspection) of BEP. The ASME Section 
Committee B31.1 has been assigned technical responsibility. Refer to ASME BPVC Section I Preamble, fifth, sixth, 
and seventh paragraphs and ASME B31.1 Scope, para. 100.1.2(A). Applicable ASME B31.1 Editions and Addenda are 
referenced in ASME BPVC Section I, PG-58.3. 



o 



Nonboiler External Piping and Joint (NBEP) 
administrative and technical responsibility. 



The ASME Code Committee for Pressure Piping, B31, has total 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 100.1.2(B) Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Drum-Type Boilers 



Vents and 
instrumentation 

! 



Single installation 



Multiple installation 

Common header r m ~ 
a. 
Drain 

Control device 
122.1.6 



122.1.7(D) 
Hot reheat 



122.1.7(D) 
Cold reheat 




Level indicators 122.1.6 

f Surface blow 
Continuous 

blow 
Chemical feed 
s drum sample 

-- Soot blowers 
{X£---- Single installation 



Soot blowers 
4><w>^b~ - y ^ u ^'P^ e installations 
"^Lk^kZ™.^ Common header 

Drain 
{X] [Xfc -122.1.5 

£<Jo - 

H> ^- Single boiler 

■TX1 — i^y>— Single boiler 

Two or more 

i boilers fed from 

a common source 

Regulating valves 



Blow-off 
single and multiple 
installations 



U^Tr^t^^r: 



Boiler No. 2 
Drain 



rw„ HXb-- 

{XMXfr-- 



-DXH 



more 
boilers fed 
from a common 
source (122.1.7) 



Administrative Jurisdiction and Technical Responsibility 

Boiler Proper — The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) has total administrative jurisdiction and 
technical responsibility. Refer to ASME BPVC Section I Preamble. 

Boiler External Piping and Joint (BEP) — The ASME BPVC has total administrative jurisdiction (mandatory 
certification by Code Symbol stamping, ASME Data Forms, and Authorized Inspection) of BEP. The ASME Section 
Committee B31.1 has been assigned technical responsibility. Refer to ASME BPVC Section I Preamble and ASME 
B31.1 Scope, para. 100.1.2(A). Applicable ASME B31.1 Editions and Addenda are referenced in ASME BPVC Section 
I, PG-58,3. 



o-~--~ Nonboiler External Piping and Joint (NBEP) — The ASME Code Committee for Pressure Piping, B31, has total 
administrative and technical responsibility. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Fig* 100*1 .2(C) Code Jurisdictional Limits for Piping — Spray-Type Desuperheater 



Desuperheater 
located in boiier 
proper 



Stop valve 
para. 122.4IA.1)- 



o 



-tX>" 



- Regulating valve 
para. 122.4(A.1) 



Block valve 

para. 122.4(A.1) 



-^x^ 



Desuperheater 
located in boiler 
proper 



o 



HXJ>- 



-Xt>- 



-■0<J" 



"CXI" 



-IXJ- 



Stop valve 
para. 122.4(A.1)- 



Regulating valve 
para. 122.4(A.1 



Block valve- 
para. 122.4(A.1) 



Administrative Jurisdiction and Technical Responsibility 

Boiier Proper — The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) has total administrative jurisdiction and 
technical responsibility. Refer to ASME BPVC Section 1 Preamble. 

Boiler External Piping and Joint (BEP) — The ASME BPVC has total administrative jurisdiction (mandatory 
certification by Code Symbol stamping, ASME Data Forms, and Authorized Inspection) of BEP. The ASME Section 
Committee B31.1 has been assigned technical responsibility. Refer to ASME BPVC Section \ Preamble and ASME 
B31.1 Scope, para. 100.1.2(A). Applicable ASME B31.1 Editions and Addenda are referenced in ASME BPVC Section 
I, PG-58.3. 



o 



Nonboiler External Piping and Joint (NBEP) 
administrative and technical responsibility. 



The ASME Code Committee for Pressure Piping, B31, has total 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



The valve or valves required by para. 122.1 are part 
of the boiler external piping, but do not require ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code / Section I inspection 
and stamping except for safety, safety relief, and relief 
valves; see para. 107.8.2. Refer to PG-11. 

Pipe connections meeting all other requirements of 
this Code but not exceeding NPS V 2 ma y De welded to 
pipe or boiler headers without inspection and stamping 
required by Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code. 

(B) No.nbo.iler external piping includes all the piping 
covered by this Code except for that portion defined 
above as boiler external piping. 

100.1 3 This Code does not apply to the following: 

(A) economizers, heaters, pressure vessels, and 
components covered by Sections of the ASME Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Code 

(B) building heating and distribution steam and con- 
densate piping designed for 15 psig [100 kPa (gage)] or 
less, or hot water heating systems designed for 30 psig 
[200 kPa (gage)] or less 

(C) piping for hydraulic or pneumatic tools and their 
components downstream of the first block or stop valve 
off the system distribution header 

(D) piping for marine or other installations under 
Federal control 

(E) towers, building frames, tanks, mechanical equip- 
ment, instruments, and foundations 

(07) 100.2 Definitions 

Some commonly used terms relating to piping are 
defined below. Terms related to welding generally agree 
with AWS A3.0. Some welding terms are defined with 
specified reference to piping. For welding terms used 
in this Code, but not shown here, definitions of AWS 
A3.0 apply. 

anchor: a rigid restraint providing substantially full fixa- 
tion, permitting neither translatory nor rotational dis- 
placement of the pipe. 

annealing: see heat treatments. 

arc welding: a group of welding processes wherein coales- 
cence is produced by heating with an electric arc or arcs, 
with or without the application of pressure and with or 
without the use of filler metal. 

assembly: the joining together of two or more piping 
components by bolting, welding, caulking, brazing, sol- 
dering, cementing, or threading into their installed loca- 
tion as specified by the engineering design. 

automatic welding: welding with equipment which, per- 
forms the entire welding operation without constant 
observation and adjustment of the controls by an opera- 
tor. The equipment may or may not perform the loading 
and unloading of the work. 



backing ring: backing in the form of a ring that can be 
used in the welding of piping. 

ball joint: a component which permits universal rota- 
tional movement in a piping system. 

base metal: the metal to be welded, brazed, soldered, 
or cut. 

branch connection: the attachment of a branch pipe to the 
run of a main pipe with or without the use of fittings. 

braze welding: a method of welding whereby a groove, 
fillet, plug, or slot weld is made using a nonferrous filler 
metal having a melting point below that of the base 
metals, but above 840°F (450°C). The filler metal is not 
distributed in the joint by capillary action. (Bronze weld- 
ing, formerly used, is a misnomer for this term.) 

brazing: a metal joining process wherein coalescence is 
produced by use of a nonferrous filler metal having a 
melting point above 840°F (450°C) but lower than that 
of the base metals joined. The filler metal is distributed 
between the closely fitted surfaces of the joint by capil- 
lary action. 

butt joint: a joint between two members lying approxi- 
mately in the same plane. 

component: component as used in this Code is defined 
as consisting of but not limited to items such as pipe, 
piping subassemblies, parts, valves, strainers, relief 
devices, fittings, etc. 

specially designed component: a component designed in 
accordance with para. 104.7.2. 

standard component: a component manufactured in 
accordance with one or more of the standards listed in 
Table 126.1. 

covered piping systems (CPS): piping systems on which 
condition assessments are to be conducted. As a mini- 
mum for electric power generating stations, the CPS 
systems are to include NPS 4 and larger of the main 
steam, hot reheat steam, cold reheat steam, and boiler 
feed water piping systems. In addition to the above, CPS 
also includes NPS 4 and larger piping in other systems 
that operate above 750°F (400°C) or above 1,025 psi 
(7 100 kPa). The Operating Company may, in its judg- 
ment, include other piping systems determined to be 
hazardous by an engineering evaluation of probability 
and consequences of failure. 

defect: a flaw (imperfection or unintentional discontinu- 
ity) of such size, shape, orientation, location, or proper- 
ties as to be rejectable. 

discontinuity: a lack of continuity or cohesion; an inter- 
ruption in the normal physical structure of material or 
a product. 

employer: the owner, manufacturer, fabricator, contractor, 
assembler, or installer responsible for the welding, braz- 
ing, and NDE performed by his organization including 
procedure and performance qualifications. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



engineering design: the detailed design developed from 
process requirements and conforming to Code require- 
ments, including all necessary drawings and specifica- 
tions, governing a piping installation. 

equipment connection: an integral part of such equipment 
as pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps, etc., 
designed for attachment of pipe or piping components. 

erection: the complete installation of a piping system, 
including any field assembly, fabrication, testing, and 
inspection of the system. 

examination: denotes the procedures for all nondestruc- 
tive examination. Refer to para. 136.3 and the definition 
for visual examination. 

expansion joint: a flexible piping component which 
absorbs thermal and /or terminal movement. 

fabrication: primarily, the joining of piping components 
into integral pieces ready for assembly. It includes bend- 
ing, forming, threading, welding, or other operations 
upon these components, if not part of assembly. It may 
be done in a shop or in the field. 

face of weld: the exposed surface of a weld on the side 
from which the welding was done. 

filler metal: metal to be added in welding, soldering, 
brazing, or braze welding. 

fillet weld: a weld of approximately triangular cross sec- 
tion joining two surfaces approximately at right angles 
to each other in a lap joint, tee joint, corner joint, or 
socket weld. 

fire hazard: situation in which a material of more than 
average combustibility or explosibility exists in the pres- 
ence of a potential ignition source. 

flaw: an imperfection or unintentional discontinuity 
which is detectable by a nondestructive examination. 

full fillet weld: a fillet weld whose size is equal to the 
thickness of the thinner member joined. 

fusion: the melting together of filler metal and base metal, 
or of base metal only, which results in coalescence. 

gas welding: a group of welding processes wherein 
coalescence is produced by heating with a gas flame or 
flames, with or without the application of pressure, and 
with or without the use of filler metal. 

groove weld: a weld made in the groove between two 
members to be joined. 

heat affected zone: that portion of the base metal which 
has not been melted, but whose mechanical properties 
or microstructure have been altered by the heat of weld- 
ing or cutting. 

heat treatments 

annealing, full: heating a metal or alloy to a tempera- 
ture above the critical temperature range and holding 
above the range for a proper period of time, followed 



by cooling to below that range. (A softening treatment 
is often carried out just below the critical range, which 
is referred to as a sub critical anneal.) 

normalizing: a process in which a ferrous metal is 
heated to a suitable temperature above the transforma- 
tion range and is subsequently cooled in still air at room 
temperature. 

postweld heat treatment: any heat treatment subsequent 
to welding. 

preheating: the application of heat to a base metal 
immediately prior to a welding or cutting operation. 

stress-relieving: uniform heating of a structure or por- 
tion thereof to a sufficient temperature to relieve the 
major portion of the residual stresses, followed, by uni- 
form cooling. 

imperfection: a condition of being imperfect; a departure 
of a quality characteristic from its intended condition. 

indication: the response or evidence from the application 
of a nondestructive examination. 

inert gas metal arc welding: an arc welding process 
wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an 
electric arc between a metal electrode and the work. 
Shielding is obtained from an inert gas, such as helium 
or argon. Pressure may or may not be used and filler 
metal may or may not be used, 

inspection: denotes the activities performed by an 
Authorized Inspector, or an Owner's Inspector, to verify 
that all required examinations and testing have been 
completed, and to ensure that all the documentation for 
material, fabrication, and examination conforms to the 
applicable requirements of this Code and the engi- 
neering design. 

joint design: the joint geometry together with the required 
dimensions of the w r elded joint. 

joint penetration: the minimum depth of a groove weld 
extends from its face into a joint, exclusive of rein- 
forcement. 

low energy capacitor discharge welding: a resistance weld- 
ing process wherein coalescence is produced by the rapid 
discharge of stored electric energy from a low voltage 
electrostatic storage system. 

manual welding: welding wherein the entire welding 
operation is performed and controlled by hand. 

maximum allowable stress: the maximum stress value that 
may be used in the design formulas for a given material 
and design temperature. 

maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP): the pres- 
sure at the coincident temperature to which a boiler or 
pressure vessel can be subjected without exceeding the 
maximum allowable stress of the material or pressure- 
temperature rating of the equipment. For the purposes 
of this Code, the term MAWP is as defined in the 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
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ASME B31.1-2007 



ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sections I and 
VIIL 

may: may is used to denote permission, neither a require- 
ment nor a recommendation. 

mechanical joint: a joint for the purpose of mechanical 
strength or leak resistance, or both, where the mechani- 
cal strength is developed by threaded, grooved, rolled, 
flared, or flanged pipe ends, or by bolts, pins, and com- 
pounds, gaskets, rolled ends, caulking, or machined and 
mated surfaces. These joints have particular application 
where ease of disassembly is desired. 

miter: two or more straight sections of pipe matched and 
joined on a line bisecting the angle of junction so as to 
produce a change in direction. 

nominal thickness: the thickness given in the product 
material specification or standard to which manufactur- 
ing tolerances are applied. 

normalizing: see heal treatments. 

Operating Company: the Owner, user, or agent acting 
on behalf of the Owner, who has the responsibility for 
performing the operations and maintenance functions 
on the piping systems within the scope of the Code. 

oxygen cutting: a group of cutting processes wherein the 
severing of metals is effected by means of the chemical 
reaction of oxygen with the base metal at elevated tem- 
peratures. In the case of oxidation-resistant metals, the 
reaction is facilitated by use of a flux. 

oxygen gouging: an application of oxygen cutting wherein 
a chamfer or groove is formed. 

peening: the mechanical working of metals by means of 
hammer blows. 

pipe and tube: the fundamental difference between pipe 
and tube is the dimensional standard to which each is 
manufactured. 

A pipe is a tube with a round cross section conforming 
to the dimensional requirements for nominal pipe size 
as tabulated in ASME B36.10M, Table 1, and 
ASME B36.19M, Table 1. For special pipe having a diam- 
eter not listed in these Tables, and also for round tube, 
the nominal diameter corresponds with the outside 
diameter. 

A tube is a hollow T product of round or any other cross 
section having a continuous periphery. Round tube size 
may be specified with respect to any two, but not all 
three, of the following: outside diameter, inside diame- 
ter, wall thickness; types K, L, and M copper tube may 
also be specified by nominal size and type only Dimen- 
sions and permissible variations (tolerances) are speci- 
fied in the appropriate ASTM or ASME standard 
specifications. 

Types of pipe, according to the method of manufac- 
ture, are defined as follows: 

(A) electric resistance welded pipe: pipe produced in 
individual lengths or in continuous lengths from coiled 



skelp and subsequently cut into individual lengths, hav- 
ing a longitudinal butt joint w T herein coalescence is pro- 
duced by the heat obtained from resistance of the pipe 
to the flow of electric current in a circuit of which the 
pipe is a part, and by the application of pressure. 

(B) furnace butt welded pipe 

(BA) furnace butt welded pipe, bell welded: pipe pro- 
duced in individual lengths from cut length skelp, hav- 
ing its longitudinal butt joint forge w T elded by the 
mechanical pressure developed in drawing the furnace 
heated skelp through a cone shaped die (commonly 
known as a "welding bell") which serves as a combined 
forming and welding die. 

(B.2) furnace butt welded pipe, continuous welded: 
pipe produced in continuous lengths from coiled skelp 
and subsequently cut into individual lengths, having its 
longitudinal butt joint forge welded by the mechanical 
pressure developed in rolling the hot formed skelp 
through a set of round pass welding rolls. 

(C) electric fusion ivelded pipe: pipe having a longitudi- 
nal butt joint wherein coalescence is produced in the 
preformed tube by manual or automatic electric arc 
wielding. The weld may be single (welded from one 
side), or double (welded from inside and outside) and 
may be made with or without the use of filler metal. 
Spiral welded pipe is also made by the electric fusion 
welded process with either a butt joint, a lap joint, or a 
lock seam joint. 

(D) electric flash welded pipe: pipe having a longitudi- 
nal butt joint wherein coalescence is produced, simulta- 
neously over the entire area of abutting surfaces, by 
the heat obtained from resistance to the flow 7 of electric 
current between the two surfaces, and by the application 
of pressure after heating is substantially completed. 
Flashing and upsetting are accompanied by expulsion 
of metal from the joint. 

(E) double submerged arc welded pipe: pipe having a 
longitudinal butt joint produced by the submerged arc 
process, with at least two passes, one of which is on the 
inside of the pipe. 

(F) seamless pipe: pipe produced by one or more of 
the following processes: 

(El) rolled pipe: pipe produced from a forged billet 
w r hich is pierced by a conical mandrel between two 
diametrically opposed rolls. The pierced shell is subse- 
quently rolled and expanded over mandrels of increas- 
ingly larger diameter. Where closer dimensional 
tolerances are desired, the rolled pipe is cold or hot 
drawn through dies, and machined. 

One variation of this process produces the hollow 
shell by extrusion of the forged billet over a mandrel in 
a vertical, hydraulic piercing press. 

(F.2) forged and bored pipe: pipe produced by boring 
or trepanning of a forged billet. 

(F3) extruded pipe: pipe produced from hollow or 
solid round forgings, usually in a hydraulic extrusion 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



press. In this process the forging is contained in a cylin- 
drical die. Initially a punch at the end of the extrusion 
plunger pierces the forging. The extrusion plunger then 
forces the contained billet between the cylindrical die 
and the punch to form the pipe, the latter acting as a 
.mandrel. 

(FA) centrifugally cast pipe: pipe formed from the 
solidification of molten metal in a rotating mold. Both 
metal and sand molds are used. After casting, the pipe 
is machined, to sound metal, on the internal and external 
diameters to the surface roughness and dimensional 
requirements of the applicable material specification. 

One variation of this process utilizes autofrettage 
(hydraulic expansion) and heat treatment, above the 
recrystallization temperature of the material, to produce 
a wrought structure. 

(E5) statically cast pipe: pipe formed by the solidifi- 
cation of molten metal in a sand mold. 

pipe supporting elements: pipe supporting elements con- 
sist of hangers, supports, and structural attachments. 

hangers and supports: hangers and supports include 
elements which transfer the load from the pipe or struc- 
tural attachment to the supporting structure or equip- 
ment. They include hanging type fixtures, such as 
hanger rods, spring hangers, sway braces, counter- 
weights, turnbuckles, struts, chains, guides, and 
anchors, and bearing type fixtures, such as saddles, 
bases, rollers, brackets, and sliding supports. 

structural attachments: structural attachments include 
elements which are welded, bolted, or clamped to the 
pipe, such as clips, lugs, rings, clamps, clevises, straps, 
and skirts. 

porosity: cavity-type discontinuities formed by gas 
entrapment during metal solidification. 

postweld heat treatment: see heat treatments. 

preheating: see heat treatments. 

pressure: an application of force per unit area; fluid pres- 
sure (an application of internal or external fluid force 
per unit area on the pressure boundary of piping compo- 
nents). 

Procedure Qualification Record (PQR): a record of the weld- 
ing data used to weld a test coupon. The PQR is a record 
of variables recorded during the welding of the test 
coupons. It also contains the test results of the tested 
specimens. Recorded variables normally fall within a 
small range of the actual variables that will be used in 
production welding. 

readily accessible: for visual examination, readily accessi- 
ble inside surfaces are defined as those inside surfaces 
which can be examined without the aid of optical 
devices. (This definition does not prohibit the use of 
optical devices for a visual examination; however, the 
selection of the device should be a matter of mutual 



agreement between the owner and the fabricator or 
erector.) 

Reid vapor pressure: the vapor pressure of a flammable 
or combustible liquid as determined by ASTM Standard 
Test Method D 323 Vapor Pressure of Petroleum 
Products (Reid Method). 

reinforcement of weld: weld metal on the face of a groove 
weld in excess of the metal necessary for the specified 
weld size. 

restraint: any device which prevents, resists, or limits 
movement of a piping system. 

root opening: the separation between the members to be 
joined, at the root of the joint. 

root penetration: the depth a groove weld extends into 
the root opening of a joint measured on the centerline 
of the root cross section. 

seal weld: a weld used on a pipe joint primarily to obtain 
fluid tightness as opposed to mechanical strength. 

semiautomatic arc welding: arc welding with equipment 
which controls only the filler metal feed. The advance 
of the welding is manually controlled. 

shall: "shall" or "shall not" is used to indicate that a 
provision or prohibition is mandatory. 

shielded metal arc welding: an arc welding process wherein 
coalescence is produced by heating with an electric arc 
between a covered metal electrode and the work. 
Shielding is obtained from decomposition of the elec- 
trode covering. Pressure is not used and filler metal is 
obtained from the electrode. 

should: "should" or "it is recommended" is used to indi- 
cate that a provision is not mandatory but recommended 
as good practice. 

size of weld 

fillet weld: for equal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of 
the largest isosceles right triangle which can be inscribed 
within the fillet weld cross section. For unequal leg fillet 
welds, the leg lengths of the largest right triangle which 
can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. 

groove weld: the joint penetration (depth of chamfering 
plus the root penetration when specified). 

slag inclusion: nonmetallic solid material entrapped in 
weld metal or between weld metal and base metal. 

soldering: a metal joining process wherein coalescence is 
produced by heating to suitable temperature and by- 
using a nonferrous alloy fusible at temperatures below 
840°F (450 °C) and having a melting point below that of 
the base metals being joined. The filler metal is distrib- 
uted between closely fitted surfaces of the joint by capil- 
lary action. In general, solders are lead-tin alloys and 
may contain antimony, bismuth, silver, and other ele- 
ments. 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



steel: an alloy of iron and carbon with no more than 2% 
carbon by weight. Other alloying elements may include 
manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, silicon, aluminum, 
chromium, copper, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, and 
others depending upon the type of steel. For acceptable 
material specifications for steel, refer to Chapter III, 
Materials. 

stresses 

displacement stress: a stress developed by the self- 
constraint of the structure. It must satisfy an imposed 
strain pattern rather than being in equilibrium with an 
external load. The basic characteristic of a displacement 
stress is that it is self-limiting. Local yielding and minor 
distortions can satisfy the displacement or expansion 
conditions which cause the stress to occur. Failure from 
one application of the stress is not to be expected. Fur- 
ther, the displacement stresses calculated in this Code 
are "effective" stresses and are generally lower than 
those predicted by theory or measured in strain-gage 
tests. 1 

peak stress: the highest stress in the region under con- 
sideration. The basic characteristic of a peak stress is 
that it causes no significant distortion and is objection- 
able only as a possible source of a fatigue crack initiation 
or a brittle fracture. This Code does not utilize peak 
stress as a design basis, but rather uses effective stress 
values for sustained stress and for displacement stress; 
the peak stress effect is combined with the displacement 
stress effect in the displacement stress range calculation. 

sustained stress: a stress developed by an imposed load- 
ing which is necessary to satisfy the laws of equilibrium 
between external and internal forces and moments. The 
basic characteristic of a sustained stress is that it is not 
self-limiting. If a sustained stress exceeds the yield 
strength of the material through the entire thickness, the 
prevention of failure is entirely dependent on the strain- 
hardening properties of the material. A thermal stress is 
not classified as a sustained stress. Further, the sustained 
stresses calculated in this Code are "effective" stresses 
and are generally lower than those predicted by theory 
or measured in strain-gage tests. 

stress-relieving: see heat treatments. 

submerged arc welding: an arc welding process wherein 
coalescence is produced by heating with an electric arc 
or arcs between a bare metal electrode or electrodes 
and the work. The welding is shielded by a blanket of 



1 Normally, the most significant displacement stress is encoun- 
tered in the thermal expansion stress range from ambient to the 
normal operating condition. This stress range is also the stress 
range usually considered in a flexibility analysis. However, if other 
significant stress ranges occur, whether they are displacement stress 
ranges (such as from other thermal, expansion or contraction events, 
or differential support movements) or sustained stress ranges (such 
as from cyclic pressure, steam hammer, or earthquake inertia 
forces), paras. 102.3.2(B) and 104.8.3 maybe used to evaluate their 
effect on fatigue life. 



granular, fusible material on the work. Pressure is not 
used, and filler metal is obtained from the electrode and 
sometimes from a supplementary welding rod. 

supplementary steel: steel members which are installed 
between existing members for the purpose of installing 
supports for piping or piping equipment. 

swivel joint: a component which permits single-plane 
rotational movement in a piping system. 

tack weld: a weld made to hold parts of a weldment in 
proper alignment until the final welds are made. 

throat of a fillet weld 

actual: the shortest distance from the root of a fillet 
weld to its face. 

theoretical: the distance from the beginning of the root 
of the joint perpendicular to the hypotenuse of the larg- 
est right triangle that can be inscribed within the fillet 
weld cross section. 

toe of weld: the junction between the face of the weld 
and the base metal. 

tube: refer to pipe and tube, 

tungsten electrode: a nonfiller metal electrode used in arc 

welding, consisting of a tungsten wire. 

undercut: a groove melted into the base metal adjacent 
to the toe of a weld and not filled with weld metal. 

■visual examination: the observation of whatever portions 
of components, joints, and other piping elements that 
are exposed to such observation either before, during, 
or after manufacture, fabrication, assembly, erection, 
inspection, or testing. This examination may include 
verification of the applicable requirements for materials, 
components, dimensions, joint preparation, alignment, 
welding or joining, supports, assembly, and erection. 

weld: a localized coalescence of metal which is produced 
by heating to suitable temperatures, with or without the 
application of pressure, and with or without the use of 
filler metal. The filler metal shall have a melting point 
approximately the same as the base metal 

welder: one who is capable of performing a manual or 
semiautomatic welding operation. 

Welder/Welding Operator Performance Qualification (WPQ): 
demonstration of a welder's ability to produce welds in 
a manner described in a Welding Procedure Specification 
that meets prescribed standards. 

welding operator: one who operates machine or automatic 
welding equipment. 

Welding Procedure Specification (WPS): a written qualified 
welding procedure prepared to provide direction for 
making production welds to Code requirements. The 
WPS or other documents may be used to provide direc- 
tion to the welder or welding operator to assure compli- 
ance with the Code requirements. 

weldment: an assembly whose component parts are 
joined by welding. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Chapter II 
Design 



PARTI 
CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA 

101 DESIGN CONDITIONS 

101.1 General 

These design conditions define the pressures, temper- 
atures and various forces applicable to the design of 
power piping systems. Power piping systems shall be 
designed for the most severe condition of coincident 
pressure, temperature and loading, except as herein 
stated. The most severe condition shall be that which 
results in the greatest required pipe wall thickness and 
the highest flange rating. 

101.2 Pressure 

All pressures referred to in this Code are expressed 
in pounds per square inch and kilopascals above atmo- 
spheric pressure, i.e., psig [kPa (gage)], unless otherwise 
stated. 

101.2.2 Internal Design Pressure. The internal 
design pressure shall be not less than the maximum 
sustained operating pressure (MSOP) within the piping 
system including the effects of static head. 

101.2.4 External Design Pressure. Piping subject to 
external pressure shall be designed for the maximum 
differential pressure anticipated during operating, shut- 
down, or test conditions. 

101.3 Temperature 

101.3.1 All temperatures referred to in this Code, 
unless otherwise stated, are the average metal tempera- 
tures of the respective materials expressed in degrees 
Fahrenheit, i.e., °F (Celsius, i.e., °C). 

101.3.2 Design Temperature 

(A) The piping shall be designed for a metal tempera- 
ture representing the maximum sustained condition 
expected. The design temperature shall be assumed to 
be the same as the fluid temperature unless calculations 
or tests support the use of other data, in which case the 
design temperature shall not be less than the average of 
the fluid temperature and the outside wall temperature. 

(B) Where a fluid passes through heat exchangers in 
series, the design temperature of the piping in each 
section of the system shall conform to the most severe 
temperature condition expected to be produced by the 
heat exchangers in that section of the system. 



(C) For steam, feedwater, and hot water piping lead- 
ing from fired equipment (such as boiler, reheater, super- 
heater, economizer, etc.), the design temperature shall 
be based on the expected continuous operating condi- 
tion plus the equipment manufacturers guaranteed max- 
imum temperature tolerance. For operation at 
temperatures in excess of this condition, the limitations 
described in para. 102.2.4 shall apply. 

(D) Accelerated creep damage, leading to excessive 
creep strains and potential pipe rupture, caused by 
extended operation above the design temperature shall 
be considered in selecting the design temperature for 
piping to be operated above 800°F (425°C), 

101.4 Ambient Influences 

101.4.1 Cooling Effects on Pressure. Where the 
cooling of a fluid may reduce the pressure in the piping 
to below atmospheric, the piping shall be designed to 
withstand the external pressure or provision shall be 
made to break the vacuum. 

101.4.2 Fluid Expansion Effects. Where the expan- 
sion of a fluid may increase the pressure, the piping 
system shall be designed to withstand the increased 
pressure or provision shall be made to relieve the excess 
pressure. 

101.5 Dynamic Effects 

101.5.1 Impact. Impact forces caused by all external 
and internal conditions shall be considered in the piping 
design. One form of internal impact force is due to the 
propagation of pressure waves produced by sudden 
changes in fluid momentum. This phenomena is often 
called water or steam "hammer/ 7 It may be caused by 
the rapid opening or closing of a valve in the system. The 
designer should be aware that this is only one example of 
this phenomena and that other causes of impact load- 
ing exist. 

101.5.2 Wind. Exposed piping shall be designed to 
withstand wind loadings, using meteorological data to 
determine wind forces. Where state or municipal ordi- 
nances covering the design of building structures are in 
effect and specify wind loadings, these values shall be 
considered the minimum design values. 

101.5.3 Earthquake. The effect of earthquakes, 
where applicable, shall be considered in the design of 
piping, piping supports, and restraints, using data for 



10 



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A5ME 831.1-2007 



the site as a guide in assessing the forces involved. How- 
ever, earthquakes need not be considered as acting con- 
currently with wind. 

101.5.4 Vibration. Piping shall be arranged and 
supported with consideration of vibration [see paras. 
120.1(c) and 121.7.5]. 

101.6 Weight Effects 

The following weight effects combined with loads and 
forces from other causes shall be taken into account in the 
design of piping. Piping shall be carried on adjustable 
hangers or properly leveled rigid hangers or supports, 
and suitable springs, sway bracing, vibration dampen- 
ers, etc., shall be provided where necessary. 

101.6.1 Live Load. The live load consists of the 
weight of the fluid, transported. Snow and ice loads shall 
be considered in localities where such conditions exist. 

101.6.2 Dead Load. The dead load consists of the 
weight of the piping components, insulation, protective 
lining and coating, and other superimposed permanent 
loads. 

101.63 Test or Cleaning Fluid Load. The test or 
cleaning fluid load consists of the weight of the test or 
cleaning fluid. 

101.7 Thermal Expansion and Contraction Loads 

101.7.1 General. The design of piping systems shall 
take account of the forces and moments resulting from 
thermal expansion and contraction, and from the effects 
of expansion joints. 

Thermal expansion and contraction shall be provided 
for preferably by pipe bends, elbows, offsets or changes 
in direction of the pipeline. 

Hangers and supports shall permit expansion and 
contraction of the piping between anchors. 

101.7.2 Expansion, Swivel, or Balljoints, and Flexible 
Metal Hose Assemblies. Joints of the corrugated bel- 
lows, slip, sleeve, ball, or swivel types and flexible metal 
hose assemblies may be used if their materials conform 
to this Code, their structural and working parts are of 
ample proportions, and their design prevents the com- 
plete disengagement of working parts while in service. 
However, flexible metal hose assemblies, and expansion 
joints of the corrugated bellow T s, slip, or sleeve type shall 
not be used in any piping system connecting the boiler 
and the first stop valve in that system. 

102 DESIGN CRITERIA 

102.1 General 

These criteria cover pressure-temperature ratings for 
standard and specially designed components, allowable 
stresses, stress limits, and various allowances to be used 
in the design of piping and piping components. 



102.2 Pressure-Temperature Ratings for Piping 
Components 

102.2.1 Components Having Specific Ratings. Pres- 
sure-temperature ratings for certain piping components 
have been established and are contained in some of the 
standards listed in Table 1.26.1. 

Where piping components have established pressure- 
temperature ratings which do not extend to the upper 
material temperature limits permitted by this Code, the 
pressure-temperature ratings between those established 
and the upper material temperature limit may be deter- 
mined in accordance with the rules of this Code, but such 
extensions are subject to restrictions, if any, imposed by 
the standards. 

Standard components may not be used at conditions 
of pressure and temperature which exceed the limits 
imposed by this Code. 

102.2.2 Components Mot Having Specific Ratings. 
Some of the Standards listed in Table 126.1, such as those 
for buttwelding fittings, specify that components shall 
be furnished in nominal thicknesses. Unless limited else- 
where in this Code, such components shall be rated for 
the same allowable pressures as seamless pipe of the 
same nominal thickness, as determined in paras. 103 
and 104 for material having the same allowable stress. 

Piping components, such as pipe, for which allowable 
stresses have been developed in accordance with para. 
102.3, but which do not have established pressure rat- 
ings, shall be rated by rules for pressure design in para. 
104, modified as applicable by other provisions of this 
Code. 

Should it be desired to use methods of manufacture 
or design of components not covered by this Code or 
not listed in referenced standards, it is intended that 
the manufacturer shall comply with the requirements 
of paras. 103 and 104 and other applicable requirements 
of this Code for design conditions involved. Where com- 
ponents other than those discussed above, such as pipe 
or fittings not assigned pressure-temperature ratings in 
an American National Standard, are used, the manufac- 
turer's recommended pressure-temperature rating shall 
not be exceeded. 

102.2.3 Ratings: Normal Operating Condition. A 

piping system shall be considered safe for operation if 
the maximum sustained operating pressure and temper- 
ature which may act on any part or component of the 
system does not exceed the maximum pressure and tem- 
perature allowed by this Code for that particular part 
or component. The design pressure and temperature 
shall not exceed the pressure- temperature rating for the 
particular component and material as defined in the 
applicable specification or standard listed in Table 126.1. 

102.2.4 Ratings: Allowance for Variation From Normal 
Operation, The maximum internal pressure and tem- 
perature allowed shall include considerations for occa- 
sional loads and transients of pressure and temperature. 



11 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



(07) 



It is recognized that variations in pressure and temper- 
ature inevitably occur, and therefore the piping system, 
except as limited by component standards referred to 
in para. 102.2.1 or by manufacturers of components 
referred to in para. 102.2.2, shall be considered safe for 
occasional short operating periods at higher than design 
pressure or temperature. For such variations, either pres- 
sure or temperature, or both, may exceed the design 
values if the computed circumferential pressure stress 
does not exceed the maximum allowable stress from 
Appendix A for the coincident temperature by 

(A) 15% if the event duration occurs for no more than 
8 hr at any one time and not more than 800 hr/year, or 

(B) 20% if the event duration occurs for not more than 
1 hr at any one time and not more than 80 hr/year 

102.2.5 Ratings at Transitions. Where piping sys- 
tems operating at different design conditions are con- 
nected, a division valve shall be provided having a 
pressure-temperature rating equal to or exceeding the 
more severe conditions. See para. 122 for design require- 
ments pertaining to specific piping systems. 

1023 Allowable Stress Values and Other Stress 
Limits for Piping Components 

1023.1 Allowable Stress Values 

(A) Allowable stress values to be used for the design 
of power piping systems are given in the Tables in 
Appendix A, also referred to in this Code Section, as the 
Allowable Stress Tables. These tables list allowable stress 
values for commonly used materials at temperatures 
appropriate to power piping installations. In every case 
the temperature is understood to be the metal tempera- 
ture. Where applicable, weld joint efficiency factors and 
casting quality factors are included in the tabulated val- 
ues. Thus, the tabulated values are values of S, SE, or 
SF, as applicable. 

(B) Allowable stress values in shear shall not exceed 
80% of the values determined in accordance with the 
rules of para. 102.3.1(A). Allowable stress values in bear- 
ing shall not exceed 160% of the determined values. 

CO The basis for establishing the allowable stress val- 
ues in this Code Section are the same as those in the 
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II, Part 
D, Appendix 1; except that allowable stresses for cast 
iron and ductile iron are in accordance with Section VIII, 
Division 1, Appendix P for Tables UCI-23 and UCD-23, 
respectively. 

1023.2 Limits for Sustained and Displacement 
Stresses 

(A) Sustained Stresses 

(Al) Internal Pressure Stress. The calculated stress 
due to internal pressure shall not exceed the allowable 
stress values given in the Allowable Stress Tables in 
Appendix A. This criterion is satisfied when the wall 



thickness of the piping component, including any rein- 
forcement, meets the requirements of paras. 104.1 
through 104.7, excluding para. 104.1.3 but including the 
consideration of allowances permitted by paras. 102.2.4, 
102.3.3(B), and 102.4. 

(A.2) External Pressure Stress. Piping subject to 
external pressure shall be considered safe when the wall 
thickness and means of stiffening meet the requirements 
of para. 104.1.3. 

(A3) Longitudinal Stress, The sum of the longitudi- 
nal stresses, S L/ due to pressure, weight, and other sus- 
tained loads shall not exceed the basic material allowable 
stress in the hot condition, S;,.. 

The longitudinal pressure stress, S !p , may be deter- 
mined by either of the following equations: 



c - PD o 



s lp - 



Pd-i 



(B) Displacement Stress Range. The calculated refer- 
ence displacement stress range, Sg (see paras. 104.8.3 
and 119.6.4), shall not exceed the allowable stress range, 
S Af calculated by eq. (1 A) 



S A = /(1.25S C + 0.25S/J 



(1A) 



When S/ 2 is greater than S L , the difference between 
them may be added to the term 0.25S/J in eq. (1A). In 
that case, the allowable stress range, S A , is calculated by 
eq. (IB) 



:/(1..25S c + 1.25S ft -Sz) 



(IB) 



where 

f = cyclic stress range factor 1 for the total number 
of equivalent reference stress range cycles, N, 
determined from eq. (1C) 



/ = 6/N - 2 < 1.0 



(1C) 



N = total number of equivalent reference displace- 
ment stress range cycles expected during the 
service life of the piping. A minimum value for 



1 Applies to essentially noncorroded piping. Corrosion can 
sharply decrease cyclic life; therefore, corrosion resistant materials 
should be considered where a large number of significant stress 
range cycles is anticipated. The designer is also cautioned that the 
fatigue life of materials operated at elevated temperatures may be 
reduced. 



12 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



/is 0.15, which results in an allowable displace- 
ment stress range for a total number of equiva- 
lent reference displacement stress range cycles 
greater than 10 s cycles. 

S c — basic material allowable stress from Appendix 
A at the minimum metal temperature expected 
during the reference stress range cycle, psi 
(kPa) 2 

S h = basic material allowable stress from Appendix 
A at the maximum metal temperature expected 
during the reference stress range cycle, psi 
(kPa) 2 

In determining the basic material allowable stresses, 
S c and S] y for welded pipe, the joint efficiency factor, E, 
need not be applied (see para. 102.4.3). The values of 
the allowable stresses from Appendix A may be divided 
by the joint efficiency factor given for that material. In 
determining the basic material allowable stresses for 
castings, the casting quality factor, F, shall be applied 
(see para. 102.4.6). 

When considering more than a single displacement 
stress range, whether from thermal expansion or other 
cyclic conditions, each significant stress range shall be 
computed. The reference displacement stress range, S E/ 
is defined as the greatest computed displacement stress 
range. The total number of reference displacement stress 
range cycles, N, may then be calculated by eq. (2) 



N = N E + 2{rfNi) for i = 1, 2, , 



(2) 



where 

N E 



number of cycles of the reference displacement 
stress range, S E 

number of cycles associated with displacement 
stress range, S/ 

Ti = Si/S E 

Sj = any computed stress range other than the refer- 
ence displacement stress range, psi (kPa) 

102.3.3 Limits of Calculated Stresses Due to Occa- 
sional Loads 

(A) During Operation. The sum of the longitudinal 
stresses produced by internal pressure, live and dead 
loads and those produced by occasional loads, such as 
the temporary supporting of extra weight, may exceed 
the allowable stress values given in the Allowable Stress 
Tables by the amounts and durations of time given in 
para. 104.8.2, 

(B) During Test. During pressure tests performed in 
accordance with para. 137, the circumferential (hoop) 
stress shall not exceed 90% of the yield strength (0.2% 
offset) at test temperature. In addition, the sum of longi- 
tudinal stresses due to test pressure and live and dead 



^ For materials with a minimum tensile strength of over 70 ksi 
(480 MPa), eqs. (1A) and (IB) shall be calculated using S c or S h 
values no greater than 20 ksi (140 MPa), unless otherwise justified. 



loads at the time of test, excluding occasional loads, shall 
not exceed 90% of the yield strength at test temperature. 

102.4 Allowances 

102.4.1 Corrosion or Erosion. When corrosion or 
erosion is expected, an increase in wall thickness of the 
piping shall be provided over that required by other 
design requirements. This allowance in the judgment of 
the designer shall be consistent with the expected life 
of the piping. 

102.4.2 Threading and Grooving. The calculated 
minimum thickness of piping (or tubing) which is to be 
threaded shall be increased by an allowance equal to 
thread depth; dimension h of ASME Bl.20.1 or equiva- 
lent shall apply For machined surfaces or grooves, where 
the tolerance is not specified, the tolerance shall be 
assumed to be \& in. (0.40 mm) in addition to the speci- 
fied depth of cut. The requirements of para. 104.1.2(C) 
shall also apply. 

102.43 Weld Joint Efficiency Factors. The use of 

joint efficiency factors for welded pipe is required by 
this Code. The factors in Table 102.4.3 are based on 
full penetration welds. These factors are included in the 
allowable stress values given in Appendix A. The factors 
in Table 102.4.3 apply to both straight seam and spiral 
seam welded pipe. 

102.4.4 Mechanical Strength. Where necessary for 
mechanical strength to prevent damage, collapse, exces- 
sive sag, or buckling of pipe due to superimposed loads 
from supports or other causes, the wall thickness of the 
pipe should be increased; or, if this is impractical or 
would cause excessive local stresses, the superimposed 
loads or other causes shall be reduced or eliminated 
by other design methods. The requirements of para. 
104.1.2(C) shall also apply 

102.4.5 Bending. The minimum wall thickness at 
any point on the bend shall conform to (A) or (B) below. 

(70 The minimum wall thickness at any point in a 
completed bend shall not be less than required by eq. 
(3) or (3A) of para. 104.1.2(A). 

(A.l) Table 102.4.5 is a guide to the designer who 
must specify wall thickness for ordering pipe. In general, 
it has been the experience that when good shop practices 
are employed, the minimum thicknesses of straight pipe 
show 7 n in Table 102.4.5 should be sufficient for bending 
and still meet the minimum thickness requirements of 
para. 104.1.2(A). 

(A.l) The bend thinning allowance in Table 102.4.5 
may be provided in all parts of the cross section of 
the pipe circumference without any detrimental effects 
being produced. 

(B) The minimum required thickness, t m/ of a bend, 
after bending, in its finished form, shall be determined 
in accordance with eq. (3B) or (3C) 



(07) 



13 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Table 102.4.3 Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency Factors 



No. 


Type of Joint 


Type of Seam 


Examination 


Factor E 


1 


Furnace butt weld, con- J ^^^^\ — "-->- 
tinuous weld < C^*~~~^ """-C? 


Straight 


As required by listed 
specification 


0.60 
[Note (1)] 


2 


Electric resistance weld ^~-~ — r — -*^ 


Straight or spiral 


As required by listed 
specification 


0.85 

[Note (1)] 


3 


Electric fusion weld 




(a) Single butt weld ^s77&7>^ 
(without filler metal) /^~~~^(^\ 


Straight or spiral 


As required by listed 
specification 

Additionally 100% 
radiographed 


0.85 

1.00 

[Note (2)] 




(b) Single butt weld 
(with filler metal) /^^^^^^\ 


Straight or spiral 


As required by listed 
specification 

Additionally 100% 
radiographed 


0.80 

1.00 
[Note (2)] 




(c) Double butt weld J ^-~ 7P7--^ 
(without filler metal) s^"^ T ^"^X. 


Straight or spiral 


As required by listed 
specification 

Additionally 100% 
radiographed 


0.90 

1.00 

[Note (2)] 




(d) Double butt weld ^ *772~—^ 
(with filler metal) /^^"*K^^\ 


Straight or spiral 


As required by listed 
specification 

Additionally 100% 
radiographed 


0.90 

1.00 
[Note (2)] 


4 


API 5L Submerged arc weld 

(SAW) 

Gas metal arc weld 
(GMAW) 

Combined GMAW, 
SAW 


Straight with 
one or two 
seams 

Spiral 


As required by speci- 
fication 

Additionally 100% 
radiographed 


0.90 

1.00 

[Note (2)] 



NOTES: 

(1) it is not permitted to increase the longitudinal weld joint efficiency factor by additional examination for joint 1 or 2. 

(2) Radiography shall be in accordance with the requirements of para. 136.4.5 or the material specification, as applicable. 



PD 



2(SE/I + Py) 



or 

- Pd + 2SEA ^ + 2[ J PA 
tm ~~ 2(SE/I + Py-P) 

where at the intrados (inside of bend) 

4(K/D ) -X 
*(R/D ) -2 

and at the extrados (outside of bend) 



I 



4(K/D„) +2 



(3B) 



(3C) 



(3D) 



(3E) 



and at the sidewall on the bend center line, I — 1.0 where 
R — bend radius of pipe bend 

Thickness variations from the intrados to the extrados 
and at the ends of the bend shall be gradual. The thick- 
ness requirements apply at the center of the bend arc, 
at the intrados, extrados, and bend centerline (see 
Fig. 102.4.5). The minimum thickness at the ends of the 
bends shall not be less than the requirements of para. 
104.1.2 for straight pipe. For bends to conform to this 
paragraph, all thickness requirements must be met. 

102.4.6 Casting Quality Factors 

(A) General. The use of a casting quality factor is 
required for all cast components which use the allowable 



14 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table 102.4.5 Bend Thinning Allowance 





Minimum Thickness 




Recommended Prior to 


Radius of Bends 


Bending 


6 pipe diameters or greater 


1.06f m 


5 pipe diameters 


1.0St m 


4 pipe diameters 


1.14f m 


3 pipe diameters 


1.25f m 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) Interpolation is permissible for bending to intermediate radii. 

(b) t m is determined by eq. (3) or (3A) of para. 104.1.2(A). 

(c) Pipe diameter is the nominal diameter as tabulated in ASME 
B36.10M, Tables 1, and ASME B36.19M, Table 1. For piping 
with a diameter not listed in these Tables, and also for tubing, 
the nominal diameter corresponds with the outside diameter. 



(07) Fig. 102.4.5 Nomenclature for Pipe Bends 




End of bend 
<typ.) 



Extrados 



stress values of Appendix A as the design basis. A factor 
of 0.80 is included in the allowable stress values for all 
castings given in Appendix A. 

This required factor does not apply to component 
standards listed in Table 126.1, if such standards define 
allowable pressure-temperature ratings or provide the 
allowable stresses to be used as the design basis for the 
component. 

(B) For steel materials, a casting quality factor not 
exceeding 1.0 may be applied when the following 
requirements are met: 

(B.l) All steel castings having a nominal body 
thickness of 4 1 /? in. (11.4 mm) or less (other than pipe 
flanges, flanged valves and fittings, and butt welding 
end valves, all complying with ASME B16.5 or B16.34) 
shall be inspected as follows: 

(B.l. I) All critical areas, including the junctions 
of all gates, risers, and abrupt changes in section or 
direction and area of weld end preparation shall be 
radiographed in accordance with Article 2 of Section V 
of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, and the 



radiographs shall conform to the requirements of 
ASTM E 446, Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings 
up to 2 in. (50 mm) in Thickness or E 186 Reference 
Radiographs for Heavy Walled [2 to 4V 2 in. (50 to 114 
mm)] Steel Castings, depending upon the section thick- 
ness. The maximum acceptable severity level for a 1.0 
quality factor shall be as listed in Table 102.4. 6(B. 1.1). 

(B.1.2) All surfaces of each casting, including 
machined gasket seating surfaces, shall be examined by 
the magnetic particle or dye penetrant method after 
heat treatment. The examination techniques shall be in 
accordance with Article 6 or 7, as applicable, and Article 
9 of Section V of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code. Magnetic particle or dye penetrant indications 
exceeding degree 1 of Type I, degree 2 of Type II, and 
degree 3 of Type III, and exceeding degree 1 of Types 
IV and V of ASTM E 125, Standard Reference Photo- 
graphs for Magnetic Particle Indications on Ferrous 
Castings, are not acceptable and shall be removed. 

(B.l. 3) Where more than one casting of a particu- 
lar design is produced, each of the first five castings shall 
be inspected as above. Where more than five castings are 
being produced, the examination shall be performed on 
the first five plus one additional casting to represent 
each five additional castings. If this additional casting 
proves to be unacceptable, each of the remaining cast- 
ings in the group shall be inspected. 

(B.l. 4) Any discontinuities in excess of the maxi- 
mum permitted in (B.l.l) and (B.1.2) above shall be 
removed, and the casting may be repaired by welding 
after the base metal has been inspected to assure com- 
plete removal of discontinuities. [Refer to para. 
127.4.11(A).] The complete 4d repair shall be subject to 
reinspection by the same method as was used in the 
original inspection and shall be reinspected after any- 
required postweid heat treatment. 

(B.l) All steel castings having a nominal body 
thickness greater than 4 1 /? in. (114 mm) (other than pipe 
flanges, flanged valves and fittings, and butt welding 
end valves, all complying with ASME B16.5 or B16.34) 
shall be inspected as follows: 

(B.l.l) All surfaces of each casting including 
machined gasket seating surfaces, shall be examined by 
the magnetic particle or dye penetrant method after 
heat treatment. The examination techniques shall be in 
accordance with Article 6 or 7, as applicable, and with 
Article 9 of Section V of the ASME Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code. Magnetic particle or dye penetrant indica- 
tions exceeding degree 1 of Type I, degree 2 of Type II, 
degree 3 of Type III, and degree 1 of Types IV and V 
of ASTM E 125, Standard Reference Photographs for 
Magnetic Particle Indications on Ferrous Castings, shall 
be removed. 

(B.l.l) All parts of castings shall be subjected to 
complete radiographic inspection in accordance with 
Article 2 of Section V of the ASME Boiler and Pressure 



15 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Table 102.4.6(B.l. 


1) 


Maximum Severity Level for Casting Thickness 4% in. (114 


mm) 


or Less 






Severity 


Level 




Discontinuity 
Category Designation 






Discontinuity 
Category Designation 


<1 


in. (25 mm) 
Thick 


>1 


in. (25 mm) 
Thick 


Severity Level 


For E 446 [Castings up to 2 in. 

A 
B 


(50 


mm) Thickness] 

1 
2 




2 

3 


For E 186 [Castings 2 in. to 
4V 2 in. (50 mm to 114 mm) 
Thickness] 

A, B, and Types 1 and 2 of C 




2 


C Types 1, 2, 
3, and 4 

D, E, F, and G 




1 

None 
acceptable 




3 

None 

acceptable 


Type 3 of C 
D, E, and F 




3 

None 
acceptable 



Table 102.4.6(B.2.2) Maximum Severity Level for 
Casting Thickness Greater Than 4% in. (114 mm) 



Discontinuity 
Category Designation 



Seventy Level 



A, B, and Types 1, 2, and 3 of C 
D, E, and F 



None 
acceptable 



Vessel Code, and the radiographs shall conform to the 
requirements of ASTM E 280, Reference Radiographs 
for Heavy Walled [4^ to 12 in. (114 to 305 mm)] Steel 
Castings. 

The maximum acceptable severity level for a 1.0 qual- 
ity factor shall be as listed in Table 102.4.6(B.2.2). 

(323) Any discontinuities in excess of the maxi- 
mum permitted in (B.2.1) and (B.2.2) above shall be 
removed and may be repaired by welding after the base 
metal has been magnetic particle or dye penetrant 
inspected to assure complete removal of discontinuities. 
[Refer to para. 127.4.11(A).] 

(B.2A) All weld repairs of depth exceeding 1 in. 
(25 mm) or 20% of the section thickness, whichever is 
the lesser, shall be inspected by radiography in accor- 
dance with (B.2.2) above and by magnetic particle or 
dye penetrant inspection of the finished weld surface. 
All weld repairs of depth less than 20% of the section 
thickness, or 1 in. (25 mm), whichever is the lesser, and 
all weld repairs of section that cannot be effectively 
radiographed shall be examined by magnetic particle 
or dye penetrant inspection of the first layer, of each 
\ in. (6 mm) thickness of deposited weld metal, and 
of the finished weld surface. Magnetic particle or dye 
penetrant testing of the finished weld surface shall be 
done after postweld heat treatment. 

(C) For cast iron and nonferrous materials, no increase 
of the casting quality factor is allowed except when 



special methods of examination, prescribed by the mate- 
rial specification, are followed. If such increase is specifi- 
cally permitted by the material specification, a factor 
not exceeding 1.0 may be applied. 

PART 2 

PRESSURE DESIGN OF PIPING COMPONENTS 

103 CRITERIA FOR PRESSURE DESIGN OF PIPING 
COMPONENTS 

The design of piping components shall consider the 
effects of pressure and temperature, in accordance with 
paras. 104.1 through 104.7, including the consideration 
of allowances permitted by paras. 102.2.4 and 102.4. In 
addition, the mechanical strength of the piping system 
shall be determined adequate in accordance with para. 
104.8 under other applicable loadings, including but not 
limited to those loadings defined in para. 101. 

104 PRESSURE DESIGN OF COMPONENTS 
104.1 Straight Pipe 

104,1.2 Straight Pipe Under internal Pressure 

(A) Minimum Wall Thickness. The minimum thickness 
of pipe wall required for design pressures and for tem- 
peratures not exceeding those for the various materials 
listed in the Allowable Stress Tables, including allow- 
ances for mechanical strength, shall not be less than that 
determined by eq. (3) or (3 A), as follows: 



PD n 



2(SE + Py) 



+ A 



_ Pd + 2SEA + 2yPA 
tm ~ 2(SE + Py~ P) 

Design pressure shall not exceed 



(3) 3 



(3Ar 



3 SF shall be used in place of SE where casting quality factors 
are intended. See definition of SE. Units of P and SE must be 
identical. Appendix A values must be converted to kPa when the 
design pressure is in kPa. 



16 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



P - 



P = 



2SE(t w - A) 
D - 2y(fc m - A) 

2SE(f„, - A) 
d - 2y(t, - A) + 2t m 



(4) 3 



(4A) 3 



where the nomenclature used above is: 

(A.l) t m = minimum required wall thickness, in. 
(mm) 

(A. 1,1) If pipe is ordered by its nomi- 
nal wall thickness, the manufacturing tol- 
erance on wall thickness must be taken 
into account. After the minimum pipe 
wall thickness t m is determined by eq. (3) 
or (3A), this minimum thickness shall be 
increased by an amount sufficient to pro- 
vide the manufacturing tolerance 
allowed in the applicable pipe specifica- 
tion or required by the process. The next 
heavier commercial wall thickness shall 
then be selected from thickness schedules 
such as contained in ASME B36.10M or 
from, manufacturers' schedules for other 
than standard thickness. 

(A.l 2) To compensate for thinning in 
bends, refer to para. 102.4.5. 

(A.l. 3) For cast piping components, 
refer to para. 102.4.6. 

(A.l. 4) Where ends are subject to 
forming or machining for jointing, the 
wall thickness of the pipe, tube, or com- 
ponent after such forming or machining 
shall not be less than t m minus the amount 
provided for removal bv para. 104.1.2 
(A.6.1). 
(A.2) P = internal design pressure, psig [kPa 
(gage)] 

NOTE: When computing the design pressure for a pipe of a 
definite minimum wall thickness by eq. (4) or (4A), the value of 
P obtained by these formulas may be rounded out to the next 
higher unit of 10. For cast iron pipe, see para. 104.1.2(B). 

(A3) D = outside diameter of pipe, in. (mm). For 
design calculations, the outside diameter 
of pipe as given in tables of standards 
and specifications shall be used in 
obtaining the value of t m . When calculat- 
ing the allowable working pressure of 
pipe on hand or in stock, the actual mea- 
sured outside diameter and actual mea- 
sured minimum wall thickness at the 
thinner end of the pipe may be used to 
calculate this pressure. 
(AA) d = inside diameter of pipe, in. (mm). For 
design calculations, the inside diameter 
of pipe is the maximum possible value 
allowable under the purchase specifica- 
tion. When calculating the allowable 



(A.5) SE- 
ar SF 



working pressure of pipe on hand or in 
stock, the actual measured inside diame- 
ter and actual measured minimum wall 
thickness at the thinner end of the pipe 
may be used to calculate this pressure. 



maximum allowable stress in material 
due to internal pressure and joint effi- 
ciency (or casting quality factor) at the 
design temperature, psi (MPa). The value 
of SE or SF shall not exceed that given in 
Appendix A, for the respective material 
and design temperature. These values 
include the w T eld joint efficiency, £, or the 
casting factor, F. 
(A.6) A = additional thickness, in. (mm) 

(A. 6.1) To compensate for material 
removed in threading, grooving, etc., 
required to make a mechanical joint, refer 
to para. 102.4.2. 

(A. 6.2) To provide for mechanical 
strength of the pipe, refer to para. 102.4.4 
(not intended to provide for extreme con- 
ditions of misapplied external loads or 
for mechanical abuse). 

(A.6. 3) To provide for corrosion and/ 
or erosion, refer to para. 102.4.1. 
(A.l) y — coefficient having values as given in 
Table 104.1.2(A) 

(B) Thickness of gray and ductile iron fittings con- 
veying liquids may be determined from ANSI /AWWA 
C110/A21.10 or ANSI/ AWWA C153/A21.53. The thick- 
ness of ductile iron pipe may be determined by ANSI/ 
AWWA C115/A21.15 or ANSI/ AWWA C150/A21.50. 
These thicknesses include allowances for foundry toler- 
ances and water hammer. 

(C) While the thickness determined from eq. (3) or 
(3 A) is theoretically ample for both bursting pressure 
and material removed in threading, the following mini- 
mum requirements are mandatory to furnish added 
mechanical strength: 

(C.l) Where steel pipe is threaded and used for 
steam service at pressure above 250 psi (1 750 kPa) or 
for water service above 100 psi (700 kPa) with water 
temperature above 220°F (105°C), the pipe shall be seam- 
less having the minimum ultimate tensile strength of 
48,000 psi (330 MPa) and a weight at least equal to 
Schedule 80 of ASME B36.10M. 

(C.l) Where threaded brass or copper pipe is used 
for the services described in (C.l) above, it shall comply 
with pressure and temperature classifications permitted 
for these materials by other paragraphs of this Code 
and shall have a wall thickness at least equal to that 
specified above for steel pipe of corresponding size. 

(C.3) Plain end nonferrous pipe or tube shall have 
minimum wall thicknesses as follows: 



17 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table 104.1.2(A) Values of y 







900 














1,250 


Temperature, 




and 














and 


°F 




Below 


950 


1,000 


1,050 


1,100 


1,150 


1,200 


Above 






482 














677 


Temperature, 




and 














and 


°C 




Below 


510 


538 


566 


593 


621 


649 


Above 


Ferritic steels 




0.4 


0.5 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


Austenitic steels 




0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.5 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


Nickel alloys UNS Nos. 


N06617, 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.5 


0.7 


N08800, N08810, N08825 



















GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The value of y may be interpolated between the 50°F (27.8°C) values shown in the Table. For cast 
iron and nonferrous materials, y equals 0. 

(b) For pipe with a D jt m ratio less than 6, the value of y for ferritic and austenitic steels designed for 
temperatures of 900°F (480°C) and below shall be taken as: 



d + D 



(5) 



(C.3.1) For nominal sizes smaller than NPS %, 
the thickness shall not be less than that specified for 
Type K of ASTM B 88. 

(C.3.2) For nominal sizes NPS % and larger, the 
wall thickness shall not be less than 0.049 in. (1.25 mm). 
The wall thickness shall be further increased, as required, 
in accordance with para. 102.4. 

104.1.3 Straight Pipe Under External Pressure. For 

determining wall thickness and stiffening requirements 
for straight pipe under external pressure, the procedures 
outlined in UG-28, UG-29, and UG-30 of Section VIII, 
Division 1 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 
shall be followed, 

104.2 Curved Segments of Pipe 

104.2.1 Pipe Bends. Pipe bends shall be subject to 
the following limitations: 

(A) The minimum wall thickness shall meet the 
requirements of para. 102.4.5 and the fabrication require- 
ments of para. 129. 

(B) Limits on flattening and buckling at bends may 
be specified by design, depending upon the service, the 
material, and the stress level involved. Where limits on 
flattening and buckling are not specified by design, the 
requirements of para. 129.1 shall be met. 

104.2.2 Elbows. Elbows manufactured in accor- 
dance with the standards listed in Table 126.1 are suit- 
able for use at the pressure-temperature ratings 
specified by such standards, subject to the requirements 
of para. 106. 

1043 Intersections 

104.3.1 Branch Connections 

(A) This paragraph gives rules governing the design 
of branch connections to sustain internal and external 



pressure in cases where the axes of the branch and the 
run intersect, and the angle between the axes of the 
branch and of the run is between 45 deg and 90 deg, 
inclusive. 

Branch connections in which the smaller angle 
between the axes of the branch and the run is less than 
45 deg or branch connections where the axes of the 
branch and the run do not intersect impose special 
design and fabrication problems. The rules given herein 
may be used as a guide, but sufficient additional strength 
must be provided to assure safe service. Such branch 
connections shall be designed to meet the requirement 
of para. 104.7. 

(B) Branch connections in piping may be made from 
materials listed in Appendix A by the use of the fol- 
lowing: 

(B.I) fittings, such as tees, laterals, and crosses 
made in accordance with the applicable standards listed 
in Table 126.1 where the attachment of the branch pipe 
to the fitting is by butt welding, socket welding, brazing, 
soldering, threading, or by a flanged connection. 

(B.2) weld outlet fittings, such as cast or forged 
nozzles, couplings and adaptors, or similar items where 
the attachment of the branch pipe to the fitting is by 
butt welding, socket welding, threading, or by a flanged 
connection. Such weld outlet fittings are attached to the 
run by welding similar to that shown in Fig. 127.4.8(E). 
Couplings are restricted to a maximum of NPS 3. 

(B3) extruded outlets at right angles to the run 
pipe, in accordance with (G) below, where the attach- 
ment of the branch pipe is by butt welding. 

(B.4) piping directly attached to the run pipe by 
welding in accordance with para. 127.4.8 or by socket 
welding or threading as stipulated below: 



18 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



(BAA) socket welded right angle branch connec- 
tions may be made by attaching the branch pipe directly 
to the run pipe provided. 

(B .4.1.1) the nominal size of the branch does 
not exceed NPS 2 or one-fourth of the nominal size of 
the run, whichever is smaller. 

(BAA 2) the depth of the socket measured at 
its minimum depth in the run pipe is at least equal to 
that shown in ASME B16.ll. If the run pipe wall does 
not have sufficient thickness to provide the proper depth 
of socket, an alternate type of construction shall be used. 

(BAA 3) the clearance between the bottom of 
the socket and the end of the inserted branch pipe is in 
accordance with Fig. 127.4.4(C). 

(BAA A) the size of the fillet weld is not less 
than 1.09 times the nominal wall thickness of the 
branch pipe. 

(BA.2) threaded right angle branch connections 
may be made by attaching the branch pipe directly to 
the run provided 

(BA.2 A) the nominal size of the branch does 
not exceed NPS 2 or one-fourth of the nominal size of 
the run, whichever is smaller. 

(BA.2. 2) the minimum thread engagement is: 
6 full threads for NFS V 2 and NPS % branches; 7 for 
NFS 1, NPS 1*4 and NPS lV 2 branches; and 8 for NPS 2 
branches. If the run pipe wall does not have sufficient 
thickness to provide the proper depth for thread engage- 
ment, an alternative type of construction shall be used. 
(C) Branch Connections Not Requiring Reinforcement. A 
pipe having a branch connection is weakened by the 
opening that must be made in it. Unless the wall thick- 
ness of the branch and /or run pipe is sufficiently in 
excess of that required to sustain the pressure, it is neces- 
sary to provide additional material in order to meet 
the reinforcement requirements of (D) and (E) below. 
How T ever, there are certain branch connections for which 
supporting calculations are not required. These are as 
follows: 

(C.I) branch connections made by the use of a fit- 
ting (tee, lateral, cross, or branch weld-on fitting), manu- 
factured in accordance with a. standard listed in Table 
126.1, and used within the limits of pressure- 
temperature ratings specified in that standard. 

(C.2) branch connections made by welding a cou- 
pling or half coupling directly to the run pipe in accor- 
dance with Fig. 127.4.8(E), provided the nominal 
diameter of the branch does not exceed NPS 2 or one- 
fourth the nominal diameter of the run, whichever is 
less. The minimum wall thickness of the coupling any- 
where in the reinforcement zone (if threads are in the 
zone, wall thickness is measured from the root of the 
thread to the minimum O.D.) shall not be less than 
that of the unthreaded branch pipe. In no case shall the 
thickness of the coupling be less than extra heavy or 
Class 3000 rating. 



Small branch connections NPS 2 or smaller as shown 
in Fig. 127.4.8(F) may be used, provided t w is not less than 
the thickness of schedule 160 pipe of the branch size. 
(C.3) integrally reinforced fittings welded directly 
to the run pipe when the reinforcements provided by 
the fitting and the deposited weld metal meets the 
requirements of (D) below. 

(CA) integrally reinforced extruded outlets in the 
run pipe. The reinforcement requirements shall be in 
accordance with (G) below\ 

(D) Branch Connections Subject to Internal Pressure 
Req u iring Reinforcemen t 

(DA) Reinforcement is required when it is not pro- 
vided inherently in the components of the branch con- 
nection. This paragraph gives rules covering the design 
of branch, connections to sustain internal pressure in 
cases where the angle between the axes of the branch 
and of the run is between 45 deg and 90 deg. Subpara- 
graph (E) below gives rules governing the design of 
connections to sustain external pressure. 

(D.2) Figure 104.3.1(D) illustrates the notations (07) 
used in the pressure-temperature design conditions of 
branch connections. These notations are as follows: 
b — subscript referring to branch 
D = outside diameter of pipe, in. (mm) 
di = inside centerline longitudinal dimension 
of the finished branch opening in the run 
of the pipe, in. (mm) 
= [D ob -2(T h -A)]/sma 
d 2 = "half width'' of reinforcing zone, in. (mm) 
= the greater of d 1 or (T k - A) + (T h - A) + 
dj/2 but in no case more than D j u in. (mm) 
h = subscript referring to run or header 
L 4 = altitude of reinforcement zone outside of 
run, in. (mm) 
= 2.5(7,, - A) + t r or 25(T h - A), whichever 
is smaller 
t r = thickness of attached reinforcing pad, in 
Example A, in. (mm); or height of the larg- 
est 60 deg right triangle supported by the 
run and branch outside diameter projected 
surfaces and lying completely within the 
area of integral reinforcement, in Example 
B, in. (mm) 
T b , T h = actual (by measurement), or minimum 
wall thickness of the branch or header 
pipe, in. (mm), permissible under pur- 
chase specification 
tmb' tmh = required minimum wall thickness, in. 
(mm), of the branch or header pipe as 
determined by use of eq. (3) or (3A) in 
para. 104.1.2(A) 
a = angle between axes of branch and run, deg 

(D.2 A) If the run pipe contains a longitudinal 
seam w T hich is not intersected by the branch, the stress 
value of seamless pipe of comparable grade may be 



19 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



(07) 



Fig. 104.3.10)) Reinforcement of Branch Connections 



$ P 

3 % 

§.<§• 
I © 

*■< O 

cr ° 
<d 



& 



r 



I § 

^ a" 

if 

c ^ 

£ 2 

CD' 

S' B 

2 B. 

P o 

o p£. 

W 

8 <§. 

t-h CD 

> « 

CO 



Reinforcement 
zone 



Excess wall 
j m header 




£ 



o 
o 



Example A 



Explanation of areas: 



V*: * *. Area A^ — available reinforcement area (excess wall) in header 
Area A 2 — available reinforcement area (excess wall) in branch 
Area A$ — available reinforcement area fillet weld metal 



Area A 4 — metal in ring, pad, or integral reinforcement 
Area >4g — metal in saddle parallel to run (see Detail) 



/VX Area /^—pressure design area (expected 
at the end of service life) 



2 

o 

3 p 

3 € 



© 



B < 
8- 






o 



& o 

q ^ 



a I' 

O O 
CO 



(07) 



Reinforcement 
zone 



Branch pipe 
or nozzle 



Saddle, A 5 

[Note (3)] j 




Fig. 1043.1(D) Reinforcement of Branch Connections (Cont'd) 

-H \*-T b 



-H H-7i 



Reinforcement 
area 



*r~ J~ in 

_Lljr 



Excess wai! 
header 



X 



Header or __y^ 
run pipe 

Detail 
for Example A 




Example B 



GENERAL NOTE: 

(a) This Figure illustrates the nomenclature of para. 104.3,1(0). 

(b) Required reinforcement area = A 7 = A 6 (2 - sin a) = {t mh - A)d t (2 - sin a). 

(c) Available reinforcement areas = A 1 + A 2 + A 3 + A* + A s (as applicable). 

(d) Available reinforcement areas > required reinforcement area. 

NOTES: 

(1) When a ring or pad is added as reinforcement (Example A), the value of reinforcement area may be taken in the same manner in which excess header metal is considered, provided 
the weld completely fuses the branch pipe, header pipe, and ring or pad. Typical acceptable methods of welding which meet the above requirement are shown in Fig. 127.4.8(D), 
sketches (c) and (d). 

(2) Width to height of rings and pads shall be reasonably proportioned, preferably on a ratio as close to 4:1 as the available horizontal space within the limits of the reinforcing zone 
along the run and the outside diameter of the branch will permit, but in no case may the ratio be less than 1:1. 

(3) Reinforcement saddles are limited to use on 90 deg branches (Example A Detail). 



ASME B31.1-2007 



used to determine the value of t mk for the purpose of 
reinforcement calculations only. If the branch intersects 
a longitudinal weld in the run, or if the branch contains 
a weld, the weld, joint efficiency for either or both shall 
enter the calculations. If the branch and run both contain 
longitudinal welds, care shall be taken to ensure that 
the two welds do not intersect each other. 
(07) (D.2. 2) The required reinforcement area in square 

inches (square millimeters) for branch connections shall 
be the quantity 

A 7 = A 6 (2 - sin a) = (t mh - A)di (2 - sin a) 

For right angle connections the required reinforce- 
ment becomes 



A 7 



(tmh ~ A)h 



The required reinforcement must be within the limits 
of the reinforcement zone as defined in (D.2.4) below. 
(07) (D.2.3) The reinforcement required by (D.2) shall 

be that provided by any combination of areas A lf A 2/ 
A$, A Ar and As, as defined below and illustrated in 
Fig. 104.3.1(D) where 
A\ — area provided by excess pipe wall in the run 

= (2d 2 - d-[)(T h - t mh ) 
A 2 = area, in. 2 (mm 2 ), provided by excess pipe wall 
in the branch for a distance L 4 above the run 
= 2L 4 (T b - t mb )/s'm a 
A 3 = area provided by deposited weld metal beyond 
the outside diameter of the run and branch, 
and for fillet weld attachments of rings, pads, 
and saddles 
i4 4 = area provided by a reinforcing ring, pad, or 
integral reinforcement. The value of A 4 may 
be taken in the same manner in which excess 
header metal is considered, provided the weld 
completely fuses the branch pipe, run pipe, 
and ring or pad, or integral reinforcement. For 
welding branch connections refer to para. 
127,4.8. 
A 5 = area provided by a. saddle on right angle con- 
nections 
= (O.D. of saddle - D ob )t r 
A^ = pressure design area expected at the end of 
service life 

= (tmh ~ A ) d l 

Portions of the reinforcement area may be composed 
of materials other than those of the run pipe, but if the 
allowable stress of these materials is less than that for 
the run pipe, the corresponding calculated reinforce- 
ment area provided by this material shall be reduced in 
the ratio of the allowable stress being applied to the 
reinforcement area. No additional credit shall be taken 
for materials having higher allowable stress values than 
the run pipe. 



(D.2.4) Reinforcement Zone. The reinforcement 
zone is a parallelogram whose width shall extend a 
distance d 2 on each side of the centerline of the branch 
pipe, and whose altitude shall start at the inside surface 
of the run pipe and extend to a distance L 4 from the 
outside surface of the run pipe. 

(D.2. 5) Reinforcement of Multiple Openings. It is 
preferred that multiple branch openings be spaced so 
that their reinforcement zones do not overlap. If closer 
spacing is necessary, the following requirement shall be 
met. The two or more openings shall be reinforced in 
accordance with (D.2), with a combined reinforcement 
that has a strength equal to the combined strength of the 
reinforcement that would be required for the separate 
openings. No portion of the cross section shall be consid- 
ered as applying to more than one opening, or be evalu- 
ated more than once in a combined area. 

When more than two adjacent openings are to be 
provided with a combined reinforcement, the minimum 
distance between centers of any two of these openings 
should preferably be at least l l / 2 times their average 
diameter, and the area of reinforcement between them 
shall be at least equal to 50% of the total required for 
these two openings. 

(D.2. 6) Rings, Pads, and Saddles. Reinforcement 
provided in the form of rings, pads, or saddles shall not 
be appreciably narrower at the side than at the crotch. 

A vent hole shall be provided at the ring, pad, or 
saddle to provide venting during welding and heat treat- 
ment. Refer to para. 127.4.8(E). 

Rings, pads, or saddles may be made in more than 
one piece, provided the joints between pieces have full 
thickness welds, and each piece is provided with a 
vent hole. 

(D.2. 7) Other Designs. The adequacy of designs 
to which the reinforcement requirements of para. 104.3 
cannot be applied shall be proven by burst or proof 
tests on scale models or on full size structures, or by 
calculations previously substantiated by successful ser- 
vice of similar design. 

(E) Branch Connections Subject to External Pressure 
Requiring Reinforcement. The reinforcement area in 
square inches (square millimeters) required for branch 
connections subject to external pressure shall be 

0.5t,„j,di (2 - sin a) 

where t m h is the required header wall thickness deter- 
mined for straight pipe under external pressure, using 
procedures outlined in UG-28, UG-29, UG-30, and UG-31 
of Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code. 

Procedures established heretofore for connections 
subject to internal pressure shall apply for connections 
subject to external pressure provided that D j u D ob , and 
t r are reduced to compensate for external corrosion, if 
required by design conditions. 



22 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831.1-2007 



(F) Branch Connections Subject to External Forces and 
Moments. The requirements of the preceding para- 
graphs are intended to assure safe performance of a 
branch connection subjected only to pressure. However, 
when external forces and moments are applied to a 
branch connection by thermal expansion and contrac- 
tion, by dead weight of piping, valves, and fittings, cov- 
ering and contents, or by earth settlement, the branch 
connection shall be analyzed considering the stress 
intensification factors as specified in Appendix D. Use 
of ribs, gussets, and clamps designed in accordance with 
para. 104.3.4 is permissible to stiffen the branch connec- 
tion, but their areas cannot be counted as contributing 
to the required reinforcement area of the branch con- 
nection. 

(G) Extruded Outlets Integrally Reinforced 

(G.l) The following definitions, modifications, 
notations, and requirements are specifically applicable 
to extruded outlets. The designer shall make proper wall 
thickness allowances in order that the required mini- 
mum reinforcement is assured over the design life of 
the system. 

(G.l) Definition. An extruded outlet header is 
defined as a header in which the extruded lip at the 
outlet has an altitude above the surface of the run w T hich 
is equal to or greater than the radius of curvature of the 
external contoured portion of the outlet; i.e., h > r . See 
nomenclature and Fig. 104.3.1(G). 

(G.3) These rules apply only to cases where the axis 
of the outlet intersects and is perpendicular to the axis 
of the run. These rules do not apply to any nozzle in 
which additional nonintegral material is applied in the 
form of rings, pads, or saddles. 

(GA) The notation used herein is illustrated in Fig. 
104.3.1(G). All dimensions are in inches (millimeters). 
D — outside diameter of run 

= outside diameter of branch pipe 
= corroded internal diameter of branch pipe 
corroded internal diameter of extruded 
outlet measured at the level of the outside 
surface of the run 
corroded internal diameter of run 
height of the extruded lip. This must be 
equal to or greater than r , except as shown 
in (G.4.2) below, 
altitude of reinforcement zone 
0.7 JW 

corroded finished thickness of extruded 
outlet measured at a height equal to r 
above the outside surface of the run 
actual thickness of branch wall, not 



d 
d b 
d c 



d r 



T = 



A = 



including corrosion allowance 
tit - A ~ actual thickness of run wall, not including 

the corrosion allowance 
l mb - A — required thickness of branch pipe 

according to wall thickness eq. (3) or (3A) 



in para. 104.1.2(A), but not including any 
thickness for corrosion 
tmh - A — required thickness of the run according to 
eq. (3) or (3A) in para. 104.1.2(A), but not 
including any allowance for corrosion 
r 1 = half width of reinforcement zone (equal 

to d c ) 
r — radius of curvature of external contoured 
portion of outlet measured in the plane 
containing the axes of the run and branch. 
This is subject to the following limitations: 

(GA.l) Minimum Radius. This dimension 
shall not be less than 0.05d except that on 
branch diameters larger than NFS 30, it 
need not exceed 1.50 in. (38 mm). 

(GA.l) Maximum Radius. For outlet pipe 
sizes 6 in. (150 mm) nominal and larger, 
this dimension shall not exceed O.lOd + 
0.50 in. (O.lOd + 12.7 mm). For outlet pipe 
sizes less than NFS 6, this dimension shall 
be not greater than 1.25 in. (32 mm). 

(GA.3) When the external contour con- 
tains more than one radius, the radius of 
any arc sector of approximately 45 deg 
shall meet the requirements of (G. 4.1) and 
(G.4.2) above. When the external contour 
has a continuously varying radius, the 
radius of curvature at every point on the 
contour shall meet the requirements of 
(G.4.1) and (G.4.2) above. 

(GAA) Machining other than grinding 
for weld cleanup shall not be employed 
in order to meet the above requirements. 

(G,5) Required Area. The required area is defined as 

A 7 = K (t mh - A) d c 

where K shall be taken as follows. 
For d/D greater than 0.60, 

K = 1.00 
For d/D greater than 0.15 and not exceeding 0.60, 

K = 0.6 + % d/D 
For d/D equal to or less than 0.15, 

K - 0.70 

The design must meet criteria that the reinforcement 
area defined in (G.6) below is not less than the 
required area. 

(G.6) Reinforcement Area. The reinforcement area 
shall be the sum of areas 



A] + A 2 + A 4 



as defined below. 



23 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2O07 



Fig. 1043.1(G) Reinforced Extruded Outlets 

Limits of <L 

reinforcement zone of branch 





■ See Note (2) 



(b> 



L — Allowance 



(c) See Note (3) 



Reinforcement 
zone 




(d) See Note (3} 



NOTES: 

(1) Taper bore inside diameter (if required) to match branch pipe 1:3 maximum taper. 

(2) Sketch to show method of establishing T when the taper encroaches on the crotch radius. 

(3) Sketch is drawn for condition where k= 1.00. 



24 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



(G.6.T) Area A\ is the area lying within the rein- 
forcement zone resulting from any excess thickness 
available in the run wall 

A-\ = d c (t n - t mh ) 

(G.6.2) Area A 2 is the area lying within the rein- 
forcement zone resulting from any excess thickness 
available in the branch pipe wall. 

A 2 = 2L 8 (f;, - t m \l) 

(G.6.3) Area A 4 is the area lying within the rein- 
forcement zone resulting from excess thickness available 
in the extruded outlet lip. 

A A = 2r [% - (t b - A)} 

(G.7) Reinforcement of Multiple Openings. It is pre- 
ferred that multiple branch openings be spaced so that 
their reinforcement zones do not overlap. If closer spac- 
ing is necessary, the following requirements shall be 
met. The two or more openings shall be reinforced in 
accordance with (G) with a combined reinforcement that 
has a strength equal to the combined strength of the 
reinforcement that would be required for separate open- 
ings. No portion of the cross section shall be considered 
as applying to more than one opening, or be evaluated 
more than once in a combined area. 

(G.8) In addition to the above, the manufacturer 
shall be responsible for establishing and marking on the 
section containing extruded outlets, the design pressure 
and temperature. The manufacturer's name or trade- 
marks shall be marked on the section. 

1043.3 Miters. Miter joints, and the terminology 
related thereto, are described in Appendix D. A widely 
spaced miter with 



0<9 /-deg 

shall be considered to be equivalent to a girth butt- 
welded joint, and the rules of this paragraph do not 
apply. Miter joints, and fabricated pipe bends consisting 
of segments of straight pipe welded together, with 
equal to or greater than this calculated value may be 
used within the limitations described below. 

(A) Pressure shall be limited to 10 psi (70 kPa) under 
the following conditions: 

(A.l) The assembly includes a miter weld with 0> 
22.5 deg, or contains a segment which has a dimension 

B < 6t n 

(A2) The thickness of each segment of the miter is 
not less than that determined in accordance with 
para. 104.1. 



(A3) The contained fluid is nonflammable, non- 
toxic, and incompressible, except for gaseous vents to 
atmosphere. 

(AA) The number of full pressure cycles is less than 
7,000 during the expected lifetime of the piping system. 

(A. 5) Full penetration welds are used in joining 
miter segments. 

(B) Pressure shall be limited to 1.00 psi (700 kPa) under 
the conditions defined in (A.2), (A.3), (A.4), and (A.5) 
above, in addition to the following: 

(B.l) the angle does not exceed 22.5 deg 

(B.2) the assembly does not contain any segment 
which has a dimension 

B < 6t n 

(G) Miters to be used in other services or at design 
pressures above 100 psi (700 kPa) shall meet the require- 
ments of para. 104.7. 

(C.l) When justification under para. 104.7 is based 
on comparable service conditions, such conditions must 
be established as comparable with respect to cyclic as 
well as static loadings. 

(C.l) When justification under para. 104.7 is based 
on an analysis, that analysis and substantiating tests 
shall consider the discontinuity stresses which exist at 
the juncture between segments; both for static (including 
brittle fracture) and cyclic internal pressure. 

(C3) The wall thickness, t s , of a segment of a miter 
shall not be less than specified in (C.3.1) or (C.3.2) below, 
depending on the spacing. 

(C.3.2) For closely spaced miter bends (see 
Appendix D for definition) 



ts = t m 



2 - r/R 
2(1 - r/R) 



(C.3.2) For widely spaced miters (see Appendix 
D for definition) 

t s = t m {\ + 0MJr/t s tan 0) 

(The above equation requires an iterative or quadratic 
solution for t s .) 

1043.4 Attachments. External and internal attach- 
ments to piping shall be designed so as not to cause 
flattening of the pipe, excessive localized bending 
stresses, or harmful thermal gradients in the pipe wall. 
It is important that such attachments be designed to 
minimize stress concentrations in applications where the 
number of stress cycles, due either to pressure or thermal 
effect, is relatively large for the expected life of the 
equipment. 

104.4 Closures 

104.4.1 General. Closures for pow T er piping sys- 
tems shall meet the applicable requirements of this Code 



25 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. rL^ . 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. * 



ASME B31.1-2007 



and shall comply with the requirements described in 
(A) or (B) below. Closures may be made 

(A) by use of closure fittings, such as threaded or 
welded plugs, caps, or blind flanges, manufactured in 
accordance with standards listed in Table 126.1, and 
used within the specified pressure-temperature rat- 
ings, or 

(B) in accordance with the rules contained in the 
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I, Power 
Boilers, PG-31, or Section VIII, Pressure Vessels, Division 
1, UG-34 and UW-13, calculated from 



t r . 



t + A 



where 

f = pressure design thickness, calculated for the 
given closure shape and direction of loading 
using appropriate equations and procedures in 
Section I or Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 

The definition of A and the symbols used in determining 
t shall have the definitions shown herein, instead of 
those given in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code. 

Attachment of a welded flat permanent closure with 
only a single fillet weld is not permitted. 

104.4.2 Openings in Closures. Openings in closures 
may be made by welding, extruding, or threading. 
Attachment to the closure shall be in accordance with 
the limitations provided for such connections in para. 
104.3.1 for branch connections. If the size of the opening 
is greater than one-half of the inside diameter of the 
closure, the opening shall be designed as a reducer in 
accordance with para. 104.6. 

Other openings in closures shall be reinforced in accor- 
dance with the requirements of reinforcement for a 
branch connection. The total cross-sectional area 
required for reinforcement in any plane passing through 
the center of the opening and normal to the surface of 
the closure shall not be less than the quantity of d 5 t, 
where 

d$ = diameter of the finished opening, in. (mm) 
t = as defined in (B) above 

104.5 Pressure Design of Flanges and Blanks 

104.5.1 Flanges — General 

(A) Flanges of sizes NPS 24 and smaller, that are man- 
ufactured in accordance with ASME Bl.6.1 and B16.5, 
shall be considered suitable for use at the primary ser- 
vice ratings (allowable pressure at service temperature) 
except the slip-on flanges to ASME B16.5 shall be limited 
in application to no higher than Class 300 primary pres- 
sure service rating. Refer to para. 127.4.4. 

For flanges larger than NPS 24, and manufactured in 
accordance with the Specifications and Standards listed 
in Table 126.1, the designer is cautioned about the 



dimensionally different designs that are available, as 
well as the limitations of their application. 

Flanges not made in accordance with the Specifica- 
tions and Standards listed in Table 126,1 shall be 
designed in accordance with Section VIII, Division 1 of 
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, except that 
the requirements for fabrication, assembly, inspection, 
and testing, and the pressure and temperature limits for 
materials of this Code for Pressure Piping shall govern. 
Certain notations used in the ASME Code, namely, P, 
S a , Si 1; and S/> shall have the meanings described below 
instead of those given in the ASME Code. All other 
notations shall be as defined in the ASME Code. 
P — design pressure, psi (kPa) (see paras. 101.2.2 

and 101.2.4) 
S n = bolt design stress at atmospheric temperature, 

psi (kPa) 
S h = bolt design stress at design temperature, psi 

(kPa) 
Sf = allowable stress for flange material or pipe, psi 
(kPa) (see para. 102.3.1 and Allowable Stress 
Tables) (stress values converted from MPa to 
kPa) 

For certain specific applications, see the limitations 
of paras. 122.1.1(F), (G), and (H). 

(B) These flange design rules are not applicable to 
flat face designs employing full face gaskets that extend 
beyond the bolts. 

(C) The bolt design stress in (A) above shall be as 
established in Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Code, Appendix P for ferrous mate- 
rials. 

(D) Application of bolting materials for flanged joints 
is covered in para. 108.5. 

104.5.2 Blind Flanges 

(A) Blind flanges manufactured in accordance with 
the standards listed in Table 126.1 shall be considered 
suitable for use at the pressure-temperature rating speci- 
fied by such standards. 

(B) The required thickness of blind flanges not manu- 
factured in accordance with standards in Table 126.1 
shall be calculated from eq. (6). 



L. = t + A 



(6) 



where 
t = pressure design thickness as calculated for the 
given style of blind flange from the appropriate 
equations for bolted flat cover plates in Section 
I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 
Certain notations used in these equations, 
namely, P and SE [see para. 104.1.2(A), footnote 
3], shall be considered to have the meanings 
described in para. 104.1.2(A) instead of those 
given in the ASME Code. All other notations 
shall be as defined in the ASME Code. 



26 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 104.53 Types of Permanent Blanks 




104.53 Blanks 

(A) The required thickness of permanent blanks (see 
Fig. 104.5.3) shall be calculated from the equation 



t + A 



where 
t = 



pressure design thickness as calculated from 
eq. (7) 



<k 



3P 



V 16SE 



(7) 



See para. 104.1.2(A), footnote 3. 
d 6 = inside diameter of gasket for raised or flat 
(plain) face flanges, or the gasket pitch diameter 
for retained gasketed flanges, in. (mm) 

(B) Blanks to be used for test purposes only shall have 
a minimum thickness not less than the pressure design 
thickness t specified above except that P shall be not 
less than the test pressure and SE [see para. 104.1.2(A), 
footnote 3] may be taken as the specified minimum 
yield strength of the blank material if the test fluid is 
incompressible. 

(C) Attachment of a welded flat permanent blank 
with only a single fillet weld is not permitted. 



104.6 Reducers 

Flanged reducer fittings manufactured in accordance 
with the Standards listed in Table 126.1 shall be consid- 
ered suitable for use at the specified pressure- 
temperature ratings. Where butt welding reducers are 
made to a nominal pipe thickness, the reducers shall be 
considered suitable for use with pipe of the same nomi- 
nal thickness. 

104.7 Other Pressure-Containing Components 

104.7.1 Pressure-containing components manu- 
factured in accordance with the standards listed in Table 
126.1 shall be considered suitable for use under normal 
operating conditions at or below the specified pressure- 
temperature ratings. However, the user is cautioned that 
where certain standards or manufacturers may impose 
more restrictive allowances for variation from normal 
operation than those established by this Code, the more 
restrictive allowances shall apply. 

104.7.2 Specially Designed Components. The pres- 
sure design of components not covered by the standards 
listed in Table 126.1 or for which design formulas and 
procedures are not given in this Code shall be based on 
calculations consistent with the design criteria of this 
Code. These calculations shall be substantiated by one 



27 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



or more of the means stated in (A), (B), (C), and (D) M A = 

below. 

(A) extensive, successful service experience under 
comparable conditions with similarly proportioned Sj : — 
components of the same or similar material 

(B) experimental stress analysis, such as described in S L = 
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, 
Division 2, Appendix 6 Z = 

(C) proof test in accordance with either ASME B16.9; 
MSS SP-97; or the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code, Section I, A-22 

(D) detailed stress analysis, such as finite element 
method, in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pres- 
sure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2, Appendix 4, 
except that the basic material allowable stress from the 
Allowable Stress Tables of Appendix A shall be used in 
place of S m 

For any of (A) through (D) above, it is permissible to 
interpolate between sizes, wall thicknesses, and pressure (SI Units) 
classes and to determine analogies among related 
materials. 

Calculations and documentation showing compliance 
with this paragraph shall be available for the owner's 
approval, and, for boiler external piping, they shall be 
available for the Authorized Inspector's review. 

104.8 Analysis of Piping Components 

To validate a design under the rules in this paragraph, 
the complete piping system must be analyzed between 
anchors for the effects of thermal expansion, weight, 
other sustained loads, and other occasional loads. Each 
component in the system must meet the limits in this 
paragraph. For pipe and fittings, the pressure term in 
eqs. (11) and (12) may be replaced with the alternative 
term for S\ v as defined in para. 102.3.2(D). The pressure 
term in eqs. (11) and (12) may not apply for bellows 
and expansion joints. When evaluating stresses in the 
vicinity of expansion joints, consideration must be given 
to actual cross-sectional areas that exist at the expan- 
sion joint. 

104.8.1 Stress Due to Sustained Loads. The effects 
of pressure, weight and other sustained mechanical 
loads shall meet the requirements of eq. (11). 

(US. Customary Units) (SI Units) 



resultant moment loading on cross section due 
to weight and other sustained loads, in-lb 
(mm-N) (see para. 104.8.4) 
basic material allowable stress at maximum 
(hot) temperature [see para. 102.3.2(D)] 
sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pres- 
sure, weight, and other sustained loads 
section modulus, in. 3 (mm 3 ) (see para. 104.8.4) 

104.8.2 Stress Due to Occasional Loads. The effects (07) 
of pressure, weight, other sustained loads, and occa- 
sional loads including earthquake shall meet the require- 
ments of eq. (12). 



(U.S. Customary Units) 



PD 075M A 0.75iM B 

ir + ^^~ + — — - kSb 



PD n 



Q.75iM A 0.75/Mb 



(1 000)4f„ 



< kS h 



(12A) 



(12B) 



Terms same as para. 104.8.1, except 

k = 1.15 for occasional loads acting for no more 
than 8 hr at any one time and no more than 
800 hr/year [see para. 102.3.3(A)] 
= 1.2 for occasional loads acting for no more than 
1 hr at any one time and no more than 80 hr/ 
year [see para. 102.3.3(A)] 
M B = resultant moment loading on the cross section 
due to occasional loads, such as thrusts from 
relief/ safety valve loads, from pressure and 
flow transients, and earthquake, in.-lb (mm-N) 
[see paras. 102.3.3(A) and 104.8.4] 

104.83 Stress Due to Displacement Load Ranges. 

The effects of thermal expansion and other cyclic loads 
shall meet the requirements of eq. (13). 



(LIS. Customary Units) 



iM c 



(13A) 



(07) 



S, = 



PD 0.75iM A 



(HA) 



1 OOO(iMc) 



<S A 



(13B) 



(SI Units) 



S L = 



PD n 



(1 000)4f„ 



+ 2£^ gl . 0S; , (11B) 



where 

i = stress intensification factor (see Appendix D). 
The product 0.75i shall never be taken as less 
than 1.0. 



Terms same as para. 104.8.1, except 
Mq = resultant moment loading range on the cross 
section due to the reference displacement load 
range. For flexibility analyses, the resultant 
moment due to the ambient to normal 
operating load range and eq. (1 A) are typically 
used, in.-lb (mm-N) [see paras. 102.3.2(B), 
104.8.4, and 119.7]. 



28 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 104.8.4 Cross Section Resultant 
Moment Loading 



' M v 







104.8.4 Moments and Section Modulus 
(A) For the purposes of eqs. (11), (12), and (13), the 
resultant moments for straight through components, 
curved pipe, or welding elbows may be calculated as 
follows: 



where 

;' = 

Z = 



Mj = (M^ + M/ + M»; 2 ) 1/2 



A t B, or C as defined in paras. 104.8.1, 104.8.2, 

and 104.8.3 

section modulus of piping, in. 3 (mm 3 ) 



(B) For full outlet branch connections, calculate the 
resultant moment of each leg separately in accordance 
with (A) above. Use Z, section modulus, in eqs. (11) 
through (13) as applicable to branch or run pipe. 
Moments are taken at the junction point of the legs. See 
Fig. 104.8.4. 

(C) For reduced outlets, calculate the resultant 
moment of each leg separately in accordance with (A) 
above. Moments are to be taken at the junction point of 
the legs, unless the designer can demonstrate the validity 
of a less conservative method. See Fig. 104.8.4. For the 
reduced outlet branch, except for branch connections 
covered by Fig. D-l, 

M A , M B , 

M c 



Wif 



- M l/3 2 + Mj 



and 



— Wb 2 te (effective section modulus) 



r b = branch mean cross-sectional radius, in. 

(mm) 
t e = effective branch wall thickness, in. (mm) 
= lesser of t n n or it nb in eq. (13), or lesser of 

t n } t or 0.75#„b/ where 0.75?' > 1.0, in eqs. 

(11) and (12) 



For the reduced outlet branch connections covered by 
Fig. D-l, 

M A/ M B , 

Mc = ' ' 



N /M x3 



+ M v . 



and 



Z 



Tr 'm T b 



If L 3 in Fig . D-l sketches (a), (b), and (c) equals or exceeds 
0.5 Jr{T b/ then r' m can be taken as the radius to the center 
of Tjj when calculating the section modulus and the 
stress intensification factor. For such a case, the transi- 
tion between branch pipe and nozzle must be evaluated 
separately from the branch connection. 

For the main run outlets, 

M A , M B , , 



V M * 



+ M y r + M- 



- v M ^ 



+ AV ■ 



■M./ 



and 
Z 



= section modulus of pipe, in. 3 (mm 3 ) 

PART 3 

SELECTION AND LIMITATIONS OF PIPING 
COMPONENTS 



105 PIPE 

105.1 General 

Pipe conforming to the standards and specifications 
listed in Appendix A shall be used within the range 
of temperatures for which allowable stresses are given 
within the limitations specified herein. 

105*2 Metallic Pipe 

105.2.1 Ferrous Pipe 

(A) Furnace butt welded steel pipe shall not be used 
for flammable, combustible or toxic fluids. 

(B) Ductile iron pipe may be used for design pressures 
within the ratings established by the standards and spec- 
ifications listed in Tables 126.1 and A-5 and Notes 
thereto, and the limitations herein and in para. 124.6. 
Ductile iron pipe shall not be used for flammable, com- 
bustible, or toxic fluids. Temperature limits for the use 
of ductile iron pipe are often determined by the type of 
elastomeric gasket used in the pipe joints, or the lining 
material used on the internal surface of the pipe. It is 
the reponsibility of the Designer to determine whether 
these components are suitable for use in the particular 
application being considered. See para. 106.1(E). 

105.2.2 Nonferrous Pipe 

(A) Copper and brass pipe for water and steam ser- 
vice may be used for design pressures up to 250 psi 
(1 750 kPa) and for design temperatures to 406°F (208°C). 



29 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



(B) Copper and brass pipe for air may be used in 
accordance with the allowable stresses given in the 
Allowable Stress Tables. 

(C) Copper tubing may be used for dead-end instru- 
ment service with the limitations stated in para. 
1223.2(D). 

(D) Copper, copper alloy or aluminum alloy pipe or 
tube may be used under the conditions stated in para. 
124.7. Copper, copper alloy, or aluminum pipe or tube 
shall not be used for flammable, combustible, or toxic 
fluids except as permitted in paras. 122.7 and 122.8. 

105.3 Nonmetallic Pipe 

(A) Plastic pipe may be used for water and nonflam- 
mable liquids where experience or tests have demon- 
strated that the plastic pipe is suitable for the service 
conditions, and the pressure and temperature conditions 
are within the manufacturer's recommendations. Until 
such time as mandatory rules are established for these 
materials, pressure shall be limited to 150 psi (1 000 kPa) 
and temperature to 140°F (60°C) for water service. Pres- 
sure and temperature limits for other services shall be 
based on the hazards involved, but in no application 
shall they exceed 150 psi (1 000 kPa) and 140°F (60°C). 
For nonmandatory rules for nonmetallic piping, see 
Appendix III of this Code. 

(B) Reinforced thermosetting resin pipe may be used, 
in addition to the services listed in para. 105.3(A), in 
buried flammable and combustible liquid service subject 
to the limitations described in para. 122.7.3(F). 

CO Reinforced concrete pipe may be used in accor- 
dance with the specifications listed in Table 126.1 for 
water service up to 150°F (65°C). 

(D) A flexible nonmetallic pipe or tube assembly may 
be used in applications where 

(D.l) satisfactory service experience exists 

(D.2) the pressure and temperature conditions are 

within the manufacturer's recommendations 

(D.3) the conditions described in paras. 104.7, 124.7, 

and 124.9 are met 

(E) Polyethylene pipe may be used, in addition to the 
services listed in para. 105.3(A), in buried flammable 
and combustible liquid and gas service subject to the 
limitations described in paras. 122.7.2(D) and 
122.8.1(8.4). 

(F) Metallic piping lined with nonmetals may be used 
for fluids which would corrode or be contaminated by 
unprotected metal See para. 122.9 and Appendix III. 

106 FITTINGS, BENDS, AND INTERSECTIONS 
106.1 Fittings 

(A) Threaded, flanged, grooved and shouldered 
socket-welding, buttwelding, compression, push-on, 
mechanical gland, and solder-joint fittings made in 
accordance with the applicable standards in Table 126.1 



may be used in power piping systems within the mate- 
rial, size, pressure, and temperature limitations of those 
standards, and within any further limitations specified 
in this Code. Material for fittings in flammable, combus- 
tible, or toxic fluid systems shall in addition conform 
to the requirements of paras. 122.7 and 122.8. 

(B) Fittings not covered by the Standards listed in 
Table 126.1 may be used if they conform to para. 104.7. 

CO Cast buttwelding steel fittings not covered by the 
dimensional standards listed in Table 126.1 may be used 
up to the manufacturer's pressure and temperature rat- 
ings, provided they are radiographed in accordance with 
the method of ASTM E 94 and meet the acceptance 
requirements of ASTM E 446, E 186, and E 280 as applica- 
ble for the thickness being radiographed. 

(D) Fabricated ends for grooved and shouldered type 
joints are acceptable, provided they are attached by full 
penetration welds, double fillet welds, or by threading. 
Fabricated ends attached by single fillet welds are not 
acceptable. 

(E) Elastomeric gasket bell end fittings complying 
with applicable standards listed in Table 126.1 may be 
used for water service. Temperature limits for gray and 
ductile iron fittings using ANSI/AWWA. C111/A21.11 
joints are 65°C (150°F) for push-on joints and 49°C 
(120°F) for mechanical joints, based on standard water 
service gasket and lining materials. Fittings of this type 
using alternative materials, as allowed by AWWA CI 11, 
may be used for nonflammable, nontoxic service to 
100°C (212°F), where suitability for the fluid and 
operating conditions has been established by test or 
experience. Temperature limits for bell and spigot fit- 
tings in nonmetallic pipe shall be per para. 105.3. 

106.2 Bends and Intersections 

Bends and extruded branch connections may be used 
when designed in accordance with the provisions of 
paras. 104.2 and 104.3, respectively. Miters may be used 
within the limitations of para. 104.3.3. 

1063 Pipe Couplings and Unions 

(A) Cast iron and malleable iron pipe couplings shall 
be limited in application as referenced in paras. 124.4 
and 124.5, respectively. 

(B) Straight thread couplings shall not be used. 

CO Class 3000 steel pipe unions constructed in accor- 
dance with the MSS standard SP-83 may be used, pro- 
vided the system design conditions are within the 
standard's listed pressure-temperature ratings. 

106.4 Flexible Metal Hose Assembly 

(A) Flexible metal hose assemblies may be used to 
provide flexibility in a piping system, to isolate or control 
vibration, or to compensate for misalignment. The 
design conditions shall be in accordance with para. 101 



30 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



and within the limitations of the assembly as recom- 
mended by the manufacturer. The basis for their applica- 
tion shall include the following service conditions: 
thermal cycling, bend radius, cycle life, and the possibil- 
ity of corrosion and erosion. Installation shall be limited 
to a single-plane bend, free from any torsion effects 
during service conditions and nonoperating periods. 
Type of end-connector components shall be consistent 
with the requirements of this Code. 

(B) A flexible metal hose assembly, consisting of one 
continuous length of seamless or butt welded tube with 
helical or annular corrugations, is not limited as to appli- 
cation in piping systems that are within the scope of 
this Code, provided that the conditions described in 
(A) above are met. For application subject to internal 
pressure the flexible element shall be contained within 
one or more separate layers of braided metal perma- 
nently attached at both coupling ends by welding or 
brazing. For application in toxic fluid systems, it is rec- 
ommended that the designer also review the standards 
published by the relevant fluid industry for any addi- 
tional safety and materials requirements that may be 
necessary. 

(C) A flexible metal hose assembly consisting of 
wound interlocking metal strips may be applied to atmo- 
spheric vent systems only and shall not be used in sys- 
tems which convey high temperature, flammable, toxic, 
or searching-type fluids. Where applicable, as deter- 
mined by the designer and within the limitations 
described in para. 122.6 and those imposed by the manu- 
facturer, this type of hose assembly may be used at 
pressure relieving devices. 

107 VALVES 

107.1 General 

(A) Valves complying with the standards and specifi- 
cations listed in Table 126.1 shall be used within the 
specified pressure-temperature ratings. 

(B) Valves not complying with (A) above shall be of 
a design, or equal to the design, which the manufacturer 
recommends for the service as stipulated in para. 102.2.2. 

(C) Some valves are capable of sealing simultaneously 
against a pressure differential between an internal cavity 
of the valve and the adjacent pipe in both directions. 
Where liquid is entrapped in such a valve and is subse- 
quently heated, a dangerous rise in pressure can result. 
Where this condition is possible, the Owner shall pro- 
vide means in design, installation, and /or operation to 
assure that the pressure in the valve shall not exceed 
the rated pressure for the attained temperature. A relief 
device used solely for the overpressure protection from 
such entrapped fluid and conforming to (A) or (B) above 
need not comply with the requirements of para. 107.8. 
Any penetration of the pressure retaining wall of the 
valve shall meet the requirements of this Code. 



(D) Only valves designed such that the valve stem is 
retained from blowout by an assembly which functions 
independently of the stem seal retainer shall be used. 

(E) Materials used for pressure retention for valves 
in flammable, combustible, or toxic fluid systems shall 
in addition conform to the requirements of paras. 122.7 
and 122.8. 

(F) When selecting diaphragm valves in accordance 
with MSS standard SP-88, the designer shall specify 
the proper category pressure-temperature rating for the 
system design conditions, and should consider the 
expected in-service and shelf lives of the diaphragm 
material. 

(G) Pressure regulating valves may have pressure rat- 
ings in accordance with ANSI/FCI Standard 79-1. Regu- 
lators having two static pressure ratings, i.e., inlet vs. 
outlet, shall be installed with adequate overpressure pro- 
tection devices to prevent excessive downstream pres- 
sure resulting from any system failure. Refer to paras. 
122.5 and 122.14. 

107.2 Marking 

Each valve shall bear the manufacturer's name or 
trademark and reference symbol to indicate the service 
conditions for which the manufacturer guarantees the 
valve. The marking shall be in accordance with 
ASME B16.5 and B16.34. 

1073 Ends 

Valves may be used with flanged, threaded, butt weld- 
ing, socket welding, or other ends in accordance with 
applicable standards as specified in para. 107.1(A). 

107.4 Stem Threads 

Where threaded stem valves are used, stem threads 
may be internal or external with reference to the valve 
bonnet. Outside screw and yoke design shall be used 
for valves NPS 3 and larger for pressures above 600 psi 
(4 135 kPa). This requirement is not applicable to quar- 
ter-turn valves that comply with all other provisions of 
this Code. 

107.5 Bonnet joints 

Bonnet joints may be of flanged, welded, pressure 
seal, union type, or other design, except that screwed 
bonnet connections in which the seal depends on a steam 
tight threaded joint shall not be permitted as source 
valves in steam service at pressures above 250 psi 
(1 750 kPa). 

107.6 Bypasses 

Sizes of bypasses shall be in accordance with 
MSS SP-45 as a minimum standard. Pipe for bypasses 
shall be at least schedule 80 seamless, and of a material 
of the same nominal chemical composition and physical 
properties as that used for the main line. Bypasses may 
be integral or attached. 



31 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



107.8 Safety, Safety Relief, and Relief Valves 

107.8.1 General. Safety, safety relief, and relief 
valves shall conform to the requirements specified in 
this Code for flanges, valves, and fittings for the pres- 
sures and temperatures to which they may be subjected. 

107.8.2 Safety, Safety Relief, and Relief Valves on 
Boiler External Piping. Safety, safety relief, and relief 
valves on boiler external piping shall be in accordance 
with para. 122.1.7(D.l) of this Code. 

(07) 107.8.3 Safety, Safety Relief, and Relief Valves on 

Monboiler External Piping. Safety, safety relief, and relief 
valves on nonboiler external piping (except for reheat 
safety valves) shall be in accordance with the require- 
ments of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 
Section VIII, Division 1, UG-126 through UG-133. For 
valves with set pressures 15 psig [100 kPa (gage)] and 
lower, an ASME Code Stamp and capacity certification 
are not required. Reheat safety valves shall be in accor- 
dance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code, Section I, PG-67 through PG-73. 

107.8.4 Monmandatory Appendix. For nonmanda- 
tory rules for the design of safety valve installations, 
see Appendix II of this Code. 

108 PIPE FLANGES, BLANKS, FLANGE FACINGS, 
GASKETS, AND BOLTING 

108.1 Flanges 

Flanges shall conform to the design requirements of 
para. 104.5.1 or to the standards listed in Table 126.1. 
They may be integral or shall be attached to pipe by 
threading, welding, brazing, or other means within the 
applicable standards specified in Table 126.1. 

108.2 Blanks 

Blanks shall conform to the design requirements of 
para. 104.5.3. 

1083 Flange Facings 

Flange facings shall be in accordance with the applica- 
ble standards listed in Tables 112 and 126.1. When bolt- 
ing Class 150 standard steel flanges to flat face cast iron 
flanges, the steel flange shall be furnished with a flat 
face. Steel flanges of Class 300 raised face standard may 
be bolted to Class 250 raised face cast iron. 

108.4 Gaskets 

Gaskets shall be made of materials which are not 
injuriously affected by the fluid or by temperature. They 
shall be in accordance with Table 112. 

108.5 U.S. Customary Bolting 

108.5.1 General 

(A) Bolts, bolt studs, nuts, and washers shall comply 
with applicable standards and specifications listed in 



Tables 112 and 126.1. Bolts and bolt studs shall extend 
completely through the nuts. 

(B) Washers, when used under nuts, shall be of forged 
or rolled material with steel washers being used under 
steel nuts and bronze washers under bronze nuts. 

(C) Nuts shall be provided in accordance with the 
requirements of the specification for the bolts and bolt 
studs. 

(D) Alloy steel bolt studs shall be either threaded full 
length or provided with reduced shanks of a diameter 
not less than that at the root of the threads. They shall 
have ASME heavy hexagonal nuts. Headed alloy bolts 
shall not be used with other than steel or stainless steel 
flanges. 

(E) All alloy steel bolt studs and carbon steel bolts or 
bolt studs and accompanying nuts shall be threaded in 
accordance with ASME Bl.l Class 2A for external 
threads and Class 2B for internal threads. Threads shall 
be the coarse-thread series except that alloy steel bolting 
1 % in. and larger in diameter shall be the 8-pitch-thread 
series. 

(F) Carbon steel headed bolts shall have square, hex, 
or heavy hex heads (ASME B18.2.1) and shall be used 
with hex or heavy hex nuts (ASME B18.2.2). For bolt 
sizes smaller than % in., square or heavy hex heads and 
heavy hex nuts are recommended. For bolt sizes larger 
than l l / 2 in-, bolt studs with a hex or heavy hex nut on 
each end are recommended. For cast iron or bronze 
flanges using % in. and larger carbon steel headed bolts, 
square nuts may be used. 

108.5.2 For the various combinations of flange 
materials, the selection of bolting materials and related 
rules concerning flange faces and gaskets shall be in 
accordance with para. 108 and Table 112. 

108.5.3 Bolting requirements for components not 
covered by para. 108.5.2 shall be in accordance with 
para. 102.2.2. 

108.6 Metric Bolting 

108.6.1 General. The use of metric bolts, bolt studs, 
nuts, and washers shall conform to the general require- 
ments of para. 108.5, but the following are allowed: 

(A) Threads shall be in accordance with 
ASME B1.13M, M profile, with tolerance Class 6g for 
external threads and Class 6H for internal threads. 

(B) Threads shall be the coarse- thread series for size 
M68 and smaller, and 6 mm fine-pitch for M70 and larger 
sizes, except that alloy steel bolting M30 and larger shall 
be the 3 mm fine-pitch. 

(C) Nuts shall be heavy hex in accordance with 
ASME B18.2.4.6M. Headed bolts shall be either hex or 
heavy hex in accordance with ASME B18.2.3.5M and 
B18.2.3.6M, respectively. Heavy hex heads are recom- 
mended for headed bolt sizes M18 and smaller. 



32 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



(D) Bolt studs are recommended in lieu of headed 
bolts for sizes M39 and larger. 

108.6.2 Responsibilities When Specifying or 
Allowing Metric Bolting 

(A) The piping designer is responsible for specifying 
the metric bolt size to be used with each class and size 
of flange. 

(B) The designer shall ensure that the selected metric 
size will fit within the flange bolt holes, and that ade- 
quate space exists for bolt heads, nuts, and the assem- 
bly tool 

(C) In those instances where the selected metric bolt 
size is smaller in root thread area than the corresponding 
U.S. Customary size, the designer shall ensure that the 
selected size is capable of the required assembly torque 
and of producing the required gasket loading to ade- 
quately seal at design pressure. Further, the designer 
shall ensure sufficient contact area exists between the 
flange metal and both the nut and bolt head to withstand 
the required bolt loading. If not, larger bolting or a 
higher flange class shall be selected. 

PART 4 

SELECTION AND LIMITATIONS OF PIPING JOINTS 

110 PIPING JOINTS 

The. type of piping joint used shall be suitable for the 
design conditions and shall be selected with consider- 
ation of joint tightness, mechanical strength, and the 
nature of the fluid handled. 

111 WELDED JOINTS 

111.1 General 

Welded joints may be used in any materials allowed 
by this Code for which it is possible to qualify WPSs, 
welders, and welding operators in conformance with 
the rules established in Chapter V. 

All welds shall be made in accordance with the appli- 
cable requirements of Chapter V. 

111.2 Butt Welds 

111.2.1 Design of Butt Welds. The design of butt 
welds shall include the evaluation of any expected joint 
misalignment [para. 127.3(C)], which may result from 
specification of joint geometries at variance with the 
recommendations of this Code. 

111.2.2 Backing Rings for Butt Welds. If backing 
rings are used in services where their presence will, result 
in severe corrosion or erosion, the backing ring shall be 
removed and the internal surface ground smooth. In 
such services, where it is impractical to remove the back- 
ing ring, consideration shall be given to welding the 
joint without a backing ring, or with a consumable type 
insert ring. 



111.3 Socket Welds 

1 1 1.3.1 Restrictions on size of socket welded com- 
ponents are given in paras. 104.3.1 (B.4), 122.1.1(H), and 
122.8.2(C). Special consideration should be given to fur- 
ther restricting the use of socket welded piping joints 
where temperature or pressure cycling or severe vibra- 
tion is expected to occur or where the service may accel- 
erate crevice corrosion. 

111.3.2 Dimensions for sockets of socket welding 
components shall conform to ASME B16.5 for flanges 
and ASME B16.ll for fittings. Assembly of socket 
welded joints shall be made in accordance with para. 
127.3(E). 

111.3.3 A branch connection socket welded 
directly into the w 7 all of the run pipe shall be in accor- 
dance with requirements of para. 104.3.1 (B.4). 

111.3.4 Drains and bypasses may be attached to 
a fitting or valve by socket welding, provided the socket 
depth, bore diameter, and shoulder thickness conform 
to the requirements of ASME B16.ll. 

111.4 Fillet Welds 

Fillet welds shall have dimensions not less than the 
minimum dimensions shown in Figs. 127.4.4(B), 
127.4.4(C), and 127.4.8(D). 

111.5 Seal Welds 

Seal welding of connections, including threaded 
joints, may be used to avoid joint leakage but the welding 
shall not be considered as contributing any strength to 
the joint. Also see para. 127.4.5. Seal welded threaded 
joints are subject to the limitations of para. 114. 

112 FLANGED JOINTS 

Flanged joints shall conform to paras. 108 and 110 
and Table 112. 



113 EXPANDED OR ROLLED JOINTS 

Expanded or rolled joints may be used where experi- 
ence or test has demonstrated that the joint is suitable 
for the design conditions and where adequate provisions 
are made to prevent separation of the joint. 

114 THREADED JOINTS 

Threaded joints may be used within the limitations 
specified in para. 106 and within the other limitations 
specified herein. 

114.1 

All threads on piping components shall be taper pipe 
threads in accordance with the applicable standards 
listed in Table 126.1. Threads other than taper pipe 



33 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



(07) 



Table 112 Piping Flange Bolting, Facing, and Gasket Requirements 

(Refer to Paras. 108, 110, and 112) 



Flange A Mating With Flange B 



Item 



Flange A 



Flange B 



Bolting 



Flange Facings 



Gaskets 



Ca) 



Class 25 cast iron 



Class 25 cast iron 



(a)(1) "Low strength" (a)(1) Flat 

[Notes (1), (2), and (3)] 

(a)(2) "Higher strength" or (a)(2) Flat 

"low strength" 
[Notes (1) through (5)] 



(a)(1) Flat ring nonmetallic to 
ASME B16.21, Table 1 

(a)(2) Full face nonmetallic to 
ASME B16.21, Table 1 



(b) 



Class 125 cast iron 



Class 125 cast iron, 

Class 150 steel and stainless 

steel (excluding MSS SP-51), 

or 
Class 150 ductile iron 



"Low strength" 
[Notes (1), (2), and (3)] 



Flat 



Flat ring; nonmetallic to 
ASME B16.21, Table 2 



(c) Class 125 cast iron, 

Class 150 bronze, 
MSS SP-51 stainless steel, or 
Nonmetallic 



Class 125 cast iron, 

Class 150 bronze, 

Class 150 steel and stainless 

steel (including MSS SP-51), 
Class 150 ductile iron, or 
Nonmetallic 



"Higher strength" or "low 
strength" [Notes (1) 
through (7)] 



Fiat 



Full face nonmetallic to 
ASME B16.21, Table 2 
[Notes (8), (9)] 



(d) Class 150 steel and stainless 

steel (excluding MSS SP-51), 
or 
Class 150 ductile iron 



Class 150 steel and stainless 
steel (excluding MSS SP-51), 
or 

Class 150 ductile iron 



(d)(1) "Low strength" 

[Notes (1), (2), and (3)] 



(d)(2) "Higher strength" 

[Notes (3), (4), and (5)] 



(d)(3) "Higher strength" or 
"low strength" 
[Notes (1) through (5)] 



(d)(1) Raised or flat on one 
or both flanges 



(d)(2) Raised or flat on one 
or both flanges 



(d)(3) Flat 



(d)(1) Flat ring nonmetallic to 
ASME B16.5, Annex C, 
Group la, Table CI 
[Note (10)] 

(d)(2) Ring style to ASME 
B16.5, Annex C, 
Groups la and lb, 
Table CI [Notes (10) 
and (11)] 

(d)(3) Full face 

nonmetallic to 

ASME B16.5, Annex C, 

Group la material 



(e) Class 150 steel and stainless 

steel (excluding MSS SP-51) 



Class 150 steel and stainless 
steel (excluding MSS SP-51) 



"Higher strength" 

[Notes (3), (A), and (5)] 



Ring joint 



Ring joint to ASME B16.20 



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(07) 



Table 112 Piping Flange Bolting, Facing, and Gasket Requirements (Cont'd) 
(Refer to Paras. 108, 110, and 112) 



Flange A Mating With Flange B 



Item 



Flange A 



CO 



Class 250 cast iron 



(g) 



Class 300 bronze 



(h) 



Class 300 ductile Iron 



Flange 8 



Bolting 



Flange Facings 



Gaskets 



Class 250 cast iron, 

Class 300 steel and stainless 

steel, or 
Class 300 ductile iron 



(f)(1) "Low strength" 

[Notes (1), (2), and (3)] 

(f)(2) "Higher strength" or 
"low strength" 
[Notes (1) through (5)] 



(f)(1) Raised or flat on one 
or both flanges 

(f)(2) Flat 



(f)(1) Flat ring nonmetallic to 
AS/VIE B16.21, Table 3 

(f)(2) Full face nonmetallic to 
ASME B16.21 Table 6 
(Class 300) 



Class 250 cast iron, 

Class 300 bronze, 

Class 300 steel and stainless 

steel, or 
Class 300 ductile iron 



"Higher strength" or "low 
strength" [Notes (1) 
through (7)] 



Rat 



Full face nonmetallic to 
ASA/IE B16.21, Table 11 
[Note (8)] 



Class 300 steel and stainless 

steel, or 
Class 300 ductile iron 



(h)(1) "Low strength" 

[Notes (1), (2), and (3)] 



(h)(2) "Higher strength" 

[Notes (3), (4) and (5)] 

(h)(3) "Higher strength" or 

"low strength" 
[Notes (1) through (5)] 



(h)(1) Raised or flat on one or 
both flanges 



(h)(2) Raised or flat on one or 
both flanges 



(h)(3) Flat 



(h)(1) Flat ring nonmetallic to 
ASME B16.5, Annex C, 
Group la, Table CI 
[Note (10)] 

(h)(2) Ring style to 

ASME B16.5, Annex C 
[Notes (10) and (11)] 

(h)(3) Full face 

nonmetallic to 
ASME B16.5, Annex C, 
Group la material 
[Note (10)] 



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(07) 



Table 112 Piping Flange Bolting, Facing, and Gasket Requirements (Cont'd) 

(Refer to Paras. 108, 110, and 112) 



Flange A Mating With Flange B 



Item 



Flange A 



Flange B 



Bolting 



Flange Facings 



Gaskets 



Class 300 and higher classes, 
steel and stainless steel 



Class 300 and higher classes, 
steel and stainless steel 



(0(1) "Low strength" 

[Notes (1), (2), and (3 



(i)(2) "Higher strength" 

[Notes (3), (4), and (5)] 



(0(3) "Higher strength" 

[Notes (3), (4), and (5)] 



(0(1) Raised or flat on one or 
both flanges; large or 
small male and female; 
large or small tongue 
and groove 

(0(2) Raised or flat on one or 
both flanges; large or 
small male and female; 
large or small tongue 
and groove 

(0(3) Ring joint 



(0(1) Flat ring nonmetallic to 
ASME B16.5, para. 6.11 
and Annex C, 
Group la material 
[Note (10)] 

(0(2) Ring style to 

ASME B16.5, para. 6.11 
and Annex C 
[Notes (10) and (11)] 

(0(3) Ring joint to 
ASME B16.20 



0) 



Class 800 cast iron 



Class 800 cast iron 



"Low strength" 

[Notes (1), (2), and (3)3 



Raised or large male and 
female 



Flat ring nonmetallic to 
ASME B16.21, Table 4 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) Bolting (including nuts), flange facing, and gasket selection (materials, dimensions, bolt stress, gasket factor, seating stress, etc.) shall be suitable for the flanges, service conditions, 
and hydrostatic tests. There shall be no overstressing of the gasket or flanges from the expected bolt loading or external bending loads. 

(b) Unless otherwise stated, the flange facing described applies to both flanges A and B. 

(c) For flanges other than to ASME B16.1, in sizes larger than NPS 24 (NPS 12 in Class 2500), gasket dimensions should be verified against the flanges specified (e.g., MSS SP-44 and 
AP! 605). 

(d) The effective seating of a full face gasket shall extend to the outside edge of the flange. For flat or raised face flanges, a flat ring or ring style gasket shall be self-centering, 
extending to the inner edge of the bolt holes or bolts. Where the joint contains a cast iron, bronze, nonmetallic, or MSS SP-51 stainless steel flange, the effective gasket seating 
shall extend to the outside diameter of the gasket. 

(e) Unconfined nonmetallic gaskets shall not be used on flat or raised face flanges if the expected normal operating pressure exceeds 720 psi (4 950 kPa) or the temperature exceeds 
750°F (400°C). Metal gaskets, spiral wound gaskets of metal with nonmetallic filler, and confined nonmetallic gaskets are not limited as to pressure or temperature provided the gas- 
ket materials are suitable for the maximum fluid temperatures. 



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Table 112 Piping Flange Bolting, Facing, and Gasket Requirements (Cont'd) 

(Refer to Paras. 108, 110, and 112) 



NOTES: 

(1) "Low strength" bolting shall conform to ASTM: 

A 193, Grade B8A r B8CA, B8MA, or B8TA A 307, Grade B [bolting to A 307, Grade B shall 

A 193, Class 1, Grade B8, B8C, B8M, or B8T not be used at temperatures greater than 

400°F (200°C)] 

A 320, Class 1, Grade B8, B8C, B8M, or B8T 

(2) Nuts for "low strength" bolting shall conform to the grade of ASTM A 194 or A 563 as required by the bolting specification. 

(3) For temperatures below -20°F (-29°C), bolting conforming to the ASTM A 320 classes and grades listed, respectively, in Note (4) "higher strength" and Note (1) "low strength" 
shall be used. For this bolting to ASTM A 320, Grades 17, L7A, L7B, L7C, and L43, the nuts shall conform to ASTM A 194, Grade 4 or 7 with impact requirements of A 320. For 
bolting to the other grades of A 320, the nuts shall conform to A 320. 

(4) "Higher strength" bolting shall conform to ASTM: 



(7) 

(8) 
(9) 

(10) 

(11) 



A 193, Grade B5, B6, B6X, B7, B7M, or B16 
A 193, Class 2, Grade B8, B8C, B8M, or B8T 

A 320, Grade 17, L7A, L7B, L7C, or L43 
A 320, Class 2, Grade B8, B8C, B8F, B8M, or 
B8T 



A 354, Grade BC or BD 

A 437, Grade B4B, B4C, or B4D 

A 453, Grade 651 or 660 



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(5) Nuts for "higher strength" bolting shall conform to the grade of ASTM A 194, A 437, A 453, A 563, or A 564, as required by the bolting specification. 

(6) Additionally, for joints containing bronze flanges, nonferrous bolting conforming to the following may be used: 



ASTM B 98, UNS C65100, C65500, and C66100; half 

hard; to 350°F(177°Q maximum 
ASTM B 150, UNS C61400, to 500°F (260°C) 

maximum 
ASTM B 150, UNS C63000 and C64200, to 550°F 

(288°C) maximum 



ASTM B 164, UNS N04400 and N04405; hot finish; 

550°F (288°C) maximum 
ASTM B 164, UNS N04400, cold drawn, cold drawn 

and stress relieved, or cold drawn and stress 

equalized; and N04405, cold drawn, to 500°F 

(260°C) maximum 



Where a flanged joint contains dissimilar materials (e.g., bronze flanges with steel bolting) and has a design temperature exceeding 300°F (149°C), the differences in coefficients 

of expansion shall be considered. 

For bronze flanges where "low strength" or nonferrous bolting is used, nonmetallic gaskets having seating stresses greater than 1,600 psl shall not be used. 

For stainless steel flanges to MSS SP-51 and for nonmetallic flanges, preference shall be given to gasket materials having the lower minimum design seating stress as listed in 

ASME B16.5, Table CI, Group la. 

Where asbestos sheet, fiber or filler material for gaskets is specified in ASME B16.5, this limitation shall not apply to ASME B31.1 applications. Any nonmetallic material suitable 

for the operating conditions may be used in lieu of asbestos provided the requirements of Table 112 are met. 

For items (d)(2), and (i)(2), where two flat face flanges are used in a joint and the gasket seating width (considering both the gasket and the flanges) is greater than that of an 

ASME B16.5 flange having a standard raised face, the gasket material shall conform to ASME B16.5, Annex C, Group la. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table 114.2.1 Threaded Joints Limitations 



Maximum 




Wax 


mum 


Pressure 


Nominal Size, in. 


psi 






kPa 


3 
2 
1 

% and 
smaller 


400 

600 

1,200 

1,500 






2 750 

4 150 

8 300 

10 350 



GENERAL NOTE: For instrument, control, and sampling lines, refer 
to para. 122.3.6(A.5). 

threads may be used for piping components where tight- 
ness of the joint depends on a seal weld or a seating 
surface other than the threads, and where experience or 
test has demonstrated that such threads are suitable. 

(07) 114.2.1 

(A) Threaded joints are prohibited where any of the 
following conditions is expected to occur: 

(A .1) temperatures above 496°C (925°?), except as 
permitted by paras. 114.2.2 and 114.2.3 
(A. 2) severe erosion 
(A3) crevice corrosion 
(A A) shock 
(A3) vibration 

(B) The maximum size limitations in Table 114.2.1 
apply to threaded joints in the following services: 

(B.l) steam and water at temperatures above 105°C 
(220°F) 

(B2) flammable gases, toxic gases or liquids, and 
nonflammable nontoxic gases [also subject to the excep- 
tions identified in paras.' 122.8(B) and 122.8.2(C2)] 

114.2.2 Threaded access holes with plugs, which 
serve as openings for radiographic inspection of welds, 
are not subject to the limitations of para. 114.2.1 and 
Table 114.2.1, provided their design and installation 
meets the requirement of para. 114.1. A representative 
type of access hole and plug is shown in PFI ES-16. 

(07) 114.2.3 Threaded connections for insertion type 

instrument, control, and sampling devices are not subject 
to the temperature limitation stated in para. 114.2.1 nor 
the pressure limitations stated in Table 114.2.1 provided 
that design and installation meet the requirements of 
paras. 104.3.1 and 114.1. At temperatures greater than 
925°F (495°C) or at pressures greater than 1,500 psi 
(10 350 kPa), these threaded connections shall be seal 
welded in accordance with para. 127.4.5. The design and 
installation of insertion type instrument, control, and 
sampling devices shall be adequate to withstand the 
effects of the fluid characteristics, fluid flow, and 
vibration. 

114.3 

Pipe with a wall thickness less than that of standard 
weight of ASME B36.10M steel pipe shall not be 



threaded, regardless of service. See para. 104.1.2(0) for 
additional threading limitations for pipe used in 

(A) steam service over 250 psi (1 750 kPa) 

(B) water service over 100 psi (700 kPa) and 220°F 
(105°C) 

115 FLARED, FLARELESS, AND COMPRESSION 
JOINTS, AND UNIONS 

Flared, flareless, and compression type tubing fittings 
may be used for tube sizes not exceeding 2 in. (50 mm) 
and unions may be used for pipe sizes not exceeding 
NPS 3 (DN 80) within the limitations of applicable stan- 
dards and specifications listed in Table 126.1. Pipe 
unions shall comply with the limitations of para. 114.2.1. 

In the absence of standards, specifications, or allow- 
able stress values for the material used to manufacture 
the fitting, the designer shall determine that the type 
and the material of the fitting selected is adequate and 
safe for the design conditions in accordance with the 
following requirements: 

(A) The pressure design shall meet the requirements 
of para. 104.7. 

(B) A suitable quantity of the type, size, and material 
of the fittings to be used shall meet successful perform- 
ance tests to determine the safety of the joint under 
simulated service conditions. When vibration, fatigue, 
cyclic conditions, low temperature, thermal expansion, 
or hydraulic shock are expected, the applicable condi- 
tions shall be incorporated in the test. 

115.1 Compatibility 

Fittings and their joints shall be compatible with the 
tubing or pipe with which they are to be used and shall 
conform to the range of wall thicknesses and method 
of assembly recommended by the manufacturer. 

115.2 Pressure-Temperature Ratings 

Fittings shall be used at pressure-temperature ratings 
not exceeding the recommendations of the manufac- 
turer. Unions shall comply with the applicable standards 
listed within Table 126.1 and shall be used within the 
specified pressure-temperature ratings. Service condi- 
tions, such as vibration and thermal cycling, shall be 
considered in the application, 

115.3 Threads 

See para. 114.1 for requirements of threads on piping 
components. 

115.4 Fitting and Gripping 

Flareless fittings shall be of a design in which the 
gripping member or sleeve shall grip or bite into the 
outer surface of the tube with sufficient strength to hold 
the tube against pressure, but without appreciably dis- 
torting the inside tube diameter. The gripping member 
shall also form a pressure seal against the fitting body. 



38 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



AS/VIE B31. 1-2007 



When using bite type fittings, a spot check shall be 
made for adequate depth of bite and condition of tubing 
by disassembling and reassembling selected joints. 

Grip-type fittings that are tightened in accordance 
with manufacturer's instructions need not be disassem- 
bled for checking. 



(C) Soldered socket-type joints shall not be used in 
piping subject to shock or vibration. 

(D) Brazed or soldered joints depending solely upon 
a fillet, rather than primarily upon brazing or soldering 
material between the pipe and sockets, are not 
acceptable. 



116 BELL END JOINTS 

116.1 Elastomeric-Gasket Joints 

Elastomer ic-gasket bell end joints may be used for 
water and other nonflammable, nontoxic service where 
experience or tests have demonstrated that the joint is 
safe for the operating conditions and the fluid being 
transported. Provisions shall be made to prevent disen- 
gagement of the joints at bends and dead ends, and to 
support lateral reactions produced by branch connec- 
tions or other causes. 

116.2 Caulked Joints 

Caulked joints, if used, shall be restricted to cold water 
service, shall not use lead as the caulking material in 
potable water service, and shall be qualified as specially 
designed components in accordance with para. 104.7.2. 
Provisions shall be made to prevent disengagement of 
the joints at bends and dead ends, and to support lateral 
reactions produced by branch connections or other 
causes. 

117 BRAZED AND SOLDERED JOINTS 

117.1 Brazed Joints 

Brazed socket-type joints shall be made with suitable 
brazing alloys. The minimum socket depth shall be suffi- 
cient for the intended service. Brazing alloy shall either 
be end -fed into the socket or shall be provided in the 
form of a preinserted ring in a groove in the socket. The 
brazing alloy shall be sufficient to fill completely the 
annular clearance between the socket and the pipe or 
tube. The limitations of paras. 117.3(A) and (D) shall 
apply 

117.2 Soldered Joints 

Soft soldered socket-type joints made in accordance 
with applicable standards listed in Table 126.1 may be 
used within their specified pressure-temperature rat- 
ings. The limitations in paras. 117.3 and 122.3.2(E.2.3) 
for instrument piping shall apply. The allowances of 
para. 102.2.4 do not apply. 

117.3 Limitations 

(A) Brazed socket- type joints shall not be used on 
systems containing flammable or toxic fluids in areas 
where fire hazards are involved. 

(B) Soldered socket-type joints shall be limited to sys- 
tems containing nonflammable and nontoxic fluids. 



118 SLEEVE COUPLED AND OTHER PROPRIETARY 
JOINTS 

Coupling type, mechanical gland type, and other pro- 
prietary joints may be used where experience or tests 
have demonstrated that the joint is safe for the operating 
conditions, and where adequate provision is made to 
prevent separation of the joint. 

PARTS 

EXPANSION, FLEXIBILITY, AND PIPE SUPPORTING 

ELEMENT 

119 EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY 

119.1 General 

In addition to the design requirements for pressure, 
weight, and other sustained or occasional loadings (see 
paras. 104.1 through 104.7, 104.8.1, and 104.8.2), power 
piping systems subject to thermal expansion, contrac- 
tion, or other displacement stress producing loads shall 
be designed in accordance with the flexibility and dis- 
placement stress requirements specified herein. 

119.2 Displacement Stress Range 

Piping system stresses caused by thermal expansion 
and piping displacements, referred to as displacement 
stresses, when of sufficient initial magnitude during sys- 
tem startup or extreme displacements, relax in the maxi- 
mum stress condition as the result of local yielding or 
creep. A stress reduction takes place and usually appears 
as a stress of reversed sign when the piping system 
returns to the cold condition for thermal loads or the 
neutral position for extreme displacement loads. This 
phenomenon is designated as self-springing (or shake- 
down) of the piping and is similar in effect to cold 
springing. The extent of self-springing depends upon 
the material, the magnitude of the displacement stresses, 
the fabrication stresses, the hot service temperature, and 
the elapsed time. While the displacement stresses in the 
hot or displaced condition tend to diminish with time 
and yielding, the sum of the displacement strains for 
the maximum and minimum stress conditions during 
any one cycle remains substantially constant. This sum 
is referred to as the strain range. However, to simplify 
the evaluation process, the strain range is converted to 
a stress range to permit the more usual association with 
an allowable stress range. The allowable stress range 
shall be as determined in accordance with para. 
102.3.2(B). 



(07) 



39 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



1193 Local Overstrain 

Most of the commonly used methods of piping flexi- 
bility and cyclic stress analysis assume elastic or partly 
elastic behavior of the entire piping system. This 
assumption is sufficiently accurate for systems where 
plastic straining occurs at many points or over relatively 
wide regions, but fails to reflect the actual strain distribu- 
tion in unbalanced systems where only a small portion of 
the piping undergoes plastic strain, or where, in piping 
operating in the creep range, the strain distribution is 
very uneven. In these cases, the weaker or higher 
stressed portions will be subjected, to strain concentra- 
tions due to elastic follow-up of the stiffer or lower 
stressed portions. Unbalance can be produced 

(A) by use of small pipe runs in series with larger or 
stiffer pipe, with the small lines relatively highly stressed 

(B) by local reduction in size or cross section, or local 
use of a weaker material 

(C) in a system of uniform size, by use of a line config- 
uration for which the neutral axis or thrust line is situ- 
ated close to the major portion of the line itself, with 
only a very small offset portion of the line absorbing 
most of the expansion strain 

Conditions of this type should preferably be avoided, 
particularly where materials of relatively 1ow t ductility 
are used. 

119.5 Flexibility 

Power piping systems shall be designed to have suffi- 
cient flexibility to prevent piping displacements from 
causing failure from overs tress of the piping compo- 
nents, overloading of anchors and other supports, leak- 
age at joints, or detrimental distortion of connected 
equipment. Flexibility shall be provided by changes in 
direction in the piping through the use of fittings, bends, 
loops, and offsets. When piping bends, loops, and offsets 
are not able to provide adequate flexibility, provisions 
may be made to absorb piping displacements by utiliz- 
ing expansion, swivel, or ball joints, or flexible metal 
hose assemblies. 

119.5.1 Expansion, Swivel, or Ball Joints, and Flexible 
Metal Hose Assemblies. Except as stated in para, 
101.7.2, these components may be used where experi- 
ence or tests have demonstrated that they are suitable 
for expected conditions of pressure, temperature, ser- 
vice, and cyclic life. 

Restraints and supports shall be provided, as required, 
to limit movements to those directions and magnitudes 
permitted for the specific joint or hose assembly selected. 

119.6 Piping Properties 

The coefficient of thermal expansion and moduli of 
elasticity shall be determined from Appendices B and 
C, which cover more commonly used piping materials. 



For materials not included in those Appendices, refer- 
ence shall be to authoritative source data such as publi- 
cations of the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology. 

119.6.1 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion. The coef- 
ficient of thermal expansion shall be determined from 
values given in Appendix B. The coefficient used shall 
be based on the highest average operating metal temper- 
ature and the lowest ambient metal temperature, unless 
other temperatures are justified. Appendix B values are 
based on the assumption that the lowest ambient metal 
temperature is 70°F (20 °C). If the lowest metal tempera- 
ture of a thermal range to be evaluated is not 70°F (2Q°C), 
adjustment of the values in Appendix B may be required. 

119.6.2 Moduli of Elasticity. The cold and hot mod- 
uli of elasticity, E c and E h/ shall be as shown in Appendix 
C, Table C-l for ferrous materials and Table C-2 for 
nonferrous materials, based on the temperatures estab- 
lished in para. 119.6.1. 

119.6.3 Poisson's Ratio. Poisson's ratio, when 
required for flexibility calculations, shall be taken as 0.3 
at all temperatures for all materials. 

1 1 9.6.4 Stresses. Calculations for the stresses shall 
be based on the least cross section area of the component, 
using nominal dimensions at the location under consid- 
eration. Calculation for the reference displacement stress 
range, S £ , shall be based on the modulus of elasticity, 
E a at room temperature, unless otherwise justified. 

119.7 Flexibility Analysis 

119.7.1 Method of Analysis. All piping shall meet 
the following requirements with respect to flexibility: 

(A) It shall be the designer's responsibility to perform 
an analysis unless the system meets one of the following 
criteria: 

64.2) The piping system duplicates a successfully 
operating installation or replaces a system with a satis- 
factory service record. 

(A.2) The piping system can be adjudged adequate 
by comparison, with previously analyzed systems, 

(A3) The piping system is of uniform size, has not 
more than two anchors and no intermediate restraints, 
is designed for essentially noncyclic service (less than 
7,000 total cycles), and satisfies the following approxi- 
mate criterion: 

(a) U.S. Customary Units 






(L - U) 



(b) SI Units 



DY 



(L- 



— < 208 000 ~ 
Uf E c 



40 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



where 

D = nominal pipe size (NTS), in. (mm) 

E c = modulus of elasticity at room temperature, 

psi (kPa) 
L = developed length of pipe (total length of pipe 

taken along the piping longitudinal axes), ft 

(m) 
$a = allowable displacement stress range deter- 
mined in accordance with para. 1023.2(B), eq. 

(1A), psi (kPa) 
U = anchor distance (length of straight line be t ween 

the anchors), ft (m) 
Y = resultant displacement between the anchors to 

be absorbed by the piping system, in. (mm) 

WARNING: No general proof can be offered that this equation 
will yield accurate or consistently conservative results. It was 
developed for ferrous materials and is not applicable to systems 
used under severe cyclic conditions. It should be used with cau- 
tion in configurations such as unequal leg U-bends (LIU > 2.5), 
or near straight "saw-tooth'' runs, or for large diameter thin-wall 
pipe, or where extraneous displacements (not in the direction 
connecting anchor points) constitute a large part of the total 
displacement, or where piping operates in the creep range. There 
is no assurance that anchor reactions will be acceptably low, even 
when a piping system meets the above requirements. 

(B) All systems not meeting the above criteria, or 
w T here reasonable doubt exists as to adequate flexibility 
between the anchors, shall be analyzed by simplified, 
approximate, or comprehensive methods of analysis that 
are appropriate for the specific case. The results of such 
analysis shall be evaluated using para. 104.8.3, eq. (13). 

(C) Approximate or simplified methods may be 
applied only if they are used for the range of configura- 
tions for which their adequate accuracy has been demon- 
strated. 

(D) Acceptable comprehensive methods of analysis 
include: analytical, model tests, and chart methods 
which provide an evaluation of the forces, moments 
and stresses caused by bending and torsion from the 
simultaneous consideration of terminal and intermedi- 
ate restraints to thermal expansion of the entire piping 
system under consideration, and including all external 
movements transmitted to the piping by its terminal 
and intermediate attachments. Correction factors shall 
be applied for the stress intensification of curved pipe 
and branch connections, as provided by the details of 
these rules, and may be applied for the increased flexibil- 
ity of such component parts. 

119.73 Basse Assumptions and Requirements. In 

calculating the flexibility or displacement stresses of a 
piping system between anchor points, the system 
between anchor points shall be treated as a whole. The 
significance of all parts of the line and of all restraints, 
such as supports or guides, including intermediate 
restraints introduced for the purpose of reducing 



moments and forces on equipment or small branch lines, 
shall be considered. 

Flexibility calculations shall take into account stress 
intensifying conditions found in components and joints. 
Credit may be taken when extra flexibility exists in such 
components. In the absence of more directly applicable 
data, the flexibility factors and stress-intensification fac- 
tors shown in Appendix D may be used. 4 

Dimensional properties of pipe and fittings used in 
flexibility calculations shall be based on nominal dimen- 
sions. 

The total reference displacement range resulting from 
using the coefficient of thermal expansion determined 
in accordance with para, 119.6.1 shall be used, whether 
or not the piping is cold sprung. Not only the expansion 
of the line itself, but also linear and angular movements 
of the equipment to which it is attached, shall be con- 
sidered. 

Where simplifying assumptions are used in calcula- 
tions or model tests, the likelihood of attendant underes- 
timates of forces, moments, and stresses, including the 
effects of stress intensification, shall be evaluated. 

119.8 Movements 

Movements caused by thermal expansion and load- 
ings shall be determined for consideration of obstruc- 
tions and design of proper supports. 

119*9 Cold Spring 

The beneficial effect of judicious cold springing in 
assisting a system to attain its most favorable position 
sooner is recognized. Inasmuch as the life of a system 
under cyclic conditions depends on the stress range 
rather than the stress level at any one time, no credit 
for cold spring is allowed with regard to stresses. In 
calculating end thrusts and moments acting on equip- 
ment, the actual reactions at any one time, rather than 
their range, are significant. Credit for cold springing is 
accordingly allowed in the calculation of thrusts and. 
moments, provided an effective method of obtaining the 
designed cold spring is specified and used. 

119.10 Reactions 

119.10.1 Computing Hot and Cold Reactions. In a 

piping system with no cold spring or an equal percent- 
age of cold springing in all directions, the reactions 
(forces and moments) of R h and R c , in the hot and cold 
conditions/ respectively, shall be obtained from the reac- 
tion, R, derived from the flexibility calculations based 



4 The stress-intensification factors in Appendix D have been 
developed from fatigue tests of representative commercially avail- 
able, matching product forms and assemblies manufactured, from 
ductile ferrous materials. The allowable stress range is based on 
tests of carbon and stainless steels. Caution should be exercised 
when applying Figs. (1) and (13) for the allowable stress range for 
certain nonferrous materials (e.g., copper and aluminum alloys) 
for other than low cycle applications. 



41 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



on the modulus of elasticity at room temperature, E c , 
using eqs. (9) and (10). 



R h = [l- 2 /3Cl(gR 



R c = - CR, or 



W (EJ" 
(S £ ) ' (E h ) 



R 



(9) 



(10) 



whichever is greater, and with the further condition that 

(S/r) Pc) 



(Se) (Ea) 



<1 



w 7 here 

C = cold spring factor varying from zero for no 
cold spring to LOO for 100% cold spring 

E c = modulus of elasticity in the cold condition, 
psi (GPa) 

E h = modulus of elasticity in the hot condition, 
psi (GPa) 

jR = maximum reaction for full expansion range 
based on E c which assumes the most severe 
condition (100% cold spring, whether such 
is used or not), lb and in.-lb (N and mm-N) 
R c , Rf t = maximum reactions estimated to occur in 
the cold and hot conditions, respectively, lb 
and in.-lb (N and mm-N) 

S E = computed thermal expansion stress range, 
psi (MPa) 

S/, = basic material allowable stress at maximum 
(hot) temperature, without the 20 ksi limita- 
tion as noted in para. 102.3.2(C) 

If a piping system is designed with different percent- 
ages of cold spring in various directions, eqs, (9) and 
(10) are not applicable. In this case, the piping system 
shall be analyzed by a comprehensive method. The cal- 
culated hot reactions shall be based on theoretical cold 
springs in all directions not greater than two-thirds of 
the cold springs as specified or measured. 

119.10.2 Reaction Limits. The reactions computed 
shall not exceed limits which the attached equipment 
can sustain. Equipment allowable reaction limits (forces 
and moments) on piping connections are normally 
established by the equipment manufacturer. 

120 LOADS ON PIPE SUPPORTING ELEMENTS 
120.1 General 

(A) The broad terms "supporting elements" or "sup- 
ports" as used herein shall encompass the entire range 
of the various methods of carrying the weight of pipe 
lines, insulation, and the fluid carried. It, therefore, 
includes "hangers" that are generally considered as 



those elements which carry the weight from above, with 
the supporting members being mainly in tension. Like- 
wise, it includes "supports" which on occasion are delin- 
eated as those that carry the weight from below, with 
the supporting members being mainly in compression. 
In many cases a supporting element may be a combina- 
tion of both of these. 

(B) In addition to the weight effects of piping compo- 
nents, consideration shall be given in the design of pipe 
supports to other load effects introduced by service pres- 
sure, wind, earthquake, etc., as defined in para. 101. 
Hangers and supporting elements shall be fabricated 
and assembled to permit the free movement of piping 
caused by thermal expansion and contraction. The 
design of elements for supporting or restraining piping 
systems, or components thereof, shall be based on all 
the concurrently acting loads transmitted into the sup- 
porting elements. 

(C) Where the resonance with imposed vibration 
and /or shock occurs during operation, suitable damp- 
eners, restraints, anchors, etc., shall be added to remove 
these effects. 

120.2 Supports, Anchors, and Guides 

120.2.1 Rigid-Type Supports 

(A) The required strength of all supporting elements 
shall be based on the loadings as given in para. 120.1, 
including the weight of the fluid transported or the fluid 
used for testing, whichever is heavier. The allowable 
stress in supporting equipment shall be as specified in 
para. 121.2. 

(B) Exceptions may be made in the case of supporting 
elements for large size gas or air piping, exhaust steam, 
relief or safety valve relief piping, but only under the 
conditions where the possibility of the line becoming 
full of w 7 ater or other liquid is very remote. 

120.2.2 Variable and Constant Supports. Load cal- 
culations for variable and constant supports, such as 
springs or counterweights, shall be based on the design 
operating conditions of the piping. They shall not 
include the weight of the hydrostatic test fluid. However, 
the support shall be capable of carrying the total load 
under test conditions, unless additional support is pro- 
vided during the test period. 

120.2.3 Anchors or Guides. Where anchors or 
guides are provided to restrain, direct, or absorb piping 
movements, their design shall take into account the 
forces and moments at these elements caused by internal 
pressure and thermal expansion. 

120.2.4 Supplementary Steel. Where it is necessary 
to frame structural members between existing steel 
members, such supplementary steel shall be designed 
in accordance with American Institute of Steel Construc- 
tion specifications, or similar recognized structural 
design standards. Increases of allowable stress values 



42 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



shall be in accordance with the structural design stan- 
dard being used. Additional increases of allowable stress 
values, such as allowed in para. 121.2(1), are not per- 
mitted. 



121 DESIGN OF PIPE SUPPORTING ELEMENTS 

121.1 General 

Design of standard, pipe supporting elements shall be 
in accordance with the rules of MSS SP-58. Allowable 
stress values and other design criteria shall be in accor- 
dance with this paragraph. Supporting elements shall 
be capable of carrying the sum of all concurrently acting 
loads as listed in para. 120. They shall be designed to 
provide the required supporting effort and allow pipe- 
line movement with thermal changes without causing 
overstress. The design shall also prevent complete 
release of the piping load in the event of spring failure 
or misalignment. All parts of the supporting equipment 
shall be fabricated and assembled so that they will not 
be disengaged by movement of the supported piping. 
The maximum safe loads for bolts, threaded hanger rods, 
and all other threaded members shall be based on the 
root area of the threads. 

121.2 Allowable Stress Values 

(A) Allowable stress values tabulated in MSS SP-58 
or in Appendix A of this Code Section may be used 
for the base materials of all parts of pipe supporting 
elements. 

(B) Where allowable stress values for a material speci- 
fication listed in Table 126.1 are not tabulated in 
Appendix A or in MSS SP-58, allowable stress values 
from Section II, Part D, Tables 1A and IB of the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code may be used, provided 
the requirements of para. 102.3.1(B) are met. Where there 
are no stress values given in Section II, Part D, Tables 1 A 
and IB, an allowable stress value of 25% of the minimum 
tensile strength given in the material specification may 
be used, for temperatures not exceeding 650°F (345°C). 

(C) For a steel material of unknown specification, or 
of a specification not listed in Table 126.1 or MSS SP-58, 
an allowable stress value of 30% of yield strength (0.2% 
offset) at room temperature may be used at temperatures 
not exceeding 650°F (345°C). The yield strength shall be 
determined through a tensile test of a specimen of the 
material and shall be the value corresponding to 0.2% 
permanent strain (offset) of the specimen. The allowable 
stress values for such materials shall not exceed 9,500 psi 
(65.5 MPa). 

(D) The allowable shear stress shall not exceed 80% 
of the values determined in accordance with the rules 
of (A), (B), and (C) above. 

(E) The allowable compressive stress shall not exceed 
the value as determined in accordance with the rules of 



(A), (B), or (C) above. In addition, consideration shall 
be given to structural stability 

(F) The allowable bearing stress shall not exceed 160% 
of the value as determined in accordance with the rules 
of (A), (B), or (C) above. 

(G) The allowable base material tensile stress deter- 
mined from (A), (B), or (C) above shall be reduced 25% 
for threaded hanger rods. 

(H) The allowable stress in partial penetration or fillet 
welds in support assemblies shall be reduced 25% from 
those determined in accordance with (A), (B), (C), or 
(D) above for the weaker of the two metals joined. 

(I) If materials for attachments have different allow- 
able stress values than the pipe, then the allowable stress 
for the weld shall be based on the lower allowable stress 
of the materials being joined. 

(J) Increases in the allowable stress values shall be 
permitted as follows: 

(1.1) an increase of 20% for short time overloading 
during operation. 

(1. 2) an increase to 80% of the minimum yield 
strength at room temperature during hydrostatic testing. 
Where the material allowable stress has been established 
in accordance with the rules of (C) above, the allowable 
stress value during hydrostatic testing shall not exceed 
16,000 psi (110.3 MPa). 

1213 Temperature Limitations 

Parts of supporting elements that are subjected princi- 
pally to bending or tension loads and that are subjected 
to working temperatures for which carbon steel is not 
recommended shall be made of suitable alloy steel, or 
shall be protected so that the temperature of the support- 
ing member will be maintained within the appropriate 
temperature limits of the material. 

121.4 Hanger Adjustments 

Hangers used for the support of piping, MPS 2 l / 2 and 
larger, shall be designed to permit adjustment after erec- 
tion while supporting the load. Screwed adjustments 
shall have threaded parts to conform to ASME B'Ll. 

Class 2 fit turnbuckles and adjusting nuts shall have 
the full length of thread in engagement. Means shall be 
provided for determining that full thread length is in 
engagement. All screw and equivalent adjustments shall 
be provided with suitable locking devices. 

121.5 Hanger Spacing 

Supports for piping with the longitudinal axis in 
approximately a horizontal position shall be spaced to 
prevent excessive sag, bending and shear stresses in the 
piping, with special consideration given where compo- 
nents, such as flanges and valves, impose concentrated 
loads. Where calculations are not made, suggested maxi- 
mum spacing of supports for standard and heavier pipe 
are given in Table 121 .5. Vertical supports shall be spaced 



43 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table 121.5 Suggested Pipe Support Spacing 







Suggested 


Maximum Span 




Nominal 
Pipe Size, 




Water 
Service 




Steam, Gas, 
or Air Service 


NPS 


ft 




m 


ft 


m 


1 


7 




2.1 


9 


2.7 


2 


10 




3.0 


13 


4.0 


3 


12 




3.7 


15 


4.6 


4 


14 




4.3 


17 


5.2 


6 


17 




5.2 


21 


6.4 


8 


19 




5.8 


24 


7.3 


12 


23 




7.0 


30 


9.1 


16 


27 




8.2 


35 


10.7 


20 


30 




9.1 


39 


11.9 


24 


32 




9.8 


42 


12.8 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) Suggested maximum spacing between pipe supports for hori- 
zontal straight runs of standard and heavier pipe at maximum 
operating temperature of 750°F (400°C). 

(b) Does not apply where span calculations are made or where 
there are concentrated loads between supports, such as 
flanges, valves, specialties, etc. 

(c) The spacing is based on a fixed beam support with a bending 
stress not exceeding 2,300 psi (15.86 MPa) and insulated pipe 
filled with water or the equivalent weight of steel pipe for 
steam, gas, or air service, and the pitch of the line is such 
that a sag of 0.1 in. (2.5 mm) between supports is permis- 
sible. 



to prevent the pipe from being overstressed from the 
combination of all loading effects. 

121.6 Springs 

The springs used in variable or constant effort type 
supports shall be designed and manufactured in accor- 
dance with MSS SP-58. 

121.7 Fixtures 

121.7.1 Anchors and Guides 

(A) Anchors, guides, pivots, and restraints shall be 
designed to secure the desired points of piping in rela- 
tively fixed positions. They shall permit the piping to 
expand and contract freely in directions away from the 
anchored or guided point and shall be structurally suit- 
able to withstand the thrusts, moments, and other loads 
imposed. 

(B) Rolling or sliding supports shall permit free move- 
ment of the piping, or the piping shall be designed to 
include the imposed load and friction al resistance of 
these types of supports, and dimensions shall provide 
for the expected movement of the supported piping. 
Materials and lubricants used in sliding supports shall 
be suitable for the metal temperature at the point of 
sliding contact. 

(C) Where corrugated or slip-type expansion joints, 
or flexible metal hose assemblies are used, anchors and 



guides shall be provided where necessary to direct the 
expansion into the joint or hose assembly. Such anchors 
shall be designed to withstand the force specified by 
the manufacturer for the design conditions at which the 
joint or hose assembly is to be used. If this force is 
otherwise unknown, it shall be taken as the sum of the 
product of the maximum internal area times the design 
pressure plus the force required to deflect the joint or 
hose assembly. Where expansion joints or flexible metal 
hose assemblies are subjected to a combination of longi- 
tudinal and transverse movements, both movements 
shall be considered in the design and application of the 
joint or hose assembly. 

Flexible metal hose assemblies, applied in accordance 
with para. 106.4, shall be supported in such a manner 
as to be free from any effects due to torsion and undue 
strain as recommended by the manufacturer. 

121.7.2 Other Rigid Types 

(A) Hanger Rods. Safe loads for threaded hanger rods 
shall be based on the root area of the threads and 75% 
of the allowable stress of the material. In no case shall 
hanger rods less than % in. (9.5 mm) diameter be used 
for support of pipe NPS 2 and smaller, or less than V 2 in. 
(12.5 mm) diameter rod for supporting pipe NPS 2/4 
and larger. See Table 121.7.2(A) for carbon steel rods. 

Pipe, straps, or bars of strength and effective area 
equal to the equivalent hanger rod may be used instead 
of hanger rods. 

Hanger rods, straps, etc., shall be designed to permit 
the free movement of piping caused by thermal expan- 
sion and contraction. 

(B) Welded link chain of % 6 in. (5.0 mm) or larger 
diameter stock, or equivalent area, may be used for pipe 
hangers with a design stress of 9,000 psi (62 MPa) 
maximum. 

(C) Cast iron in accordance with ASTM A 48 may be 
used for bases, rollers, anchors, and parts of supports 
where the loading will be mainly compression. Cast iron 
parts shall not be used in tension. 

(D) Malleable iron castings in accordance with 
ASTM A 47 may be used for pipe clamps, beam clamps, 
hanger flanges, clips, bases, swivel rings, and parts of 
pipe supports, but their use shall be limited to tempera- 
tures not in excess of 450°F (230°C). This material is 
not recommended for services where impact loads are 
anticipated. 

(E) Brackets shall be designed to withstand forces and 
moments induced by sliding friction in addition to other 
loads. 

121.7.3 Variable Supports 

(A) Variable spring supports shall be designed to 
exert a supporting force equal to the load, as determined 
by weight balance calculations, plus the weight of all 
hanger parts (such as clamp, rod, etc.) that will be sup- 
ported by the spring at the point of attachment to the 
pipe. 



(07) 



44 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



AS/VIE B31. 1-2007 



Table 121.7.2(A) 



Nominal 

Rod 

Diameter, in. 



% 
% 



i 1 /, 

2 

2V, 

2% 
3 

3% 

3V 2 

3% 
4 

4% 
5 



Carrying Capacity of Threaded ASTM A 36, A 575, and 
A 576 Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel 



Root Area of 
Thread, sq in. 



0.0678 

0.126 

0.202 

0.302 

0.419 

0.551 

0.890 
1.29 
1.74 
2.30 

3.02 
3.72 
4.62 
5.62 

6.72 
7.92 
9,21 
10.6 

12.1 
13.7 
15.4 
17.2 



Max. 


Safe Load at Rod 


Temp, of 650°F (343°C) 


lb 


kN 


730 


3.23 


1,350 


5.98 


2,160 


9.61 


3,230 


14.4 


4,480 


19.9 


5,900 


26.2 


9,500 


42.4 


13,800 


61.6 


18,600 


82.8 


24,600 


109 


32,300 


144 


39,800 


177 


49,400 


220 


60,100 


267 


71,900 


320 


84,700 


377 


98,500 


438 


114,000 


505 


129,000 


576 


146,000 


652 


165,000 


733 


184,000 


819 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) Tabulated loads are based on a minimum tensile stress of 50 ksi (345 MPa) divided by a safety 
factor of 3.5, reduced by 25%, resulting in an allowable stress of 10.7 ksi. 

(b) Root areas of thread are based upon the following thread series: diameters 4 in. and below — 
coarse thread (UNC); diameters above 4 in. — 4 thread (4-UN). 

(c) The corresponding table for metric size rods is available in MSS SP-58. 



(07) 



(B) Variable spring supports shall be provided with 
means to limit misalignment, buckling, eccentric load- 
ing, or to prevent overstressing of the spring. 

(C) It is recommended that all hangers employing 
springs be provided with means to indicate at all times 
the compression of the spring with respect to the approx- 
imate hot and cold positions of the piping system, except 
where they are used either to cushion against shock or 
where the operating temperature of the piping system 
does not exceed 250°F (120°C). 

(D) It is recommended that the support be designed 
for a maximum variation in supporting effort of 25% 
for the total travel resulting from thermal movement. 

121.7.4 Constant Supports. On high temperature 
and critical service piping at locations subject to appre- 
ciable movement with thermal changes, the use of con- 
stant support hangers, designed to provide a 
substantially uniform supporting force throughout the 
range of travel, is recommended. 



(A) Constant support hangers shall have a support 
variation of no more than 6% throughout the total travel 
range. 

(B) Counterweight type supports shall be provided 
with stops, and the weights shall be positively secured. 
Chains, cables, hanger and rocker arm details, or other 
devices used to attach the counterweight load to the 
piping, shall be subject to requirements of para. 121.7.2. 

(C) Hydraulic type supports utilizing a hydraulic 
head may be installed to give a constant supporting 
effort. Safety devices and stops shall be provided to 
support the load in case of hydraulic failure. 

(D) Boosters may be used to supplement the opera- 
tion of constant support hangers. 

121.7.5 Sway Braces. Sway braces or vibration 
dampeners shall be used to control the movement of 
piping due to vibration. 

121.7.6 Shock Suppressors. For the control of pip- 
ing due to dynamic loads, hydraulic or mechanical types 



45 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



of shock suppressors are permitted. These devices do 
not support pipe weight. 

121.8 Structural Attachments 

121.8.1 Nonintegral Type 

(A) Nonintegral attachments include clamps, slings, 
cradles, saddles, straps, and clevises. 

(B) When clamps are used to support vertical lines, 
it is recommended that shear lugs be welded to the pipe 
to prevent slippage. The provisions of para. 121.8.2(B) 
shall apply. 

(C) In addition to the provision of (B) above, clamps 
to support vertical lines should be designed to support 
the total load on either arm in the event the load shifts 
due to pipe and /or hanger movement. 

121.8.2 integral Type 

(A) Integral attachments include ears, shoes, lugs, 
cylindrical attachments, rings, and skirts which are fabri- 
cated so that the attachment is an integral part of the 
piping component. Integral attachments shall be used 
in conjunction with restraints or braces where multiaxial 
restraint in a single member is to be maintained. Consid- 
eration shall be given to the localized stresses induced 
into the piping component by the integral attachments. 
Where applicable, the conditions of para. 121.8.1(C) are 
to apply. 

(B) Integral, lugs, plates, angle clips, etc., used as part 
of an assembly for the support or guiding of pipe may 
be w 7 elded directly to the pipe provided the materials 
are compatible for w T elding and the design is adequate 
for the temperature and load. The design of hanger lugs 
for attachment to piping for high temperature service 
shall be such as to provide for differential expansion 
between the pipe and the attached lug. 

121.9 Loads and Supporting Structures 

Considerations shall be given to the load carrying 
capacity of equipment and the supporting structure. 
This may necessitate closer spacing of hangers on lines 
with extremely high loads. 

121.10 Requirements for Fabricating Pipe Supports 

Pipe supports shall be fabricated in accordance with 
the requirements of para. 130. 



PART 6 
SYSTEMS 

122 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS PERTAINING TO 
SPECIFIC PIPING SYSTEMS 

Except as specifically stated otherwise in this Part 6, 
all provisions of the Code apply fully to the piping 
systems described herein. 



122.1 Boiler External Piping; in Accordance With 

Para. 100.1.2(A) - Steam, Feedwater, Blowoff, 
and Drain Piping 

122.1.1 General. The minimum pressure and tern- (07) 
perature and other special requirements to be used in 
the design for steam, feedwater, blowoff, and drain pip- 
ing from the boiler to the valve or valves required by 
para. 122.1 shall be as specified in the following para- 
graphs. Design requirements for desuperheater spray 
piping connected to desuperheaters located in the boiler 
proper and in main steam piping are provided in 
para. 122.4. 

(A) It is intended that the design pressure and temper- 
ature be selected sufficiently in excess of any expected 
operating conditions, not necessarily continuous, to per- 
mit satisfactory operation without operation of the over- 
pressure protection devices. Also, since the operating 
temperatures of fired equipment can vary, the expected 
temperature at the connection to the fired equipment 
shall include the manufacturer's maximum temperature 
tolerance. 

(B) In a forced flow steam generator with no fixed 
steam and water line, it is permissible to design the 
external piping, valves, and fittings attached to the pres- 
sure parts for different pressure levels along the path 
through the steam generator of water-steam flow. The 
values of design pressure and the design temperature 
to be used for the external piping, valves, and fittings 
shall be not less than that required for the expected 
maximum sustained operating pressure and tempera- 
ture to which the abutted pressure part is subjected 
except when one or more of the overpressure protection 
devices covered by PG-67.4 of Section I of the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is in operation. The 
steam piping shall comply with the requirements for 
the maximum sustained operating conditions as used 
in (A) above, or for the design throttle pressure plus 5%, 
whichever is greater. 

(C) Provision shall be made for the expansion and 
contraction of piping connected to boilers to limit forces 
and moments transmitted to the boiler, by providing 
substantial anchorage at suitable points, so that there 
shall be no undue strain transmitted to the boiler. Steam 
reservoirs shall be used on steam mains when heavy 
pulsations of the steam currents cause vibration. 

(D) Piping connected to the outlet of a boiler for any 
purpose shall be attached by 

(D.l) w T elding to a nozzle or socket welding fitting 

(D.2) threading into a tapped opening with a 
threaded fitting or valve at the other end 

(D3) screwing each end into tapered flanges, fit- 
tings, or valves with or without rolling or peening 

(DA) bolted joints including those of the Van 
Stone type 

(D.5) blowoff piping of firetube boilers shall be 
attached in accordance with (D.2) above if exposed to 



46 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



products of combustion or in accordance with (02), 
(D.3), or (D.4) above if not so exposed 

(E) Nonferrous pipe or tubes shall not exceed NFS 3 
in diameter. 

(F) American National Standard slip-on flanges shall 
not exceed NPS 4. Attachment of slip-on flanges shall 
be by double fillet welds. The throats of the fillet welds 
shall not be less than 0.7 times the thickness of the part 
to which the flange is attached. 

(G) Hub-type flanges shall not be cut from plate 
material. 

(H) American National Standard socket welded 
flanges may be used in piping or boiler nozzles provided 
the dimensions do not exceed NPS 3 for Class 600 and 
lower and NPS 2 ] / 2 in Class 1500. 

122.1.2 Steam Piping 

(A) The value of P to be used in the formulas in para. 
104 shall be as follows: 

(A.l) For steam piping connected to the steam 
drum or to the superheater inlet header up to the first 
stop valve in each connection, the value of P shall be 
not less than the lowest pressure at which any drum 
safety valve is set to blow, and the S value shall not 
exceed that permitted for the corresponding saturated 
steam temperature. 

(A.l) For steam piping connected to the super- 
heater outlet header up to the first stop valve in each 
connection, the design pressure, except as otherwise pro- 
vided in (A.4) below shall be not less than the lowest 
pressure at which any safety valve on the superheater 
is set to blow, or not less than 85% of the lowest pressure 
at which any drum safety valve is set to blow 7 , whichever 
is greater, and the S value for the material used shall 
not exceed that permitted for the expected steam tem- 
perature. 

(A. 3) For steam piping between the first stop valve 
and the second valve, when one is required by para. 
122.1.7, the design pressure shall be not less than the 
expected maximum sustained operating pressure or 85% 
of the lowest pressure at which any drum safety valve 
is set to blow, whichever is greater, and the S value for 
the material used shall not exceed that permitted for 
the expected steam temperature. 

(A.4) For boilers installed on the unit system (i.e., 
one boiler and one turbine or other prime mover) and 
provided with automatic combustion control equipment 
responsive to steam header pressure, the design pressure 
for the steam piping shall be not less than the design 
pressure at the throttle inlet plus 5%, or not less than 
85% of the lowest pressure at which any drum safety 
valve is set to blow, or not less than the expected maxi- 
mum sustained operating pressure at any point in. the 
piping system, whichever is greater, and the S value for 
the material used shall not exceed that permitted for 
the expected steam temperature at the superheater out- 
let. For forced-flow steam generators with no fixed 



steam and water line, the design pressure shall also be 
no less than the expected maximum sustained operating 
pressure. 

(A. 5) The design pressure shall not be taken at less 
than 100 psig [700 kPa (gage)] for any condition of ser- 
vice or material. 

122.13 Feedwater Piping 

(A) The value of P to be used in the formulas in para. 
104 shall be as follows: 

(A.l) For piping from the boiler to and including 
the required stop valve and the check valve, the mini- 
mum value of P except as permitted in para. 122.1.3(A.4) 
shall exceed the maximum allowable working pressure 
of the boiler by either 25% or 225 psi (1 550 kPa), which- 
ever is the lesser. For an installation with an integral 
economizer without valves between the boiler and econ- 
omizer, this paragraph shall apply only to the piping 
from the economizer inlet header to and including the 
required stop valve and the check valve. 

(A.l) For piping between the required check valve 
and the globe or regulating valve, when required by 
para, 122.1.7(B), and including any bypass piping up to 
the shutoff valves in the bypass, the value of P shall be 
not less than the pressure required to feed the boiler. 

(A3) The value of P in the formula shall not be 
taken at less than 100 psig [700 kPa (gage)] for any 
condition of service or material, and shall never be less 
than the pressure required to feed the boiler. 

(A.4) In a forced flow steam generator with no fixed 
steam and water line, the value of P for feedwater piping 
from the boiler to and including the required stop valve 
may be in accordance with the requirements of para. 
122.1.1(B). 

(B) The S value used, except as permitted in (A.4) 
above, shall not exceed that permitted for the tempera- 
ture of saturated steam at the maximum allowable work- 
ing pressure of the boiler. 

(C) The size of the feed piping between the boiler and 
the first required valve [para. 122.1.7(B)] or the branch 
feed connection [para. 122.1.7(B.4)] shall, as a minimum, 
be the same as the boiler connection. 

122.1.4 Blowoff and Slowdown Piping. Blowoffand 
blowdown piping are defined as piping connected to a 
boiler and provided with valves or cocks through which 
the water in the boiler may be blown out under pressure. 
This definition is not intended to apply to (i) drain pip- 
ing, and (ii) piping such as used on water columns, gage 
glasses, or feedwater regulators, etc., for the purpose of 
determining the operating condition of the equipment 
Requirements for (i) and (ii) are described in paras. 
122.1.5 and 122.1,6. Blowoff systems are operated inter- 
mittently to remove accumulated sediment from equip- 
ment and /or piping, or to lower boiler water level in a 
rapid manner. Blowdown systems are primarily oper- 
ated continuously to control the concentrations of dis- 
solved solids in the boiler water. 



47 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



(A) Blowoff piping systems from water spaces of a 
boiler, up to and including the blowoff valves, shall be 
designed in accordance with (A.l) to (A.4) below. Two 
shutoff valves are required in the blowoff system; spe- 
cific valve requirements and exceptions are given in 
para. 122.1.7(C). 

(A.l) The value of P to be used in the formulas in 
para. 104 shall exceed the maximum allowable working 
pressure of the boiler by either 25% or 225 psi (1 550 kPa) 
whichever is less, but shall be not less than 100 psig 
[690 kPa (gage)]. 

(A.l) The allowable stress value for the piping 
materials shall not exceed that permitted for the temper- 
ature of saturated steam at the maximum allowable 
working pressure of the boiler. 

(A3) All pipe shall be steel except as permitted 
below. Galvanized steel pipe and fittings shall not be 
used for blowoff piping. When the value of P does not 
exceed 100 psig [690 kPa (gage)], nonferrous pipe may 
be used and the fittings may be bronze, cast iron, mallea- 
ble iron, ductile iron, or steel. 

CAUTION: Nonferrous alloys and austenitic stainless steels 
may be sensitive to stress corrosion cracking in certain aqueous 
environments. 

When the value of P exceeds 100 psig [690 kPa (gage)], 
the fittings shall be steel and the thickness of pipe and 
fittings shall not be less than that of Schedule 80 pipe. 
(A.4) The size of blowoff piping shall be not less 
than the size of the connection on the boiler, and shall 
be in accordance with the rules contained in the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I, PG-59.3, 
PMB-12, and PEB-12. 

(B) The blowdown piping system from the boiler, to 
and including the shutoff valve, shall be designed in 
accordance with (B.l) through (B.4) below. Only one 
shutoff valve is required in the blowdown system. 

(B.l) The value of P to be used in the formulas in 
para. 104 shall be not less than the lowest set pressure 
of any safety valve on the boiler drum. 

(B.l) The allowable stress value for the piping 
materials shall not exceed that permitted for the temper- 
ature of saturated steam at the maximum allowable 
working pressure of the boiler. 

(B3) All pipe shall be steel except as permitted 
below. Galvanized steel pipe and fittings shall not be 
used for blowdown piping. When the value of P does 
not exceed 100 psig [690 kPa (gage)], nonferrous pipe 
may be used and the fittings may be bronze, cast iron, 
malleable iron, ductile iron, or steel. 

CAUTION: Nonferrous alloys and austenitic stainless steels 
may be sensitive to stress corrosion cracking in certain aqueous 
environments. 

When the value of P exceeds 100 psig [690 kPa (gage)], 
the fittings shall be steel and the thickness of pipe and 
fittings shall not be less than that of Schedule 80 pipe. 



(B.4) The size of blowdown piping shall be not less 
than the size of the connection on the boiler, and shall 
be in accordance with the rules contained in the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I, PG-59.3, 
PMB-12, and PEB-12. 

(C) The blowoff and blowdown piping beyond the 
required valves described in (A) and (B) above are classi- 
fied as nonboiler external piping. The requirements are 
given in para. 122.2. 

122.1.5 Boiler Drains 

(A) Complete drainage of the boiler and attached pip- 
ing shall be provided to the extent necessary to ensure 
proper operation of the steam supply system. The pipe, 
fittings, and valves of any drain line shall not be smaller 
than the drain connection. 

(B) If the drain lines are intended to be used both as 
drains and as blowoffs, then two valves are required 
and all conditions of paras. 122.1.4, 122.1.7(C), and 122.2 
shall be met. 

(C) Miniature boilers constructed in accordance with 
the rules contained in the ASME Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code, Section I, Parts PMB and PEB may use a 
single valve where drain lines are intended to be used for 
both blowoff and periodic automatic or manual flushing 
prior to startup. The single valve shall be designed for 
blowoff service but need not have locking capability. 

(D) When a drain is intended for use only when the 
boiler is not under pressure (pressurizing the boiler for 
rapid drainage is an exception), a single shutoff valve 
is acceptable under the following conditions: either the 
valve shall be a type that can be locked in the closed 
position or a suitable flanged and bolted connection that 
accepts a blank insert shall be located on the downstream 
side of the valve. When a single valve is used, it need 
not be designed for blowoff service. Single valves on 
miniature boilers constructed in accordance with the 
rules contained in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code, Section I, Parts PMB and PEB do not require 
locking capability. 

(E) Drain piping from the drain connection, including 
the required valve(s) or the blanked flange connection, 
shall be designed for the temperature and pressure of 
the drain connection. The remaining piping shall be 
designed for the expected maximum temperature and 
pressure. Static head and possible choked flow condi- 
tions shall be considered. In no case shall the design 
pressure and temperature be less than 100 psig [690 kPa 
(gage)] and 220°F (105°C), respectively. 

122.1.6 Boiler External Piping — Miscellaneous 
Systems 

(A) Materials, design, fabrication, examination, and 
erection of piping for miscellaneous accessories, such as 
water level indicators, water columns, gage cocks, and 
pressure gages, shall be in accordance with the applica- 
ble sections of this Code. 



48 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



(B) The value of P to be used in the formulas in para. 
104 shall be not less than the maximum allowable work- 
ing pressure of the boiler except as provided by para. 
122.1.1(B). 

(C) Valve requirements for water level indicators or 
water columns, special gage glass and gage cock require- 
ments, minimum line sizes, and special piping configu- 
rations required specifically for cleaning, access, or 
reliability shall be in accordance with PG-60 of Section 
I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 

122.1.7 Valves and Fittings. The minimum pressure 
and temperature rating for all valves and fittings in 
steam, feedwater, blowoff, and miscellaneous piping 
shall be equal to the pressure and temperature specified 
for the connected piping on the side that has the higher 
pressure, except that in no case shall the pressure be 
less than 100 psig [690 kPa (gage)], and for pressures 
not exceeding 100 psig [690 kPa (gage)] in feedwater 
and blowoff service, the valves and fittings shall be equal 
at least to the requirements of the ASME standards for 
Class 125 cast iron or bronze, or Class 150 steel or bronze. 
(A) Steam Stop Valves, Each boiler discharge outlet, 
except safety valve or safety relief valve connections, or 
reheater inlet and outlet connections, shall be fitted w r ith 
a stop valve located at an accessible point in the steam- 
delivery line and as near to the boiler nozzle as is conve- 
nient and practicable. 

(A.1) Boiler stop valves shall provide bidirectional 
shutoff at design conditions. The valve or valves shall 
meet the requirements of para. 107. Valves w T ith resilient 
(nonmetallic) seats shall not be used where the boiler 
maximum allowable working pressure exceeds 150 psig 
(1 035 kPa) or where the system design temperature 
exceeds 366 °F (186°C). Valves of the outside screw and 
yoke, rising stem style are preferred. Valves other than 
those of the outside screw and yoke, rising stem style 
shall meet the following additional requirements. 

(A. 1 A) Each valve shall be equipped with a posi- 
tion indicator to visually indicate from a distance 
whether the valve is open or closed. 

(A.l.B) Quarter turn valves shall be equipped 
with a slow operating mechanism to minimize dynamic 
loadings on the boiler and attached piping. Either a 
quick-opening manual quarter-turn valve or an auto- 
matic solenoid valve may be used on miniature boilers 
constructed in accordance with the rules contained in 
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I, 
Parts PMB and PEB. Manual quarter-turn valves shall 
be provided with a handle or other position indicator 
to indicate from a distance whether the valve is open 
or closed. 

(A. 2) In the case of a single boiler and prime mover 
installation, the stop valve required herein may be omit- 
ted provided the prime mover throttle valve is equipped 
with an indicator to show whether it is opened or closed, 



and it is designed to withstand the required boiler 
hydrostatic test. 

(A3) When two or more boilers are connected to 
a common header, or when a single boiler is connected 
to a header having another steam source, the connection 
from each boiler having a manhole opening shall be 
fitted with two stop valves having an ample free-blow 
drain between them. The preferred arrangement consists 
of one stop-check valve (located closest to the boiler) 
and one valve of the style and design described in (A.l) 
above. Alternatively, both valves may be of the style 
and design described in (A.l) above. 

When a second stop valve is required, it shall have a 
pressure rating at least equal to that required for the 
expected steam pressure and temperature at the valve, 
or a pressure rating at least equal to 85% of the lowest 
set pressure of any safety valve on the boiler drum at 
the expected temperature of the steam at the valve, 
whichever is greater. 

(A A) All valves and fittings on steam lines shall 
have a pressure rating of at least 1.00 psig [690 kPa (gage)] 
in accordance with the applicable ASME standard. 
(B) Feedwater Valves 

(B.l) The feedwater piping for all boilers, except 
for high temperature water boilers complying with the 
requirements of (B.8) below, and for forced flow steam 
generators with no fixed steam and water line comply- 
ing with the requirements of (B.9) below, shall be pro- 
vided with a check valve and a stop valve or cock 
between the check valve and the boiler. The stop valve 
or cock shall comply with the requirements of (C.5) 
below. 

(B.l) The relative locations of the check and stop 
(or cock) valves, as required in (B.l) above, may be 
reversed on a single boiler-turbine unit installation. 

(B3) If a boiler is equipped with a duplicate feed 
arrangement, each such arrangement shall be equipped 
as required by these rules. 

(BA) When the supply line to a boiler is divided 
into branch feed connections and all such connections 
are equipped with stop and check valves, the stop and 
check valves in the common source may be omitted. 

(B.5) When tw 7 o or more boilers are fed from a com- 
mon source, there shall also be a globe or regulating 
valve in the branch to each boiler located between the 
check valve and the source of supply. A typical arrange- 
ment is shown in Fig. 100.1.2(B). 

(B.6) A combination stop and check valve in which 
there is only one seat and disk, and in which a valve 
stem is provided to close the valve, shall be considered 
only as a stop valve, and a check valve shall be installed 
as otherwise provided. 

(B. 7) W ; here an economizer or other feedwater heat- 
ing device is connected directly to the boiler without 
intervening valves, the feed valves and check valves 



49 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 122.1.7(C) Typical Globe Valves 



v , -J 



D 





(a) 



(b) 



required shall be placed on the inlet of the economizer 
or feedwater heating device. 

(B.8) The recirculating return line for a high tem- 
perature water boiler shall be provided with the same 
stop valve, or valves, required by (B.l) and (B.3) above. 
The use of a check valve in the recirculating return line 
is optional. A check valve shall not be a substitute for 
a stop valve. 

(B.9) The feedwater boiler external piping for a 
forced flow steam generator with no fixed steam and 
water line may terminate up to and including the stop 
valve(s) and omitting the check valve(s) provided that 
a check valve having a pressure rating no less than the 
boiler inlet design pressure is installed at the discharge 
of each boiler feed pump or elsewhere in the feedline 
between the feed pump and the stop valve (s). 

(B.10) Wherever globe valves are used within BEP 
feedwater piping for either isolation or regulation, the 
inlet shall be under the disk of the valve. 
(C) Blawqff Valves 

(C.l) Ordinary globe valves as shown in 
Fig. 122.17(C) sketch (a), and other types of valves that 
have dams or pockets where sediment can collect, shall 
not be used on blowoff connections. 

(C.2) Y-type globe valves as shown in 
Fig. 122.1.7(C) sketch (b) or angle valves may be used 
in vertical pipes, or they may be used in horizontal runs 
of piping provided they are so constructed or installed 
that the lowest edge of the opening through the seat is 
at least 25% of the inside diameter below the centerline 
of the valve. 

(C3) The blowoff valve or valves, the pipe between 
them, and the boiler connection shall be of the same 
size except that a larger pipe for the return of condensate 
may be used. 



(CA) For all boilers [except electric steam boilers 
having a normal water content not exceeding 100 gal 
(380 L), traction-purpose, and portable steam boilers; 
see (C.ll) and (C.12) below] with allowable w r orking 
pressure in excess of 100 psig [690 kPa (gage)], each 
bottom blowoff pipe shall have two slow-opening 
valves, or one quick-opening valve or cock, at the boiler 
nozzle followed by a slow-opening valve. All valves 
shall comply with the requirements of (C.5) and (C.6) 
below T . 

(C.5) When the value of P required by para. 
122.1.4(A.l) does not exceed 250 psig [1 725 kPa (gage)], 
the valves or cocks shall be bronze, cast iron, ductile 
iron, or steel. The valves or cocks, if of cast iron, shall 
not exceed NPS 2V 2 and shall meet the requirements of 
the applicable ASME standard for Class 250, as given 
in Table 126.1, and if of bronze, steel, or ductile iron 
construction, shall meet the requirements of the applica- 
ble standards as given in Table 126.1 or para. 124.6. 

(C.6) When the value of P required by para. 
122.1.4(A.l) is higher than 250 psig [1 725 kPa "(gage)], 
the valves or cocks shall be of steel construction equal 
at least to the requirements of Class 300 of the applicable 
ASME standard listed in Table 126.1. The minimum pres- 
sure rating shall be equal to the value of P required by 
para. 122.1.4(A.l). 

(CD If a blowoff cock is used, the plug shall be 
held in place by a guard or gland. The plug shall be 
distinctly marked in line with the passage. 

(C.8) A slow-opening valve is a valve which 
requires at least five 360 deg turns of the operating 
mechanism to change from fully closed to fully opened. 

(C.9) On a boiler having multiple blowoff pipes, a 
single master valve may be placed on the common blow 7 - 
off pipe from the boiler, in which case only one valve 



50 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831.1-2007 



Table 122.2 Design Pressure for Blowoff/Blowdown Piping Downstream 

of BEP Valves 



Boiler or Vessel Pressure 



Design Pressure [Note (1)3 



MAWP 


kPa (gage) 


psig 


kPa (gage) 


Betow 250 


1 725 


Note (2) 


Note (2) 


250-600 


1 725-4 135 


250 


1 725 


601-900 


4 136-6 205 


400 


2 760 


901-1,500 


6 206-10 340 


600 


4 135 


1,501 and higher 


10 341 and higher 


900 


6 205 



NOTES: 

(1) The allowable stress value for the piping material need not exceed that permitted for the tempera- 
ture of saturated steam at the design pressure. 

(2) For boiler or vessel pressures below 250 psig [1 725 kPa (gage)], the design pressure shall be 
determined in accordance with para. 122.1.4(B.l), but need not exceed 250 psig [1 725 kPa 
(gage)]. 



on each individual blowoff is required. In such a case, 
either the master valve or the individual valves or cocks 
shall be of the slow-opening type. 

(C.10) Two independent slow-opening valves, or a 
slow-opening valve and a quick-opening valve or cock, 
may he combined in one body and may be used provided 
the combined fitting is the equivalent of two indepen- 
dent slow-opening valves, or a slow-opening valve and 
a quick-opening valve or cock, and provided further that 
the failure of one to operate cannot affect the operation of 
the other. 

(Cll) Only one blowoff valve, which shall be either 
a slow-opening or quick-opening blowoff valve or a 
cock, is required on traction and /or portable boilers. 

(Cll) Only one blowoff valve, which shall be of a 
slow-opening type, is required for the blowoff piping 
for forced circulation and electric steam boilers having 
a normal water content not exceeding 100 gal (380 L). 
Electric boilers not exceeding a normal water content of 
100 gal (380 L) and a maximum MAWP of 100 psig 
[690 kPa (gage)] may use a quick-opening manual or 
slow-opening automatic quarter- turn valve up to NPS 1. 
Electric boilers not exceeding a normal water content of 
100 gal (380 L) but with a MAWP greater than 100 psig 
[690 kPa (gage)] shall only use either a slow-opening 
type manual or automatic valve, regardless of size. 
(D) Safety Valves 

(DA) Safety valves, relief valves, and safety relief 
valves shall conform to the requirements of PG-67, 
PG-68, PG-69, PG-70, PG-71, PG-72, and PG-73 of 
Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 

122.2 Blowoff and Blowdown Piping In Monboller 
External Piping 

Blowoff and blowdown piping systems shall be, 
where possible, self-draining and without pockets. If 
unavoidable, valved drains at low points shall allow 
system draining prior to operation. In order to minimize 
pipeline shock during the operation of blowoff systems, 



3D pipe bends (minimum) should be used in preference 
to elbow r s, and wye or lateral fittings should be used in 
preference to tee connections. 

(A) From Boilers 

(A.l) Blowoff piping, located between the valves 
described in para. 122.1.4(A) and the blowoff tank or 
other point where the pressure is reduced approximately 
to atmospheric pressure and cannot be increased by 
closing a downstream valve, shall be designed for the 
appropriate pressure in accordance with Table 122.2. The 
provisions of paras. 122.1.4(A.3) and 122.1.7 shall apply. 
The size of non-BEP blowoff header to the safe point of 
discharge shall not be smaller than the largest connected 
BEP blowoff terminal [see para. 122.1.4(A.4)]. 

(A.l) Blowdown piping, in which the pressure can- 
not be increased by closing a downstream valve, shall 
be designed for the appropriate pressure and tempera- 
ture in accordance with Table 122.2. The provisions of 
para. 122.1.4(6.3) shall apply. The size of non-BEP blow- 
down piping between the shutoff valve described in 
para. 122.1.4(B) and the flow control valve shall not 
be smaller than the BEP boiler shutoff valve [see para. 
122.1.4(B.4)] unless engineering calculations confirm 
that the design flow rate can be achieved with a smaller 
piping size without flashing the blowdown prior to the 
flow control valve. 

(A3) When the design pressure of Table 122.2 can 
be exceeded due to closing of a downstream valve, calcu- 
lated pressure drop, or other means, the entire blowoff 
or blowdown piping system shall be designed in accor- 
dance with paras. 122.1.4(A) and 122.1.7 for blowoff and 
para. 122.1.4(B) for blowdown piping. 

(A A) Non-BEP blowdown piping downstream of 
the flow control valve shall not be smaller — and prefera- 
bly will be larger — than the connection on the boiler 
[see para. 122.1.4(B.4)]. 

(B) From Pressure Vessels Other Than Boilers 

(B.l) The design pressure and temperature of the 
blowoff piping from the pressure vessel to and including 



51 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



the blowoff valve(s) shall not be less than the vessel 
MAWP and corresponding design temperature. 

122.3 Instrument, Control, and Sampling Piping 

(A) The requirements of this Code, as supplemented 
by para. 122.3, shall apply to the design of instrument, 
control, and sampling piping for safe and proper opera- 
tion of the piping itself. 

(B) The term "Instrument Piping" shall apply to all 
valves, fittings, tubing, and piping used to connect 
instruments to main piping or to other instruments or 
apparatus or to measuring equipment as used within 
the classification of para. 100.1. 

(C) The term "Control Piping" shall apply to all 
valves, fittings, tubing, and piping used to interconnect 
pneumatically or hydraulically operated control appara- 
tus, also classified in accordance with para. 100.1, as well 
as to signal transmission systems used to interconnect 
instrument transmitters and receivers. 

(D) The term "Sampling Piping" shall apply to all 
valves, fittings, tubing, and piping used for the collection 
of samples, such as steam, water, oil, gas, and chemicals. 

(E) Paragraph 122,3 does not apply to tubing used in 
permanently closed systems, such as fluid-filled temper- 
ature responsive devices, or the temperature responsive 
devices themselves. 

(F) Paragraph 122.3 does not apply to the devices, 
apparatus, measuring, sampling, signalling, transmit- 
ting, controlling, receiving, or collecting instruments to 
which the piping is connected. 

122.3.1 Materials and Design. The materials uti- 
lized for valves, fittings, tubing, and piping shall meet 
the particular conditions of service and the requirements 
of the applicable specifications listed under general 
paras. 105, 106, 107, and 1.08 with allowable stresses in 
accordance with the Allowable Stress Tables in Appen- 
dix A. 

The materials for pressure retention components used 
for piping specialties such as meters, traps, and strainers 
in flammable, combustible, or toxic fluid systems shall 
in addition conform to the requirements of paras. 122.7 
and 122.8. 

122.3.2 instrument Piping 

(A) Takeoff Connections 
(A.l) Takeoff connections at the source, together 
with attachment bosses, nozzles, and adapters, shall be 
made of material at least equivalent to that of the pipe 
or vessel to which they are attached. The connections 
shall be designed to withstand the source design pres- 
sure and temperature and be capable of withstanding 
loadings induced by relative displacement and vibra- 
tion. The nominal size of the takeoff connections shall 
not be less than NPS \ for service conditions not in 
excess of either 900 psi (6 200 kPa) or 800°F (425°C), 
and NPS % (for adequate physical strength) for design 



conditions which exceed either of these limits. Where 
the size of the main is smaller than the limits given 
above, the takeoff connection shall not be less than the 
size of the main line. 

(A.l) To prevent thermal shock to the main steam 
line by contact with the colder condensate return from 
the instrument, steam meter or instrument takeoff con- 
nections shall be lagged in with the steam main. For 
temperature in excess of 800°F (425°C), they may also 
be arranged to make metallic contact lengthwise with 
the steam main. 

(B) Valves 

(B.l) Shiitoff Valves. Shutoff valves shall be pro- 
vided at takeoff connections. They shall be capable of 
withstanding the design pressure and temperature of 
the pipe or vessel to which the takeoff adapters or nip- 
ples are attached. 

(B.l) Blowdown Valves 

(B.l.l) Slowdown valves at or near the instru- 
ment shall be of the gradual opening type. For subcritical 
pressure steam service, the design pressure for b low- 
down valves shall be not less than the design pressure 
of the pipe or vessel; the design temperature shall be 
the corresponding temperature of saturated steam. For 
all other services, blowdown valves shall meet the 
requirements of (B.l) above. 

(B.l.l) When blowdown valves are used, the 
valves at the instrument as well as any intervening fit- 
tings and tubing between such blowdown valves and 
the meter shall be suitable at 100°F (40°C) for at least 
l l /i times the design pressure of the piping system, but 
the rating of the valve at the instrument need not exceed 
the rating of the blowdown valve. 

(B.l. 3) When blowdown valves are not used, 
instrument valves shall conform to the requirements of 
(B.2.1) above. 

(C) Reservoirs or Condensers. In dead end steam ser- 
vice, the condensing reservoirs and connecting nipples, 
which immediately follow 7 the shutoff valves, shall be 
made of material suitable for the saturated steam tem- 
perature corresponding to the main line design pressure. 

(D) Materials for Lines Between Shutoff Valves and 
Instruments 

(D.l) Copper, copper alloys, and other nonferrous 
materials may be used in dead end steam or water ser- 
vices up to the design pressure and temperature condi- 
tions used for calculating the wall thickness in 
accordance with para. 104 provided that the temperature 
within the connecting lines for continuous services does 
not exceed 406°F (208°C). 

Where water temperature in the reservoir of condens- 
ers is above 406°F (208°C), a length of uninsulated steel 
tubing at least 5 ft (1.5 m) long shall immediately follow 
the condenser ahead of the connecting copper tubing to 
the instrument. 



52 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



(D.2) The minimum size of the tubing or piping is 
a function of its length, the volume of fluid required to 
produce full scale deflections of the instrument, and the 
service of the instrument. When required to prevent 
plugging as well as to obtain sufficient mechanical 
strength, the inside diameter of the pipe or tube should 
not be less than 0.36 in. (9.14 mm), with a wall thickness 
of not less than 0.049 in. (1.25 mm). When these require- 
ments do not apply, smaller sizes with wall thickness 
in due proportions may be used. In either case, wall 
thickness of the pipe or tube shall meet the requirements 
of (D.3) below. 

(D3) The piping or tubing shall be designed in 
accordance with para. 104 with consideration for water 
hammer. 

(E) Fittings and Joints 

(E.2) For dead end steam service and for water 
above 150°F (65°C), fittings of the. flared, flareless, or 
socket welding type, or other suitable type of similar 
design shall be used. The fittings shall be suitable for 
the header pressure and corresponding saturated steam 
temperature or water temperature, whichever applies. 
For supercritical pressure conditions the fittings shall 
be suitable for the design pressure and temperature of 
the main fluid line. 

(E.2) For water, oil and similar instrument services, 
any of the following types may be used, within the 
pressure-temperature limitations of each: 

(£.2.2) For main line hydraulic pressures above 
500 psi (3 450 kPa) and temperatures up to 150°F (65°C), 
steel fittings either of the flared, flareless, socket welded, 
fusion welded, or silver brazed socket type shall be used. 
(E.2. 2) For main line pressures up to 500 psi 
(3 450 kPa) and temperatures up to 150°F (65°C), the 
fittings may be flared or silver brazed socket type, 
inverted flared or flareless compression type, all of brass 
or bronze. 

(E.2. 3) For pressures up to 175 psi (1 200 kPa) or 
temperatures up to 250°F (120°C), soldered type fittings 
may be used with water-filled or air-filled tubing under 
adjusted pressure-temperature ratings. These fittings 
are not recommended where mechanical vibration, 
hydraulic shock, or thermal shock are encountered. 

122.3.3 Control Piping 

(A) Takeoff Connections 

(A.l) Takeoff connections shall be in accordance 
with para. 122.3.2(A.l). 

(B) Valves 

(B.l) Shutoff valves shall be in accordance with 
para. 122.3.2(B.l). 

(C) Materials 

(C.l) The same materials may be used for control 
lines as for instrument lines, except that the minimum 
inside diameter shall be 0.178 in. (4.52 mm) with a mini- 
mum wall thickness of 0.028 in. (0.71 mm), provided 
that this wall thickness is not less than that required by 



para. 122.3.2(D.3). If a control device has a connection 
smaller than \ in. (6.0 mm), the size reduction from the 
control tubing to the control device shall be made as 
close to the control device as possible. 
(D) Fittings and Joints 

(D.2) Fittings and joints shall be in accordance with 
para. 122.3.2(E.2). 

1223.4 Sampling Piping 

(A) Takeoff Connections 

(A.l) Takeoff connections shall be in accordance 
with para. 122.3.2(A.l). 

(B) Valves 

(B.l) Shutoff valves shall be in accordance with 
para. 122.3.2(B.l). 

(B.l) Blowdown valves shall be of the gradual 
opening type and shall be suitable for main line design 
pressure and temperature. 

(C) Materials 

(C.l) The materials to be used for sampling lines 
shall conform to minimum requirements for the main 
line to which they connect. 

(D) Fittings and joints 

(D.2) For subcritical and supercritical pressure 
steam, and for water above 150°F (65°C), fittings of the 
flared, flareless, or socket welding type, or other suitable 
type of similar design shall be used. The fittings shall be 
suitable for main line design pressure and temperature, 

(D.2) For water below 150°F (65°C), fittings and 
joints shall be suitable for main line design pressure 
and temperature and shall be in accordance with para. 
122.3.2(E.2). 

1223.6 Fittings and Joints 

(A) All fittings shall be in accordance with standards 
and specifications listed in Table 126.1. 

(A.l) Socket w r elded joints shall comply with the 
requirements of para. 111.3. 

(A.l) Flared, flareless, and compression type fit- 
tings and their joints shall comply with the requirements 
of para. 115. 

(A3) Silver brazed socket type joints shall comply 
with the requirements of paras. 117.1 and 117.3. 

(AA) Solder type joints shall comply with the 
requirements of paras. 117.2 and 117.3. 

(A. 5) The use of taper threaded joints up to and 
including NPS \ is permitted at pressures up to 5,000 
psi (34 500 kPa) in dead end service from outlet end 
and downstream of shutoff valve located at instrument, 
at control apparatus, or at discharge of sample cooler; 

1223.7 Special Safety Provisions 

(A) Connecting piping subject to clogging from solids 
or deposits shall be provided with suitable connections 
for cleaning. 

(B) Connecting piping handling air and gases con- 
taining moisture or other extraneous materials shall be 



53 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



provided with suitable drains or settling chambers or 
traps. 

(C) Connecting piping which may contain liquids 
shall be protected from damage due to freezing by heat- 
ing or other adequate means. 

122.3.8 Supports. Supports shall be furnished as 
specified in para. 121 not only for safety but also to 
protect the piping against detrimental sagging, external 
mechanical injury abuse/ and exposure to unusual ser- 
vice conditions. 

122.3.9 Installations 

(A) Instrument control, and sampling piping shall 
be inspected and tested in accordance with paras. 136 
and 137. 

(B) The inside of all piping, tubing, valves, and fit- 
tings shall be smooth, clean, and free from blisters, loose 
mill scale, sand, and dirt when erected. All lines shall be 
cleaned after installation and before placing in service. 

(07) 122.4 Spray-Type Desuperheater Piping for Use on 
Steam Generators, Main Steam, and Reheat 
Steam Piping 

(A) Valves and Piping Arrangement 

(A.l) Each spray water pipe connected to a desuper- 
heater shall be provided with a stop valve and a regulat- 
ing (spray control) valve. The regulating valve shall be 
installed upstream of the stop valve. In addition, if the 
steam generator supplies steam to a steam turbine, a 
power-operated block valve 3 shall be installed upstream 
of the regulating valve. 

(A. 2) A bypass valve around the regulating valve 
is permitted. 

(A3) A bypass valve around the power-operated 
block valve is prohibited. 

(AA) On a superheater or reheater desuperheater, 
a drain valve shall be installed between the power- 
operated block valve and the regulating valve. 

(A3) If the spraywater supply is from the boiler 
feed water system, and its source is not downstream of 
the feed water check valve required by para. 122.1.7, a 
check valve shall be provided in the spraywater piping 
between the desuperheater and the spraywater source. 

(A3) It is recommended that the valves and piping 
be arranged to provide a head of water on the down- 
stream side of the stop valve. 

(A J) A typical arrangement is shown in Fig. 122.4, 

(A3) Provisions shall be made to both steam and 
water systems to accommodate the operating conditions 
associated with this service including: water hammer, 
thermal shock and direct water impingement. The con- 
nection for the spraywater pipe should be located per 
the requirements established by the manufacturer so that 



° For information on the prevention of water damage to steam 
turbines used for electric power generation, see ASME TDP-1. 



complete flow mixing is achieved prior to any bends, 
elbows, or other flow directional changes being encoun- 
tered. 

(A. 9) Insertabie-type desuperheaters, which 
include an integral stop and spraywater regulating 
valve, may be used within the limitations established 
by the manufacturer. If this type is used, the individual 
stop and regulating valves shown in Fig. 122.4 may be 
omitted. All other requirements described in para. 122.4 
shall apply. 

(A.10) For Desuperheater s Located Within Main Steam 
or Reheat Steam Piping. The steam system to be desuper- 
heated shall be provided with proper drainage during 
all water flow conditions. The drainage system shall 
function both manually and automatically. 
(B) Design Requirements 

(B.l) The value of P to be used in the formulas of 
para. 104 shall be as follows: 

(B.l.l) For piping from the desuperheater back 
to the stop valve required by (A.l) above, the value of P 
shall be equal to or greater than the maximum allowable 
working pressure of the desuperheater. 

(B/1.2) For the remainder of the spraywater pip- 
ing system, the value of P shall be not less than the 
maximum sustained pressure exerted by the spraywater. 

(B.l) The stop valve required by (A.l) above shall 
be designed for the pressure requirement of (B.l.l) above 
or the maximum sustained pressure exerted by the 
spraywater, whichever is greater. 

(B3) The S value used for the spraywater piping 
shall not exceed that permitted for the expected temper- 
ature. 

NOTE: The temperature varies from that of the desuperheater 
to that of the spraywater source and is highly dependent on the 
piping arrangement. It is the responsibility of the designer to deter- 
mine the design temperature to be used for the various sections 
of the piping system. 

122.5 Pressure-Reducing Valves 

122.5.1 General. Where pressure-reducing valves 
are used, one or more relief devices or safety valves shall 
be provided on the low pressure side of the system. 
Otherwise, the piping and equipment on the low pres- 
sure side of the system shall be designed to withstand 
the upstream design pressure. The relief or safety 
devices shall be located adjoining or as close as practica- 
ble to the reducing valve. The combined relieving capac- 
ity provided shall be such that the design pressure of 
the low pressure system will not be exceeded if the 
reducing valve fails open. 

122.5.2 Bypass Valves. Hand controlled bypass 
valves having a capacity no greater than the reducing 
valve may be installed around pressure reducing valves 
if the downstream piping is protected by relief valves 
as required in para. 122.5.1 or if the design pressure of 



54 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Fig. 122.4 Desuperheater Schematic Arrangement 

^Desuperheater 



(07) 




Stop valve 



Regulating valve u/f 



From spray 
water source 



Block valve 




GENERAL NOTE: 



Drain valve — required on superheater and 
reheater desuperheaters 

This Figure is a schematic only and is not intended to show equipment layout or orientation. 



the downstream piping system and equipment is at least 
as high as the upstream pressure. 

122.5.3 Design of Valves and Relief Devices. Pres- 
sure reducing and bypass valves, and relief devices, shall 
be designed for inlet pressure and temperature condi- 
tions. Safety and relief valves shall be in accordance 
with the requirements of para. 107.8 of this Code. 

122.6 Pressure Relief Piping 

Pressure relief piping within the scope of this Code 
shall be supported to sustain reaction forces, and shall 
conform to the requirements of paras. 122.6.1 and 
122.6.2. 

122.6.1 Piping to Pressure-Relieving Safety Devices 

(A) There shall be no intervening stop valve(s) 
between piping being protected and. the protective 
device(s). 

(B) Diverter or changeover valves designed to allow 
servicing of redundant protective devices without sys- 
tem depressurization may be installed between the pip- 
ing to be protected and the required protective devices 
under the following conditions: 

(B.l) Diverter or changeover valves are prohibited 
on boiler external piping or reheat piping. 

(B.2) One hundred percent (100%) of the required 
relieving capacity shall be continuously available any 
time the system is in service. 

(B.3) Positive position indicators shall be provided 
on diverter or changeover valves. 



(BA) Positive locking mechanisms and seals shall 
be provided on diverter or changeover valves to pre- 
clude unauthorized or accidental operation. 

(B.5) Diverter or changeover valves shall be 
designed for the most severe conditions of pressure, 
temperature, and loading to which they are exposed, 
and shall be in accordance with para. 107. 

(B.6) Provision shall be made to safely bleed off the 
pressure between the isolated protective device and the 
diverter or changeover valve. 

122.6.2 Discharge Piping From Pressure-Relieving 
Safety Devices 

(A) There shall be no intervening stop valve between 
the protective device or devices and the point of dis- 
charge. 

(B) When discharging directly to the atmosphere, dis- 
charge shall not impinge on other piping or equipment 
and shall be directed away from platforms and other 
areas used by personnel. 

(C) It is recommended that individual discharge lines 
be used, but if two or more reliefs are combined, the 
discharge piping shall be designed with sufficient flow 
area to prevent blowout of steam or other fluids. Sec- 
tional areas of a discharge pipe shall not be less than 
the full area of the valve outlets discharging thereinto 
and the discharge pipe shall be as short and straight as 
possible and so arranged as to avoid undue stresses on 
the valve or valves. 



55 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



(D) Discharge lines from pressure-relieving safety 
devices within the scope of this Code shall be designed 
to facilitate drainage. 

(E) When the umbrella or drip pan type of connection 
is used, the discharge piping shall be so designed as to 
prevent binding due to expansion movements. 

(F) Drainage shall be provided to remove water col- 
lected above the safety valve seat. 

(G) Carbon steel materials listed in Appendix A may 
be used for discharge piping which is subjected to tem- 
peratures above 800 C F (427°C) only during operation of 
pressure relieving safety devices provided that 

(G.l) the duration of pressure relieving safety 
device operation is self-limiting 

(G.l) the piping discharges directly to atmosphere 
(G3) the allowable stresses for carbon steel materi- 
als at temperatures above 800°F (427°C) shall be taken 
from Section II, Part D, Table 1 A for materials applicable 
to Section I and Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 

122 J Piping for Flammable or Combustible Liquids 

122.7.1 General. Piping for flammable or combusti- 
ble liquids including fuel and lubricating oils is within 
the scope of this Code. Piping for synthetic lubricants 
having no flash or fire point need not meet the require- 
ments of para. 122,7. 

The designer is cautioned that among other criteria, 
static electricity may be generated by the flowing fluid. 
Additionally, the designer is cautioned of the extreme 
chilling effect of a liquefied gas flashing to vapor during 
loss of pressure. This is a factor for determining the 
lowest expected service temperature relative to the pos- 
sibility of brittle fracture of materials. Consideration 
shall also be given, to the pressure rise that may occur 
as a cold fluid absorbs heat from the surroundings. 

122.7.2 Materials 

(A) Seamless steel or nickel alloy piping materials 
shall be used in all areas where the line is within 25 ft 
(7.6 m) of equipment or other lines having an open flame 
or exposed parts with an operating temperature above 
400°F (204°C). Seamless steel or nickel alloy pipe shall 
also be used for fuel oil systems located downstream of 
burner shutoff valve(s). The burner shutoff valve(s) shall 
be located as close to the burner as is practical. 

(B) In all other areas, piping systems may include 
pipe or tube of steel, nickel alloy, copper, or brass con- 
struction. Copper tubing shall have a thickness not less 
than that required by para. 104.1.2(C3), regardless of 
pressure. Refer also to paras. 105, 124.6, and 124.7(A). 

Wherever materials other than steel or nickel alloy 
are used, they shall be so located that any spill resulting 
from the failure of these materials will not unduly expose 
persons, buildings, or structures, or can be readily con- 
trolled by remote valves. 



(C) For lubricating oil. systems, steel tubing is an 
acceptable alternative to steel pipe. 

(D) Polyethylene (PE) and reinforced thermosetting 
resin (RTR) pipe may be used for flammable or combusti- 
ble liquids in buried installations only. The fluid temper- 
atures shall not exceed 140°F (60°C) and pressures shall 
be limited to 150 psi (1 000 kPa). Where such PE or RTR 
pipe is used in flammable or combustible liquid service, 
the rules of Appendix III shall be considered mandatory. 
Where jurisdictional requirements mandate that double 
containment pipe be used, the rules of Appendix III 
shall be applied to both the inner and outer pipe. 

Particular care must be exercised to prevent damage 
to RTR piping at the connection to the main or other 
facility. Precautions shall be taken to prevent crushing 
or shearing of RTR piping due to external loading or 
settling of backfill and to prevent damage or pull out 
from the terminal connection resulting from thermal 
expansion or contraction. 

RTR piping may terminate above ground and outside 
a building, provided that: 

(D.l) the above ground portion of the RTR pipe is 
completely enclosed in a conduit or casing of sufficient 
strength to provide protection from external damage 
and deterioration. Where a flexible conduit is used, the 
top of the riser must be attached to a solid support. 
The conduit or casing shall extend a minimum of 6 in. 
(150 mm) below grade, 

(D.2) the RTR pipe is not subjected to excessive 
stresses due to external loading. 

122.7.3 Piping Joints 

(A) Wielded joints shall be used between steel or nickel 
alloy piping components where practicable. Where 
bolted flanged joints are necessary, the gasket material 
shall be suitable for the service. Where threaded joints 
and compression fittings are unavoidable, the following 
requirements shall be met: 

(A.l) For threaded joints, the pipe thickness shall 
be not less than Extra Strong regardless of pressure or 
type of material. 

(A.l) The requirements of para. 114 shall apply to 
all threaded joints. 

(A3) Threaded joints and compression fittings 
shall be assembled carefully to ensure leak tightness. 
Threaded joints shall meet the requirements of para. 
135.5. Compression fittings shall meet the requirements 
of paras. 115 and 135.6. A thread sealant, suitable for 
the service, shall be used in threaded joints unless the 
joint is to be seal welded or a gasket or O-ring is used 
to provide sealing at a surface other than the threads, 

(B) Threaded joints in copper or brass pipe shall be 
subject to the same limitations as for steel pipe in (A.l), 
(A.2), and (A.3), above. 

(C) Copper tubing shall be assembled with flared, 
flareless, or compression type joints as prescribed in 



56 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASAAE B31.1-2007 



para. 115, or brazed in accordance with para. 117. Soft 
solder type joints are prohibited. 

(D) RTR pipe shall be adhesive bonded in accordance 
with the pipe manufacturer's recommended procedures. 

(E) Pipe joints dependent on the friction characteris- 
tics or resiliency of combustible materials for mechanical 
or leak tightness of piping shall not be used inside 
buildings. 

(F) Steel tubing shall be assembled with fittings in 
accordance with para. 115, or with socket weld fittings. 

122.7.4 Valves and Specialties. Valves, strainers, 
meters, and other specialties shall be of steel or nickel 
alloy construction. As an alternative, ductile or mallea- 
ble iron or copper alloy valves and specialties may be 
used, subject to the restrictions in paras. 124.6 and 124.7, 
where metal temperatures do not exceed 400°F (204°C). 

(o?) 122.8 Piping for Flammable Gases, Toxic Fluids 

(Gases or Liquids), or Nonflammable Nontoxic 

Gases 

(A) Although some gases are liquefied for storage or 
transport, they shall be considered as gases if their Reid 
vapor pressure is greater than 40 psia [2 068.6 mm Hg 
(absolute)] at 100°F (37.8°C). 

(B) Threaded joints and compression fittings may be 
used subject to the limitations of para. 114.2.1(B) and 
other specific limitations identified below, except they 
are permitted at connections to refillable storage contain- 
ers and associated pressure regulators, shutoff valves, 
pumps, and meters, to a maximum pressure of 5,000 psig 
[34 475 kPa (gage)], provided the size does not exceed 
NFS % (DN 20).' 

122.8.1 Flammable Gas 

(A) Some of the common flammable gases are acety- 
lene, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen, methane, propane, 
butane, and natural or manufactured gas used for fuel. 
It shall be the designers' responsibility to determine 
the limiting concentrations (upper and lower explosive 
limits) and the properties of the gas under consideration. 
The use of explosive concentrations shall be avoided, 
or the piping shall be designed to withstand explosive 
forces. 

The designer is further cautioned of the extreme chill- 
ing effect of gas during rapid expansion. This is a factor 
for determining the lowest expected service temperature 
relative to the possibility of brittle fracture of materials. 

(B) Materials. Steel piping, subject to the limitations 
in para. 105, shall be used for all flammable gases, except 
as otherwise permitted in (B.2), (B.3), and (B.4) below. 

(BA) Welded joints shall be used between steel 
components where practicable. Where bolted flanged 
joints are necessary the gasket material shall be suitable 
for the service. Where threaded joints and compression 
fittings are unavoidable, the following requirements 
shall be met: 



(B.l.l) For threaded joints, the pipe thickness 
shall be not less than Extra Strong regardless of pressure 
or type of material. 

(B.1.2) Threaded joints and compression fittings (07) 
may be used subject to the limitations of para. 122.8(B). 

(B.1.3) Threaded joints and compression fittings 
shall be assembled carefully to ensure leak tightness. 
Threaded joints shall meet the requirements of para. 
135.5. Compression fittings shall meet the requirements 
of paras. 115 and 135.6. A thread sealant, suitable for 
the service, shall be used in threaded joints unless the 
joint is to be seal welded or a gasket or Oring is used 
to provide sealing at a surface other than the threads. 
(B.2) For hydrogen systems, the following alterna- 
tive materials may be used: 

(B.2.1) seamless steel tubing with welded joints; 

(B.2. 2) seamless copper or brass pipe or tubing 
with brazed, threaded, or compression fitting joints. 
Threaded fittings shall not exceed NFS \ (DN 20). For 
protection against damage, tubing shall be installed in 
a guarded manner that will prevent damage during con- 
struction, operation, or service. Valves with suitable 
packing, gages, regulators, and other equipment may 
also consist of copper alloy materials. Safety relief 
devices shall be vented individually, and connected vent 
piping shall be designed to convey the fluid, without 
pockets, to the outside atmosphere; and then directed 
away from equipment ventilation systems, and vents 
from other systems. 

(B.3) For fuel gas instrumentation and control, 
seamless copper tubing subject to the following restric- 
tions may be used: 

(B.3.1) The design pressure shall not exceed 
100 psi (690 kPa). 

(B.32) Tubing shall not exceed % in. (15.9 mm) 
nominal outside diameter. 

(B.3. 3) All joints shall be made with compression 
or flared fittings. 

(B.3. 4) Copper tubing shall not be used if the fuel 
gas contains more than 0.3 grains (19.4 mg) of hydrogen 
sulfide per 100 cu ft/min (47 liters/ sec) of gas at stan- 
dard conditions. 

(B3.5) Consideration shall be given in the design 
to the lower strength and melting point of copper com- 
pared to steel. Adequate support and protection from 
high ambient temperatures and vibration shall be 
provided. 

(B.3. 6) Tubing shall be installed in a guarded 
manner that will prevent damage during construction, 
operation, and service. 

(B.4) Polyethylene (PE) pipe may be used for natu- 
ral gas service in buried installations only. The fluid 
temperatures shall not exceed 140°F (60 °C) nor be below 
-20°F (-30°C), and pressures shall be limited to 100 psi 
(690 kPa). Pipe joints shall be heat fused in accordance 
with manufacturer's recommended procedures. Where 



57 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



PE pipe is used in flammable gas service, the rules of 
Appendix III shall be considered mandatory. 

(C) Valves and Specialties. Valves, strainers, meters, 
and other specialties shall be of steel or nickel alloy 
construction. As as alternative, ductile iron or copper 
alloy valves and specialties may be used, subject to the 
restrictions in paras. 124.6 and 124.7, where metal tem- 
peratures do not exceed 400°F (204°C). 

(D) For in-plant fuel gas distribution system(s) where 
the use of a full-relieving-capacity relief valve(s) as 
described in para. 122.5 could create an undue venting 
hazard, an alternative pressure limiting design may be 
substituted. The alternative design shall include all pro- 
visions below: 

(D.l) Tandem Gas Pressure Reducing Valves. To pro- 
tect the low pressure system, two gas pressure reducing 
valves capable of independent operation shall be 
installed in series. Each shall have the capability of clos- 
ing off against the maximum upstream pressure, and of 
controlling the pressure on the low 7 pressure side at or 
below the design pressure of the low pressure system, 
in the event that the other valve fails open. Control lines 
must be suitably protected, designed, and installed so 
that damage to any one control line will not result in 
over pressurizing the downstream piping. 

(D.l) Trip Stop Valve. A fail-safe trip stop valve shall 
be installed to automatically close, in less than 1 sec, at 
or below T the design pressure of the downstream piping. 
It shall be a manually reset design. The pressure switch 
for initiating closure of the trip stop valve shall be hard- 
wired directly to the valve tripping circuit. The pressure 
switch shall be mounted directly on the low 7 pressure 
piping without an intervening isolation valve. The trip 
stop valve shall be located so that it is accessible and 
protected from mechanical damage and from weather or 
other ambient conditions which could impair its proper 
functioning. It may be located upstream or downstream 
of the tandem gas pressure reducing valves. The trip 
stop valve and all upstream piping shall be designed 
for the maximum upstream supply pressure. The trip 
stop valve may also serve as the upstream isolation valve 
of a double-block and vent gas supply isolation system. 
Provision shall be made to safely bleed off the pressure 
downstream of the trip stop valve. 

(D3) Safety Relief Device. The low pressure system 
shall be protected from any leakage through the pressure 
reducing valves, when closed, by a safety relief device(s) 
constructed and designed in accordance with paras. 
107.8.3 and 122.5.3, and sized for the possible leakage 
rate, 

122.8.2 Toxic Fluids (Gas or Liquid) 

(A) For the purpose of this Code, a toxic fluid is one 
that may be lethal, or capable of producing injury and/ 
or serious illness through contact, inhalation, ingestion, 
or absorption through any body surface. It shall be the 
designers' responsibility to adopt the safety precautions 



Table 122.8.2(B) Minimum Wall Thickness 
Requirements for Toxic Fluid Piping 



Carbon and Low 
Alloy Steel 

(App. A, Tables 
A-l and A- 2) 



Stainless and 

Nickel Alloy Steel 

(App. A, Tables 

A-3 and A-4) 



NPS 2 (DN 50) and Extra strong 



smaller 

Larger than NPS 2 
(DN 50) 



Standard weight 



Schedule 10S 



Schedule 5S 



published by the relevant fluid industry which may be 
more stringent than those described in this Code for 
toxic fluids. In addition, the piping shall be installed 
in such a manner that will minimize the possibility of 
damage from external sources. 

(B) Preferably, pipe and pipe fittings should be seam- 
less steel. Wall thickness shall not be less than that in 
Table 122.8.2(B). 

If the fluid is known to be corrosive to the steels in 
Table 122.8.2(B), the materials and wall thickness 
selected shall be suitable for the service. (Refer to para. 
104.1.2.) 

(O Welded joints shall be used between steel compo- 
nents where practicable. Backing rings used for making 
girth butt welds shall be removed after welding. Miter 
welds are prohibited. Fabricated branch connections 
(shaped branch pipe welded directly to run pipe) may 
be used only if other types of branch connections permit- 
ted by para. 104.3.1 are not available. Socket welded 
joints shall be used only with steel materials and shall 
not be larger than NPS 2 l / 2 (DN 65). Where bolted flanged 
joints are necessary, socket weld or welding neck flanges 
shall be used. Gasket materials shall be suitable for the 
service. Compression fittings are prohibited. Where the 
use of threaded joints is unavoidable, all of the following 
requirements shall be met: 

(C.l) The pipe thickness shall be not less than Extra 
Strong, regardless of pressure or type of material. 

(C.l) In addition to the provisions of para. 122.8(B), (07) 
threaded joints and compression fittings may be used 
at connections to refillable storage containers and associ- 
ated pressure regulators, shutoff valves, pumps, and 
meters to a maximum pressure of 50 psig [345 kPa 
(gage)], provided the size does not exceed NPS 2 
(DN 50). 

(C.3) Threaded joints shall be assembled carefully 
to ensure leak tightness. The requirements of para. 135.5 
shall be met. A thread sealant, suitable for the service, 
shall be used unless the joint is to be seal welded or a 
gasket or O-ring is used to provide sealing at a surface 
other than the threads. 

(D) Steel valves shall be used. Bonnet joints with 
tapered threads are not permitted. Special consideration 



58 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



shall be given to valve design to prevent stem leakage 
to the environment. Bonnet or cover plate closures and 
other body joints shall be one of the following types: 

(D.l) union 

(D.2) flanged with suitable gasketing and secured 
by at least four bolts 

(D.3) proprietary, attached by bolts, lugs, or other 
substantial means, and having a design that increases 
gasket compression as fluid pressure increases 

(DA) threaded with straight threads sufficient for 
mechanical strength, metal-to-metal seats, and a seal 
weld made in accordance with para. 127.4.5, all acting 
in series 

(E) Tubing not larger than % in. (16 mm) O.D. with 
socket welding fittings may be used to connect instru- 
ments to the process line. An accessible root valve shall 
be provided at the process lines to permit isolating the 
tubing from the process piping. The layout and mount- 
ing of tubing shall minimize vibration and exposure to 
possible damage. 

(F) The provisions of para. 102.2.4 are not permitted. 
The simplified rules for analysis in para. 119.7.1 (A.3) 
are not permitted. The piping system shall be designed 
to minimize impact and shock loads. Suitable dynamic 
analysis shall be made where necessary to avoid or mini- 
mize vibration, pulsation, or resonance effects in the 
piping. The designer is cautioned to consider the possi- 
bility of brittle fracture of the steel material selected over 
the entire range of temperatures to which it may be 
subjected. 

(G) For dry chlorine service between -29°C (-20°F) 
and 149°C (300°F), the pipe material shall not be less in 
thickness than seamless Extra Strong steel. 

(H) Toxic fluid piping shall be pneumatic leak tested 
in accordance with para. 137.5. Alternatively, mass spec- 
trometer or halide leak testing in accordance with para. 
137.6, and a hydrostatic test in accordance with para. 
137.3 may be performed. 

122.8.3 Nonflammable Nontoxic Gas 

(A) Piping for nonflammable and nontoxic gases, 
such as air, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, shall 
comply with the requirements of this Code, except as 
otherwise permitted in (B) (below). The designer is cau- 
tioned of the extreme chilling effect during rapid expan- 
sion. This is a factor for determining the lowest expected 
service temperature relative to the brittle fracture of the 
material selected. 
(07) (B) Threaded joints and compression fittings may be 
used subject to the conditions of para. 122.8(B). 

122.9 Piping for Corrosive Liquids and Gases 

Where it is necessary to use special material, such as 
glass, plastics, or metallic piping lined with nonmetals, 
not listed in Table 126.1, for conveying corrosive or haz- 
ardous liquids and gases, the design shall meet the 
requirements of para. 104.7. 



122.10 Temporary Piping Systems 

Prior to test and operation of the power plant and 
its included piping systems, most power and auxiliary 
service piping are subjected to flushing or chemical 
cleaning to remove internal foreign material such as rust 
particles, scale, welding or brazing residue, dirt, etc., 
which may have accumulated within the piping during 
the construction period. The flushing or cleaning opera- 
tion may be accomplished by blowing out with steam 
or air, by hot oil circulation of oil systems, by acid or 
caustic fluid circulation, or by other flushing or cleaning 
methods. Temporary piping, that is piping attached to 
the permanent piping system whose function is to pro- 
vide means for introducing and removing the fluids used 
in the flushing or cleaning operations, shall be designed 
and constructed to withstand the operating conditions 
during flushing and cleaning. The following minimum 
requirements shall apply to temporary piping systems: 

(A) Each such system shall be analyzed for compli- 
ance with para. 103. 

(B) Connections for temporary piping to the perma- 
nent piping systems which are intended to remain, shall 
meet the design and construction requirements of the 
permanent system to which they are attached. 

(C) The temporary systems shall be supported such 
that forces and moments due to static, dynamic and 
expansion loadings will not be transferred in an unac- 
ceptable manner to the connected permanent piping 
system. Paragraphs 120 and 121 shall be used as guid- 
ance for the design of the temporary piping systems 
supporting elements. 

(D) The temporary systems shall be capable of with- 
standing the cyclic loadings which occur during the 
flushing and cleaning operations. Particular attention 
shall be given to the effects of large thrust forces which 
may be generated during high velocity blowing cycles. 
Where steam piping is to be subjected to high velocity 
blowing operations, continuous or automatic draining 
of trapped or potentially trapped water within the sys- 
tem shall be incorporated. Supports at the exhaust termi- 
nals of blow down piping shall provide for restraint of 
potential pipe whip. 

(E) Where necessary, temporary systems containing 
cast iron or carbon steel material subject to chemical 
cleaning shall be prewarmed to avoid the potential for 
brittle failure of the material. 

(F) Where temporary piping has been installed and 
it does not comply with the requirements of this Code 
for permanent piping systems, it shall be physically 
removed or separated from the permanent piping to 
which it is attached prior to testing of the permanent 
piping system and prior to plant startup. 

122.11 Steam Trap Piping 

122.11.1 Drip Lines. Drip lines from piping or 
equipment operating at different pressures shall not be 
connected to discharge through the same trap. 



59 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



122.11.2 Discharge Piping. Trap discharge piping 
shall be designed to the same pressure as the inlet piping 
unless the discharge is vented to atmosphere, or is oper- 
ated under low pressure and has no stop valves. In no 
case shall the design, pressure of trap discharge piping 
be less than the maximum discharge pressure to which 
it may be subjected. Where two or more traps discharge 
into the same header, a stop valve shall be provided in 
the discharge line from each trap. Where the pressure 
in the discharge piping can exceed the pressure in the 
inlet piping, a check valve shall be provided in the trap 
discharge line. A check valve is not required if either the 
stop valve or the steam trap is designed to automatically 
prevent reverse flow and is capable of withstanding a 
reverse differential pressure equal to the design pressure 
of the discharge piping. 

122.12 Exhaust and Pump Suction Piping 

Exhaust and pump suction lines for any service and 
pressure shall have relief valves of suitable size unless 
the lines and attached equipment are designed for the 
maximum pressure to which they may accidentally or 
otherwise be subjected, or unless a suitable alarm indica- 
tor, such as a whistle or free blowing relief valve, is 
installed where it will warn the operator. 

122.13 Pump Discharge Piping 

Pump discharge piping from the pump up to and 
including the valve normally used for isolation or flow 
control shall be designed for the maximum sustained 
pressure exerted by the pump and for the highest coinci- 
dent fluid temperature, as a minimum. Variations in 
pressure and temperature due to occasional inadvertent 
operation are permitted as limited in para. 102.2.4 under 
any of the following conditions: 

(A) during operation of overpressure relief devices 
designed to protect the piping system and the attached 
equipment 

(B) during a short period of abnormal operation, such 
as pump overspeed 



(C) during uncontrolled transients of pressure or tem- 
perature 

122.14 District Heating and Steam Distribution 
Systems 

122.14.1 General. Where pressure reducing valves 
are used, one or more relief d evices or safety valves shall 
be provided on the low pressure side of the system. 
Otherwise, the piping and equipment on the low pres- 
sure side of the system shall be designed to withstand 
the upstream design pressure. The relief or safety 
devices shall be located adjoining or as close as practica- 
ble to the reducing valve. The combined relieving capac- 
ity provided shall be such that the design pressure of 
the low pressure system will not be exceeded if the 
reducing valve fails open. 

122.14.2 Alternative Systems. In district heating 
and steam distribution systems where the steam pres- 
sure does not exceed 400 psi (2 750 kPa) and where the 
use of relief valves as described in para. 122/14.1 is not 
feasible (e.g., because there is no acceptable discharge 
location for the vent piping), alternative designs may 
be substituted for the relief devices. In either case, it 
is recommended that alarms be provided which will 
reliably warn the operator of failure of any pressure 
reducing valve. 

(A) Tandem Steam Pressure Reducing Valves. Two or 
more steam pressure reducing valves capable of inde- 
pendent operation may be installed in series, each set 
at or below the safe working pressure of the equipment 
and piping system served. In this case, no relief device 
is required. 

Each pressure reducing valve shall have the capability 
of closing off against full line pressure, and of controlling 
the reduced pressure at or below the design pressure of 
the low pressure system, in the event that the other valve 
fails open. 

(B) Trip Stop Valves. A trip stop steam valve set to 
close at or below the design pressure of the low pressure 
system may be used in place of a second reducing valve 
or a relief valve. 



60 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Chapter ill 
Materials 



123 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

Chapter III contains limitations and required qualifi- 
cations for materials based on their inherent properties. 
Use of these materials in piping systems is also subject 
to requirements and limitations in other parts of this 
Code. 

123.1 Materials and Specifications 

123.1.1 Listed Materials. Material meeting the fol- 
lowing requirements shall be considered listed and 
acceptable material: 

(A) Materials for which allowable stress values are 
listed in Appendix A or which have been approved by 
the procedure established by (C) below, 

(B) A material conforming to a specification for which 
allowable stresses are not listed in Appendix A is accept- 
able provided its use is not specifically prohibited by 
this Code Section and it satisfies one of the following 
requirements: 

(B.l) It is referenced in a standard listed in 
Table 126.1. Such a material shall be used only within 
the scope of and in the product form covered by the 
referencing standard listed in Table 126.1. 

(B.l) It is referenced in other parts of this Code 
Section and shall be used only within the scope of and 
in the product form permitted by the referencing text. 

(C) Where it is desired to use materials which are not 
currently acceptable under the rules of this Code Section, 
written application shall be made to the Committee fully 
describing the proposed material and the contemplated 
use. Such material shall not be considered listed and 
not used as a listed material until it has been approved 
by the Committee and allowable stress values have been 
assigned. Details of information which should be 
included in such applications are given in Appendix VI. 
See para. 123.1.2. 

(D) Materials conforming to ASME SA or SB specifi- 
cations may be used interchangeably with material spec- 
ified to the listed ASTM A or B specifications of the 
same number, except w 7 here the requirements of para. 
123.2.2 apply 

(E) The tabulated stress values in Appendix A that 
are shown in italics are at temperatures in the range 
where creep and stress rupture strength govern the selec- 
tion of stresses. 

123.1.2 Unlisted Materials. Materials other than 
those meeting the requirements of para. 123.1.1 shall be 



considered unlisted materials. Such unlisted materials 
may only be used for nonboiler external piping provided 
they satisfy all of the following requirements: 

(A) Unlisted materials are certified by the material 
manufacturer to satisfy the requirements of a specifica- 
tion listed in any Code Section of the ASME B31 Code 
for Pressure Piping, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code, Section II, Part D, or to a published specification 
covering chemistry, physical and mechanical properties, 
method and process of manufacture, heat treatment, and 
quality control. 

(B) The allowable stresses of the unlisted materials 
shall be determined in accordance with the rules of para. 
102.3.1(C). 

(C) Unlisted materials shall be qualified for service 
within a stated range of minimum and maximum tem- 
peratures based upon data associated with successful 
experience, tests, or analysis; or a combination thereof. 

(D) The designer shall document the owner's accept- 
ance for use of unlisted material. 

(E) All other requirements of this Code are satisfied. 

123.1.3 Unknown Materials. Materials of unknown 
specification shall not be used for pressure containing 
piping components. 

123.1.5 Size or Thickness. Materials outside the 
limits of size or thickness given in the title or scope 
clause of any specification listed in Table 126.1 may be 
used if the material is in compliance with the other 
requirements of the specification, and no other similar 
limitation is given in the rules for construction. 

123.1.6 Marking of Materials or Products. Materials 
or products marked as meeting the requirements for 
more than one grade, type, or alloy of a material specifi- 
cation or multiple specifications, are acceptable pro- 
vided 

(A) one of the markings includes the material specifi- 
cation, grade, class, and type or alloy of the material 
permitted by this Code and the material, meets all the 
requirements of that specification 

(B) the appropriate allowable stress for the specified 
grade, type, or alloy of a material specification from 
Appendix A is used 

(C) all other requirements of this Code are satisfied 
for the material permitted 

123.1.7 Materials Manufactured to Other Specifica- 
tion Editions. Materials may meet the requirements of 



61 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



material specification editions other than the editions 
listed in Appendix F provided 

(A) the materials are the same specification, grade, 
type, class, or alloy, and heat-treated condition, as appli- 
cable. 

(B) the materia] tensile and yield strengths shall be 
compared and any differences shall be evaluated. If the 
material has a lower strength than required by the edi- 
tion of the specification in Appendix F, the effect of the 
reduction on the allowable stress and the design shall 
be reconciled. 

123.2 Piping Components 

123.2.1 General. Materials which do not comply 
with the rules of para. 123.1 may be used for flared, 
flareless, and compression type tubing fittings, provided 
that the requirements of para. 115 are met. 

123.2.2 Boiler External Piping 

(A) Materials for boiler external piping, as defined in 
para. 100.1.2(A), shall be specified in accordance with 
ASME SA, SB, or SFA specifications. Material produced 
under an ASTM specification may be used, provided 
that the requirements of the ASTM specification are 
identical or more stringent than the ASME specification 
for the Grade, Class, or Type produced. The material 
manufacturer or component manufacturer shall certify, 
with evidence acceptable to the Authorized Inspector, 
that the ASME specification requirements have been 
met. Materials produced to ASME or ASTM material 
specifications are not limited as to country of origin. 

(B) Materials which are not fully identified shall com- 
ply with PG-10 of Section I of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code. 

123.3 Pipe-Supporting Elements 

Materials used for pipe-supporting elements shall be 
suitable for the service and shall comply with the 
requirements of para. 121.2(C), para. 121.7.2(C), para. 
121.7.2(D), para. 123.1, or MSS SP-58. When utilizing 
MSS SP-58, the allowable stresses for unlisted materials 
shall be established in accordance with the rules of para. 
102.3.1(C) of ASME B31.1 in lieu of para. 4.4 of 
MSS SP-58. 

124 LIMITATIONS ON MATERIALS 
124.1 Temperature Limitations 

124.1.1 Upper Temperature Limits. The materials 
listed in the Allowable Stress Tables A-l through A-9, 
Appendix A, shall not be used at design temperatures 
above those for which stress values are given except as 
permitted by para. 122.6.2(G). 

124.1.2 Lower Temperature Limits. The designer 
shall give consideration to the possibility of brittle frac- 
ture at low service temperature. 



124.2 Steel 

(A) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 
800°F (427°C), the carbide phase of plain carbon steel, 
plain nickel alloy steel, carbon-manganese alloy steel, 
manganese-vanadium alloy steel, and carbon-silicon 
steel may be converted to graphite. 

(B) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 
875°F (470°C), the carbide phase of alloy steels, such as 
carbon-molybdenum, manganese-molybdenum- 
vanadium, manganese-chromium-vanadium, and 
chromium- vanadium, may be converted to graphite. 

(C) Carbon or alloy steel having carbon content of 
more than 0.35% shall not be used in welded construc- 
tion or be shaped by oxygen cutting process or other 
thermal cutting processes. 

(D) Where low alloy 2 l A% chromium steels are used 
at temperatures above 850°F, the carbon content of the 
base material and weld filler metal shall be 0.05% or 
higher. 

124.4 Cast Gray Iron 

The low ductility of cast gray iron may result in sud- 
den failure if shock loading (pressure, temperature, or 
mechanical) should occur. Possible shock loadings and 
consequences of failure must be considered before speci- 
fying the use of such material. Cast iron components 
may be used within the nonshock pressure-temperature 
ratings established by the standards and specifications 
herein and in para. 105.2.1(B). Castings to ASME SA-278 
and ASTM A 278 shall have maximum limits of 250 psig 
[1 725 kPa (gage)] and 450°F (230°C). 

The following referenced paragraphs prohibit or 
restrict the use of gray cast iron for certain applications 
or to certain pressure-temperature ratings: 



Pipe supports 

BEP blowoff 

BEP blow down 

BEP valves and fittings 

Blowoff valves 

Non-BEP blowoff 

Non-BEP blowdown 

Flammable or combustible liquids 

Flammable gases 

Toxic gases or liquids 

124.5 Malleable Iron 



121.7.2(C) 

122.1.4(A.3) 

122.1.4(B.3) 

122.1.7 

122.1.7(C5) & (C.6) 

122.2(A.l) 

122.2(A.2) 

122.7.3 

122.8.1(B) 

122.8.2 



Certain types of malleable iron have low ductility 
characteristics and may be subject to brittle fracture. 
Malleable iron may be used for design conditions not 
to exceed 350 psig [2 41.5 kPa (gage)] or 450°F (230°C). 

The following referenced paragraphs prohibit or 
restrict the use of malleable iron for certain applications 
or to certain pressure-temperature ratings: 



62 



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ASME 831.1-2007 



Pipe supports 121.7.2(D) 

BEP blowoff 122.1.4(A.3) 

BEP blowdown 122.1.4(B.3) 

Non-BEP blowoff 122.2(A.l) 

Non-BEP blowdown 122.2(A.2) 

Flammable or combustible liquids 1.22.7.3(C) 

Flammable gases 122.8.1(B) 

Toxic gases or liquids 122.8.2 

124.6 Ductile (Nodular) iron 

Ductile iron components complying with ANSI/ 
AWWA C110/A21.10, C115/A21.15, C151/A21.51, or 
C153/ A21.53 may be used for water and other nontoxic, 
nonflammable service, with pressure limits as specified 
in those standards and temperature limits as specified 
in para. 106(E). These components may not be used for 
boiler external piping. 

Ductile (nodular) iron components conforming to 
ASME B16.42 may be used for services including boiler 
external piping under the following conditions: 

(A) Components for boiler external piping shall be 
used only within the following limitations. 

(A.l) Only ASME SA-395 material may be used. 

(A.,2) Design pressure shall not exceed 350 psig 
[2 415k.Pa (gage)]. 

(A3) Design temperature shall not exceed 450°F 
(230°C). 

(B) Welding shall not be used, either in fabrication of 
the components or in. their assembly as a part of a piping 
system. 

(C) The following referenced paragraphs prohibit or 
restrict the use of ductile iron for certain applications 
or to certain pressure-temperature ratings: 



BEP blowoff 

BEP blowdown 

BEP blowoff valves 

Non-BEP blowoff 

Non-BEP blowdown 

Flammable or combustible liquids 

Flammable gases 

Toxic gases or liquids 

Pipe supports 

124.7 Nonferrous Metals 



122.1.4(A.3) 
122.1.4(B.3) 
122.1.7(C5) & (C.6) 

122.2(A.l) 

122.2(A.2) 

122.7.3(B) 

122.8.1(D) 

122.8.2 

123.3 



Nonferrous metals may be used in piping systems 
under the following conditions: 

(A) The melting points of copper, copper alloys, alu- 
minum, and aluminum alloys must be considered partic- 
ularly where there is a fire hazard. 

(B) The Designer shall consider the possibility of gal- 
vanic corrosion when combinations of dissimilar metals, 
such as copper, aluminum, and their alloys, are used in 
conjunction with each other or with steel or other metals 
in the presence of an electrolyte. 

(C) Threaded Connections. A suitable thread com- 
pound shall be used in making up threaded joints in 
aluminum pipe to prevent seizing which might cause 



leakage and perhaps prevent disassembly. Pipe in the 
annealed temper should not be threaded. 

124.8 Cladding and Lining Materials 

Materials with cladding or lining may be used pro- 
vided that 

(a) the base material is an approved Code material. 
The allowable stress used shall be that of the base metal 
at the design temperature. 

(b) the cladding or lining is a material that in the 
judgment of the user is suitable for the intended service, 
and the cladding/lining and its method of application 
do not detract from the serviceability of the base 
material. 

(c) bending procedures are such that damaging or 
detrimental thinning of the cladding material is pre- 
vented. 

(d) welding and the inspection of welds is in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Chapters V and VI of this 
Code. 

(e) the thickness of the cladding is not credited for 
structural strength in the piping design. 

124.9 Nonmetallic Pipe 

This Code recognizes the existence of a wide variety 
of nonmetallic piping materials which may be used on 
corrosive (either internal or external) or other specialized 
applications. Extreme care must be taken in their selec- 
tion as their design properties vary greatly and depend 
upon the material, type and grade. Particular consider- 
ation shall be given to the possibility of 

(A) destruction where fire hazard is involved. 

(B) decrease in tensile strength at slight increase in 
temperature. 

(C) effects of toxicity. Another consideration is that 
of providing adequate support for the flexible pipe. 

For nonmandatory rules for nonmetallic piping, see 
Appendix III of this Code. 

124.10 Deterioration of Materials in Service 

It is the responsibility of the engineer to select materi- 
als suitable for the intended application. Some guideline 
for selection of protective coatings for metallic piping 
are provided in Appendix IV. 

125 MATERIALS APPLIED TO MISCELLANEOUS 
PARTS 

125.1 Gaskets 

Limitations on gasket materials are covered in para. 
108.4. 

125.2 Bolting 

Limitations on bolting materials are covered in 
para. 108.5. 



63 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Chapter IV 
Dimensional Requirements 



126 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS 
FOR STANDARD AND NONSTANDARD PIPING 
COMPONENTS 

126.1 Standard Piping Components 

Dimensions of standard piping components shall 
comply with the standards and specifications listed in 
Table 126.1 in accordance with para. 100. 

126.2 Nonstandard Piping Components 

When nonstandard piping components are designed 
in accordance with para. 104, adherence to dimensional 
standards of ANSI and ASME is strongly recommended 
when practicable. 



1263 Referenced Documents 

The documents listed in Table 126.1 may contain refer- 
ences to codes, standards, or specifications not listed in 
this Table. Such unlisted codes, standards, or specifica- 
tions are to be used only in the context of the listed 
documents in which they appear. 

Where documents listed in Table 126.1 contain design 
rules which are in conflict with this Code, the design 
rules of this Code shall govern. 

The fabrication, assembly, examination, inspection, 
and testing requirements of Chapters V and VI apply 
to the construction of piping systems. These require- 
ments are not applicable to piping components manufac- 
tured in accordance with the documents listed in 
Table 126.1 unless specifically so stated. 



64 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Table 126.1 Specifications and Standards 



ASSC Publication 

Manual of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design 

ASTM Ferrous Material Specifications 



Bolts, Nuts, and Studs 

A 193/A 193M Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature Service 

A 194/A 194M Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-Pressure and High-Temperature Service 

A 307 Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60,000 psi Tensile Strength 

A 320 /A 320M Alloy-Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service 

A 354 Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs and Other Externally-Threaded Fasteners 

A 437/A 437M Alloy-Steel Turbine-Type Bolting Material Specially Heat Treated for High Temperature Service 

A 449 Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Studs 

A 453 / A 453M High-Temperature Bolting Materials, With Expansion Coefficients Comparable to Austenitic Steels 



Castings 

A 47/A 47M Ferritic Malleable Iron Castings 

A 48 Gray Iron Castings 

A 126 Gray Iron Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Pipe Fittings 

A 197/A 197M Cupola Malleable Iron 

A 216/A 216M Steel Castings, Carbon Suitable for Fusion Welding for High Temperature Service 

A 217/A 217M Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-Containing Parts Suitable for High-Temperature Service 

A 278/A 278M Gray Iron Castings for Pressure-Containing Parts for Temperatures Up to 650°F (350°C) 

A 351 /A 351M Steel Castings, Austenitic, for High-Temperature Service 

A 389/A 389M Steel Castings, Alloy, Specially Heat-Treated for Pressure-Containing Parts Suitable for High-Temperature Service 

A 395/A 395M Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining Castings for Use at Elevated Temperatures 

A 536 Ductile Iron Castings 



Forgings 

A 105/A 105M 
A 181/A 181M 
A 182/A 182M 
A 336/A 336M 
A350/A 350M 



Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Piping Components 

Forgings, Carbon Steel for General Purpose Piping 

Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service 

Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure and High-Temperature Parts 

Forgings, Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel, Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components 



Cast Pipe 

A 377 
A 426 
A 451 



Standard Index of Specifications for Ductile Iron Pressure Pipe 
Centrifugally Cast Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service 
Centrifugally Cast Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 

A 106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service 

A 179 /A 179M Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes 

A 192/A 192M Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High-Pressure Service 

A 199 Seamless Cold-Drawn Intermediate Alloy-Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes 

A 210/A 210M Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes 

A 213/A 213M Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes 

A 335 /A 335M Seamless Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service 

A 369/A 369M Carbon and Ferritic Alloy Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-Temperature Service 

A 376/A 376M Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High -Temperature Central-Station Service 



65 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table 126.1 Specifications and Standards (Cont'd) 



ASTM Ferrous Material Specifications (Cont'd) 

Seamless and Welded Pipe and Tube 

A 53/A 53M Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded and Seamless 

A 268/A 268M Seamless and Welded Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service 

A 312/A 312 Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe 

A 333/A 333M Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low-Temperature Service 

A 450/A 450M General Requirements for Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes 

A 530/A 530M General Requirements for Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe 

A 714 High-Strength Low-Alloy Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe 

A 789/ A 789M Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service 

A 790/A 790A/I Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe 

Welded Pipe and Tube 

A 134 Pipe, Steel, Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded (Sizes NPS 16 and Over) 

A 135 Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe 

A 139 Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded Steel Pipe (NPS 4 in. and Over) 

A 178 Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon and Carbon-Manganese Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes 

A 214/A 214M Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes 

A 249/A 249M Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat-Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes 

A 254 Copper Brazed Steel Tubing 

A 358/A 358M Electric-Fusion-Welded Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service 

A 409/A 409M Welded Large Diameter Austenitic Steel Pipe for Corrosive or High-Temperature Service 

A 587 Electric-Resistance-Welded Low-Carbon Steel Pipe for the Chemical Industry 

A 671 Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower Temperatures 

A 672 Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for High-Pressure Service at Moderate Temperatures 

A 691 Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High-Pressure Service at High Temperatures 

A 928 Ferritic/Austenitic (Duplex) Stainless Steel Pipe Electric Fusion Welded with Addition of Filler Metal 



Fittings 

A 234/A 234M 
A 403/A 403M 
A 420/A 420M 
A 815 



Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and Elevated Temperature Services 

Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings 

Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service 

Wrought Ferritic, Ferritic/Austenitic, and Martensitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings 



Plate, Sheet, and Strip 

A 240/A 240M Heat-Resistant Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate Sheet and Strip for Pressure Vessels 

A 283/A 283M Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates 

A 285/A 285M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Low- and Intermediate-Tensile Strength 

A 299/A 299M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Manganese-Silicon 

A 387/A 387M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Molybdenum 

A 515/A 515M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel for Intermediate- and Higher-Temperature Service 

A 516/A 516M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Moderate- and Lower-Temperature Service 

Rods, Bars, and Shapes 

A 276/A 276M Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes 

A 322 Steel Bars, Alloy, Standard Grades 

A 479/A 479M Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels 

A 564/A 564M Hot-Rolled and Cold-Finished Age-Hardening Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes 

A 575 Steel Bars, Carbon, Merchant Quality, M-Grades 

A 576 Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought, Special Quality 

Structural Components 

A 36/A 36M Structural Steel 

A 125 Steel Springs, Helical, Heat Treated 

A 229/A 229M Steel Wire, Oil-Tempered for Mechanical Springs 

A 242/A 242M High-Strength Low Alloy Structural Steel 

A 992 Structural Shapes 



66 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASIViE B31. 1-2007 



Table 126.1 Specifications and Standards (Cont'd) 



ASTM Monferrous Material Specifications 



Castings 

B 26/B 26M Aluminum-Alloy Sand Castings 

B 61 Steam or Valve Bronze Castings 

B 62 Composition Bronze or Ounce Metal Castings 

B 108 Aluminum-Alloy Permanent Mold Castings 

B 148 Aluminum-Bronze Sand Castings 

B 367 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Castings 

B 584 Copper Alloy Sand Castings for General Applications 



Forgings 

B 247 & B 247M 
B 283 
B 381 
B 462 



B 564 



Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Die, Hand, and Rolled Ring Forgings 

Copper and Copper-Alloy Die Forgings (Hot Pressed) 

Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings 

UNS N06030, UNS N06022, UNS N06200, UNS N08020, UNS N08024, UNS N08026, UNS N08367, UNS N10276, 
UNS N10665, UNS N10675, UNS R20033 Alloy Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings and Valves and Parts for Corrosive High- 
Temperature Service 

Nickel and Alloy Forgings 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 



(07) 



B 42 Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes 

B 43 Seamless Red Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes 

B 68 & B 68M Seamless Copper Tube, Bright Annealed 

B 75 Seamless Copper Tube 

B 88 & B 88M Seamless Copper Water Tube 

B 111 & B 111M Copper and Copper-Alloy Seamless Condenser Tubes and Ferrule Stock 

B 161 Nickel Seamless Pipe and Tube 

B 163 Seamless Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Condenser and Heat-Exchanger Tubes 

B 165 Nickel-Copper Alloy (UNS N04400) Seamless Pipe and Tube 

B 167 Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloy (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, and N06645) and Nickel-Chro- 
mium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617) Seamless Pipe and Tube 

B 210 & B 210M Aluminum Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes 

B 234 & B 234M Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes for Condensers and Heat Exchangers 

B 241/B 241M Aluminum-Alloy Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube 

B 251 & B 251M General Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube 

B 280 Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Field Service 

B 302 Threadless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes 

B 315 Seamless Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube 

B 407 Nickel-lron-Chromium Alloy Seamless Pipe and Tube 

B 423 Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper Alloy (UNS N08825 and N08821) Seamless Pipe and Tube 

B 466 / B 466M Seamless Copper-Nickel Pipe and Tube 

B 622 Seamless Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt Alloy Pipe and Tube 

B 677 UNS N08904, UNS N08925, and UNS N08926 Seamless Pipe and Tube 

B 729 Seamless UNS N08020, UNS N08026, and UNS N08024 Nickel-Alloy Pipe and Tube 

B 861 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Seamless Pipe 



Seamless and Welded Pipe and Tube 

B 338 Seamless and Welded Titanium and Titanium Alloy Tubes for Condensers and Heat Exchangers 

B 444 Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNS N06625) Plate, Sheet, and Strip 

Welded Pipe and Tube 

B 464 Welded (UNS N08020, N08024, N08026 Alloy) Pipe 

B 467 Welded Copper-Nickel Pipe 

B 468 Welded (UNS N08020, N08024, N08026) Alloy Tubes 

B 546 Electric Fusion-Welded Ni-Cr-Co-Mo Alloy (UNS N06617), Ni-Fe-Cr-Si Alloys (UNS N08330 and UNS N08332), Ni-Cr-Fe-Al 

Alloy (UNS N06603), Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy (UNS N06025), and Ni-Cr-Fe-Si Alloy (UNS N06045) Pipe 



67 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table 126.1 Specifications and Standards (Conf d) 



ASTM Nonferrous Material Specifications (Cont'd) 

Welded Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 

B 547 Aluminum and Atuminum-Alioy Formed and Arc-Welded Round Tube 

B 603 Welded Copper-Alloy Pipe 

(07) B 619 Welded Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt Alloy Pipe 

(07) B 626 Welded Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt Alloy Tube 

B 673 UNS N08904, UNS N08925, and UNS N08926 Welded Pipe 

B 674 UNS N08904, UNS N08925, and UNS N08926 Welded Tube 

B 704 Welded UNS N06625 and N08825 Alloy Tubes 

B 705 Nickel-Alloy (UNS N06625 and N08825) Welded Pipe 

B 862 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welded Pipe 

Fittings 

B 361 Factory-Made Wrought Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Welding Fittings 

B 366 Factory-Made Wrought Nickel and Nickel Alloy Fittings 

Plate, Sheet, and Strip 

B 168 Nickel-Chromium-iron Alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, NQ6690, N06693, N06025, N06045) and Nickel-Chro- 

mium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617) Plate, Sheet, and Strip 

B 209/B 209M Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate 

B 265 Titanium and Titanium-Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate 

B 402 Copper-Nickel Alloy Plate and Sheet for Pressure Vessels 

B 409 Nickel-lron-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip 

B 424 Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Alloy (UNS N08825 and N08221) Plate, Sheet, and Strip 

(07) B 435 UNS N06002, UNS N06230, UNS N12160, and UNS R30556 Plate, Sheet, and Strip 

B 443 Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNS N06625) Plate, Sheet, and Strip 

B 463 UNS N08020, UNS N08026, and UNS N08024 Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip 

B 625 UNS N08904, UNS N08925, UNS N08031, UNS N08932, UNS N08926, and UNS R20033 Plate, Sheet, and Strip 

Rods, Bars, and Shapes 

B 150 & B 150M Aluminum Bronze Rod, Bar, and Shapes 

B 151/B 151M Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloy (Nickel Silver) and Copper-Nickel Rod and Bar 

B 166 Nickei-Chromium-lron Alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, and N06045) and 

Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617) Rod, Bar, and Wire 

B 221 & B 221M Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes 

B 348 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets 
B 408 Nickel-lron-Chromium Alloy Rod and Bar 

B 425 Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Alloy (UNS N08825 and N08221) Rod and Bar 

B 446 Nickel-Chromium Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNS N06625) Rod and Bar 

B 473 UNS N08020, UNS N08024, and UNS N08026 Nickel Alloy Bar and Wire 

(07) B 572 UNS N06002, UNS N06230, UNS N12160, and UNS R30556 Rod 

B 649 Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Low-Carbon Alloy (N08904), Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N Low-Carbon Alloys (UNS N08925, UNS N08031, and 

UNS N08926), and Cr-Ni-Fe-N Low-Carbon Alloy (UNS R20033) Bar and Wire 

Solder 

B 32 Solder Metal 

B 828 Standard Practice for Making Capillary Joints by Soldering of Copper and Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings 



API Specification 

Seamless and Welded Pipe 

5L Line Pipe 

American National Standard 

Z223.1 National Fuel Gas Code (ANSi/NFPA 54) 



68 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831.1-2007 



Table 126.1 Specifications and Standards (Cont'd) 



MSS Standard Practices 

SP-6 Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and Connecting-End Flanges of Valves and Fittings 

SP-9 Spot-Facing for Bronze, Iron & Steel Flanges 

SP-25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Unions 

SP-42 [Note (1)] Class 150 Corrosion Resistant Gate, Globe, Angle and Check Valves With Flanged and Buttweld Ends 

SP-43 Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-Welding Fittings 

SP-45 Bypass & Drain Connection 

SP-51 Class 150 LW Corrosion Resistant Cast Flanges and Flanged Fittings 

SP-53 Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components — Mag- 

netic Particle Examination Method 

SP-54 Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Radio- 

graphic Examination Method 

SP-55 Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Visual 

Method for Evaluation of Surface Irregularities 

SP-58 Pipe Hangers & Supports, Materials, Design, and Manufacture 

SP-61 Hydrostatic Testing Steel Valves 

SP-67 [Note (1)] Butterfly Valves 

SP-68 High Pressure Butterfly Valves with Offset Design 

SP-69 Pipe Hangers & Supports — Selection and Application 

SP-75 Specification for High Test Wrought Butt-Welding Fittings 

SP-79 Socket Welding Reducer Inserts 

SP-80 Bronze Gate, Globe, Angle & Check Valve 

SP-83 Class 3000 Steel Pipe Unions, Socket Welding and Threaded 

SP-89 Pipe Hangers and Supports — Fabrication and Installation Practices 

SP-93 Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components — Liquid 

Penetrant Examination Method 

SP-94 Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components — Ultra- 

sonic Examination Method 

SP-95 Swage(d) Nipples and Bull Plugs 

5P-97 Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings - Socket Welding, Threaded and Buttwelding Ends 

SP-105 Instrument Valves for Code Applications 

(07) SP-106 Cast Copper Alloy Flanges and Ranged Fittings, Class 125, 150, and 300 

ASME Codes Si Standards 

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 

Bl.l Unified Inch Screw Threads 

B1.13M Metric Screw Threads - M Profile 

Bl.20.1 Pipe Threads, General Purpose (inch) 

Bl.20.3 Dryseal Pipe Threads (Inch) 

B16.1 Cast iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings - 25, 125, 250 & 800 Classes 

B16.3 Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings 

B16.4 Gray Iron Threaded Fittings 

B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings 

B16.9 Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings 

B16.10 Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves 

B16.ll Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded 

B16.14 Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Locknuts With Pipe Threads 

B16.15 Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250 

B16.18 Cast Copper Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure Fittings 

B16.20 Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges — Ring joint, Spiral Wound, and jacketed 

B16.21 Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges 

B16.22 Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder joint Pressure Fittings 

B16.24 Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings - Class 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 

B16.25 Butt Welding Ends 

B16.34 Valves — Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End 

B16.42 Ductile iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings — Classes 150 and 300 

B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges 

B16.48 Steel Line Blanks 

(07) B16.50 Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Braze-joint Pressure Fittings 

B18.2.1 Square and Hex Bolts and Screws - Inch Series 

B18.2.2 Square and Hex Nuts (Inch Series) 

69 

Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. & 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^ 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table 126.1 Specifications and Standards (Cont'd) 



ASME Codes & Standards (Cont'd) 

B18.23.5M Metric Hex Bolts 

B18.2.3.6M Metric Heavy Hex Bolts 

B18.2.4.6M Hex Nuts, Heavy, Metric 

B18.21.1 Lock Washers (inch Series) 

B18.22M Washers, Metric Plain 

B18.22.1 [Note Plain Washers 

(2)] 

B31.3 Process Piping 

B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids 

B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems 

B36.10M Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe 

B36.19M Stainless Steel Pipe 

TDP-1 Recommended Practices for the Prevention of Water Damage to Steam Turbines Used for Electric Power Generation ■ 
Fossil Fueled Plants 



AWS Specifications 



A3.0 
QC1 



Standard Welding Terms and Definitions 
Qualification and Certification of Welding Inspectors 



AWWA and ANSl/AWWA Standards 

C110/A21.10 Ductile-iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 3 in. Through 48 in. (76 mm Through 1200 mm), for Water and Other Liquids 

C111/A21.11 Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings 

C115/A21.15 Flanged Ductile-Iron Pipe With Threaded Flanges 

C150/A21.50 Thickness Design of Ductile-iron Pipe 

C151/A21.51 Ductile-Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast, for Water 

C153/A21.53 Ductile-Iron Compact Fittings, 3 in. Through 24 in. (76 mm Through 610 mm) and 54 in. Through 64 in. (1,400 mm 

Through 1,600 mm), for Water Service 

C200 Steel Water Pipe— 6 in. (150 mm) and Larger 

C207 Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Service-Sizes 4 in. Through 144 in. (100 mm Through 3,600 mm) 

C208 Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings 

C300 Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids (Includes Addendum C300a-93.) 

C301 Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids 

C302 Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Noncylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids 

C304 Design of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe 

C500 Metal-Seated Gate Valves for Water Supply Service 

C504 [Note (1)] Rubber Seated Butterfly Valves 

C509 Resilient-Seated Gate Valves for Water Supply Service 

C600 Installation of Ductile-Iron Water Mains and Their Appurtenances 

C606 Grooved and Shouldered joints 

National Fire Codes 

NFPA 1963 Screw Threads and Gaskets for Fire Hose Connections 

NFPA 8503 Standard for Pulverized Fuel Systems 

PFS Standards 



ES-16 
ES-24 



Access Holes and Plugs for Radiographic Inspection of Pipe Welds 
Pipe Bending Methods, Tolerances, Process and Material Requirements 



79-1 



FCS Standard 

Proof of Pressure Ratings for Pressure Regulators 



70 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-20G7 



Table 126.1 Specifications and Standards (Cont'd) 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) For boiler external piping application, see para. 123.2.2. 

(b) For alt other piping, materials conforming to an ASME SA or SB specification may be used interchangeably with material specified to an 
ASTM A or B specification of the same number listed in Table 126.1. 

(c) The approved year of issue of the specifications and standards is not given in this Table. This information is given in Appendix F of 
this Code. 

(d) The addresses and phone numbers of organizations whose specifications and standards are listed in this Table are given at the end of 
Appendix F. 

NOTES: 

(1) See para. 107.1(D) for valve stem retention requirements. 

(2) ANSI B18.22.1 is nonmetric. 



71 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ^SjX 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^^ 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Chapter V 
Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection 



127 WELDING 

127.1 General 

Piping systems shall be constructed in accordance 
with the requirements of this Chapter and of materials 
that have been manufactured in accordance with the 
requirements of Chapter IV. These requirements apply 
to all fabrication/ assembly, and erection operations, 
whether performed in a shop or at a construction site. 
The following applies essentially to the welding of fer- 
rous materials. The welding of aluminum, copper, etc., 
requires different preparations and procedures. 

127.1.1 The welding processes that are to be used 
under this part of this Code shall meet all the test require- 
ments of Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code. 

127.2 Material 

127.2.1 Electrodes and Filler Metal. Welding elec- 
trodes and filler metal, including consumable inserts, 
shall conform to the requirements of the ASME Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II, Part C. An electrode 
or filler metal not conforming to the above may be used 
provided the WPS and the w 7 elders and welding opera- 
tors who will follow the WPS have been qualified as 
required by ASME Section IX. Unless otherwise speci- 
fied by the designer, welding electrodes and filler metals 
used shall produce w T eld metal that complies with the 
following: 

(A) The nominal tensile strength of the weld metal 
shall equal or exceed the minimum specified tensile 
strength of the base metals being joined. 

(B) If base metals of different tensile strengths are to 
be joined, the nominal tensile strength of the weld metal 
shall equal or exceed the minimum specified tensile 
strength of the weaker of the two. 

(C) The nominal chemical analysis of the weld metal 
shall be similar to the nominal chemical analysis of the 
major alloying elements of the base metal [e.g., 2\% Cr, 
1% Mo steels should be joined using 2 ] / 4 % Cr, 1% Mo 
filler metals; see also para. 124.2(D)]. 

(D) If base metals of different chemical analysis are 
being joined, the nominal chemical analysis of the weld 
metal shall be similar to either base metal or an interme- 
diate composition, except as specified below for austen- 
itic steels joined to ferritic steels. 

(E) When austenitic steels are joined to ferritic steels, 
the weld metal shall have an austenitic structure. 



(F) For nonferrous metals, the weld metal shall be 
that recommended by the manufacturer of the nonfer- 
rous metal or by industry associations for that metal. 

(G) For unusual materials or combinations of materi- 
als, the design engineer shall specify the weld metal that 
is required. In addition, when a base metal is selected 
primarily for its corrosion resistance, and the media is 
aggressive towards the material, the use of weld metal 
that is electrochemically more noble than the base metal 
is recommended to ensure that selective corrosion of the 
weld metal does not occur (e.g., when using type 316L 
base metal in a strong acid, the use of 317L weld metal 
is preferred). 

127.2.2 Backing Rings. Backing rings, when used, 
shall conform to the following requirements: 

(A) Ferrous Rings. Ferrous metal backing rings that 
become a permanent part of the weld shall be made 
from material of weldable quality, compatible with the 
base material and the sulfur content shall not exceed 
0.05%. 

(A.l) Backing rings may be of the continuous 
machined or split band type. 

(A.l) If two abutting surfaces are to be welded to 
a third member used as a backing ring and one or two 
of the three members are ferritic and the other member 
or members are austenitic, the satisfactory use of such 
materials shall be determined by the WPS qualified as 
required in para. 127.5. 

(A3) Backing strips used at longitudinal welded 
joints shall be removed. 

(B) Nonferrous and Nonmetallic Rings. Backing rings 
of nonferrous or nonmetallic materials may be used for 
backing provided they are included in a WPS as required 
in para. 127.5. Nonmetallic or nonfusing rings shall be 
removed. 

127.23 Consumable Inserts. Consumable inserts 
may be used provided they are made from material 
compatible with the chemical and physical properties 
of the base material. Qualification of the WPS shall be 
as required by para. 127.5. 

1273 Preparation for Welding 

(A) End Preparation 
(A.l) Oxygen or arc cutting is acceptable only if 
the cut is reasonably smooth and true, and all slag is 
cleaned from the flame cut surfaces. Discoloration that 



72 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
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ASJV1E B31.1-2007 



Fig. 1273 Butt Welding of Piping Components With 
Internal Misalignment 




- V 16 in. (2.0 mm) or less 




P^-30 deg 
^^ max. 



- Greater than V 16 in. (2.0 mm 



may remain on the flame cut surface is not considered 
to be detrimental oxidation. 

(A. 2) Butt- welding end preparation dimensions 
contained in ASME B16.25 or any other end preparation 
which meets the WPS are acceptable. 

(A. 3) If piping component ends are bored, such bor- 
ing shall not result in the finished wall thickness after 
welding less than the minimum design thickness. Where 
necessary weld metal of the appropriate analysis may 
be deposited on the inside or outside of the piping com- 
ponent to provide sufficient material for machining to 
insure satisfactory fitting of rings. 

(A A) If the piping component ends are upset, they 
may be bored to allow for a completely recessed backing 
ring, provided the remaining net thickness of the fin- 
ished ends is not less than the minimum design 
thickness. 

(B) Cleaning. Surfaces for welding shall be clean and 
shall be free from paint, oil, rust, scale, or other material 
which is detrimental to welding. 

(C) Alignment. The inside diameters of piping com- 
ponents to be butt welded shall be aligned as accurately 
as is practicable within existing commercial tolerances 
on diameters, wall thicknesses, and out-of- roundness. 
Alignment shall be preserved during welding. The inter- 
nal misalignment of the ends to be joined shall not 
exceed ] / 16 in. (2.0 mm) unless the piping design specifi- 
cally states a different allowable misalignment. 

When the internal misalignment exceeds the allow- 
able, it is preferred that the component with the wall 
extending internally be internally trimmed per 
Fig. 127.3. However, trimming shall result in a piping 
component thickness not less than the minimum design 
thickness and the change in contour shall not exceed 
30 deg (see Fig. 127.3). 

(D) Spacing. The root opening of the joint shall be as 
given in the WPS. 

(E) Socket Weld Assembly. In assembly of the joint 
before welding, the pipe or tube shall be inserted into 



the socket to the maximum depth and then withdrawn 
approximately V 16 in. (2.0 mm) away from contact 
between the end of the pipe and the shoulder of the 
socket [see Figs. 127.4.4(B) and (C)]. In. sleeve-type joints 
without internal, shoulder, there shall, be a distance of 
approximately V 16 in. (2.0 mm) between the butting ends 
of the pipe or tube. 

The fit between the socket and the pipe shall conform 
to applicable standards for socket weld fittings and in 
no case shall the inside diameter of the socket or sleeve 
exceed the outside diameter of the pipe or tube by more 
than 0.080 in. (2.0 mm). 

127.4 Procedure 

127.4.1 General 

(A) Qualification of the WPS to be used, and of the 
performance of welders and operators, is required, and 
shall comply with the requirements of para. 127.5. 

(B) No welding shall be done if there is impingement 
of rain, snow, sleet, or high wind on the weld area. 

(C) Tack welds permitted to remain in the finished 
weld shall be made by a qualified welder. Tack welds 
made by an unqualified welder shall be removed. Tack 
welds which remain shall be made with an electrode 
and WPS which is the same as or equivalent to the 
electrode and WPS to be used for the first pass. The 
stopping and starting ends shall be prepared by grinding 
or other means so that they can be satisfactorily incorpo- 
rated into the final weld. Tack welds which have cracked 
shall be removed. 

(D) CAUTION: Arc strikes outside the area of the 
intended weld should be avoided on any base metal. 

127.4.2 Girth Butt Welds 

(A) Girth butt welds shall be complete penetration 
welds and shall be made with a single vee, double vee, 
or other suitable type of groove, with or without backing 
rings or consumable inserts. The depth of the w T eld mea- 
sured between the inside surface of the weld preparation 
and the outside surface of the pipe shall not be less than 
the minimum thickness required by Chapter II for the 
particular size and wall of pipe used. 

(B) In order to avoid abrupt transitions in the contour 
of the finished weld, the requirements of (B.l) through 
(B.4) below shall be met. 

(B.l) When components with different outside 
diameters or wall thicknesses are wielded together, the 
welding end of the component with the larger outside 
diameter shall fall within the envelope defined by solid 
lines in Fig. 127.4.2. The weld shall form a gradual transi- 
tion not exceeding a slope of 30 deg from, the smaller 
to the larger diameter component. This condition may 
be met by adding welding filler material, if necessary, 
beyond what would otherwise be the edge of the weld. 

(B.2) When both components to be welded (other 
than pipe to pipe) have a transition from a thicker section 
to the weld end preparation, the included angle between 



73 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Fig. 127.4.2 Welding End Transition — Maximum Envelope 



V 2 f m (min.) 



Outside 



45 deg max. 



V/ 2 t m {m\n.) 



■ Radius of at least 0.05t, 



■ See Note (2) 



Component or fitting 




Maximum — See Note (3) 
Minimum — 1.0 t m 



- Maximum slope 1:3 



Inside 



Radius of at least 0.05f, 



2f m (min.) 



Transition region 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The value of t m is whichever of the following is applicable: 

(1) as defined in para. 104.1.2(A) 

(2) the minimum ordered wall thickness of the cylindrical welding end of a component or fitting (or the thinner of the two) when the 
joint is between two components 

(b) The maximum envelope is defined by solid lines. 
NOTES: 

(1) Weld is shown for illustration only. 

(2) The weld transition and weld reinforcement shall comply with paras. 127.4.2(B) and (C.2) and may be outside the maximum envelope. 

(3) The maximum thickness at the end of the component is 

(a) the greater of {t m + 0.15 In.) or 1.1 5f m when ordered on a minimum wall basis 

(b) the greater of (f m + 0.15 in.) or 1.10f nom when ordered on a nominal wall basis 



74 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Table 127.4.2 Reinforcement of Girth and Longitudinal Butt Welds 











Maximum Thickness of Reinforcement 
for Design Temperature 






Thickness of Base Metal, 




> 750°F 
(400°C) 




350°F-750°F 
(175°C-4Q0°C) 


< 350°F 
(175°0 




in. (mm) 


in. 




mm 


in. 


mm 


in. 


mm 


Up to y 8 (3.0) f inch 

Over V 8 to 3 / 16 (3.0 to 5.0), incl. 

Over 3 / 16 to V 2 (5.0 to 13.0), incl. 

Over y 2 to 1 (13.0 to 25.0), incl. 
Over 1 to 2 (25.0 to 50.0), incl. 
Over 2 (50.0) 


Vl6 
Vl6 
Vl6 

3 /32 

V 3 2 




2.0 
2.0 
2.0 

2.5 
3.0 

4.0 


%7 

A 2 

Vi 


2.5 y 16 

3.0 3 / l6 

4.0 3 / l6 

5.0 3 / 16 

6.o y ^ 

The greater of Vi in. (6 mm) or % times 
the width of the weld in inches (millimeters). 


5.0 
5.0 
5.0 

5.0 
6.0 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) For double welded butt joints, this limitation on reinforcement given above shall apply separately to both inside and outside surfaces 
of the joint. 

(b) For single welded butt joints, the reinforcement limits given above shall apply to the outside surface of the joint only. 

(c) The thickness of weld reinforcement shall be based on the thickness of the thinner of the materials being joined. 

(d) The weld reinforcement thicknesses shall be determined from the higher of the abutting surfaces involved. 

(e) Weld reinforcement may be removed if so desired. 



the surface of the weld and the surface of either of the 
components shall not be less than 150 deg. Refer to para. 
119.3(B) for additional concerns related to this design. 

(B.3) When welding pipe to pipe, the surface of the 
weld shall, as a minimum, be flush with the outer surface 
of the pipe, except as permitted in para. 127.4. 2(B.4). 

(BA) For welds made without the addition of filler 
metal, concavity shall be limited to l / 32 i n - (1 mm ) below 
the outside surface of the pipe, but shall not encroach 
upon minimum required thickness. 

(C) As- welded surfaces are permitted; however, the 
surface of welds shall be sufficiently free from coarse 
ripples, grooves, overlaps, abrupt ridges, and valleys to 
meet the following: 

(C.l) The surface condition of the finished welds 
shall be suitable for the proper interpretation of radio- 
graphic and other nondestructive examinations when 
nondestructive examinations are required by Table 
136.4. In those cases where there is a question regarding 
the surface condition on. the interpretation of a radio- 
graphic film, the film shall be compared to the actual 
weld surface for interpretation and determination of 
acceptability. 

(C.2) Reinforcements are permitted in accordance 
with Table 127.4.2. 

(C3) Undercuts shall not exceed % 2 in. (1.0 mm) 
and shall not encroach on the minimum required section 
thickness. 

(CA) If the surface of the weld requires grinding 
to meet the above criteria, care shall be taken to avoid 
reducing the weld or base material below the minimum 
required thickness, 

(C.5) Concavity on the root side of a single welded 
circumferential butt weld is permitted when the 



resulting thickness of the weld is at least equal to the 
thickness of the thinner member of the two sections 
being joined and the contour of the concavity is smooth 
without sharp edges. The internal condition of the root 
surface of a girth weld, which has been examined by 
radiography, is acceptable only when there is a gradual 
change in the density, as indicated in the radiograph. 
If a girth weld is not designated to be examined by 
radiography, a visual examination may be performed at 
welds which are readily accessible. 

127.4.3 Longitudinal Butt Welds. Longitudinal butt 
welds not covered by the applicable material specifica- 
tions listed in Table 126.1 shall meet the requirements 
for girth butt welds in para. 127.4.2. 

127.4.4 Fillet Welds. In making fillet welds, the 
weld metal shall be deposited in such a way as to secure 
adequate penetration into the base metal at the root of 
the weld. 

Fillet welds may vary from convex to concave. The size 
of a fillet weld is determined as shown in Fig. 127.4.4(A). 
Typical minimum fillet weld details for slip-on flanges 
and socket-welding components are shown in Figs. 
127.4.4(B) and (C). 

127.4.5 Seal Welds. Where seal welding of 
threaded joints is performed, threads shall be entirely 
covered by the seal weld. Seal welding shall be done by 
qualified welders. 

127.4.8 Welded Branch Connections 

(A) Welded branch connections shall be made with 
full penetration welds, except as allowed in para. 
127.4.8(F). Figures 127.4.8(A), (B), and (C) show typical 
details of branch connections with and without added 



75 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Fig. 127.4.4(A) Fillet Weld Size 




Theoretical throat 




(3) Convex Equal Leg 
Fillet Weld 



Size of 
weld 

(b) Concave Equal Leg 
Fillet Weld 




Theoretical throat 




(c) Convex Unequal Leg 
Fillet Weld 



(d) Concave Unequal Leg 
Fillet Weld 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The "size" of an equal leg fillet weld shall be described by the leg length of the largest 
inscribed isoceles triangle, 

(b) The "size" of an unequal leg fillet weld shall be described using both leg lengths and their 
location on the members to be joined. 

(c) Angle 9, as noted in the above figures, may vary from the 90 deg angle as shown based on 
the angle between the surfaces to be welded. 

(d) For an equal leg fillet weld where the angle 6 between the members being joined is 90 deg f 
the theoretical throat shall be 0.7 x leg length. For other fillet welds, the theoretical throat 
shall be based on the leg lengths and the angle between the members to be joined. 

(e) For all fillet welds, particularly unequal leg fillet welds with angle 6 less than 90 deg, the 
theoretical throat shall lie within the cross section of the deposited weid metal and shall not 
be less than the minimum distance through the weld. 



76 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 127-4.4(B) Welding Details for Slip-On and Socket-Welding Flanges; Some Acceptable Types of Flange 

Attachment Welds 




t n or V 4 in. (6.0 mm), 
whichever is smaller 





-HH-| 

Approximately Vi6 * n - 
(2.0 mm) before welding 



(a) Front and Back Weld 
[See Notes (1) and (2)] 



(b) Face and Back Welds 

[See Notes (1) and (2)1 



(c) Socket Welding Flange 
[See Notes (2) and (3)] 



t n = nominal pipe wall thickness 
x min _ - lAt n or thickness of the hub, whichever is smaller 

NOTES: 

(1) Refer to para. 122.1.1(F) for limitations of use. 

(2) Refer to para. 104.5.1 for limitations of use. 

(3) Refer to para. 122.1.1(H) for limitations of use. 



Fig. 127.4.4(C) Minimum Welding Dimensions 

Required for Socket Welding Components Other Than 

Flanges 



t n = nominal pipe wall thickness 




C x (min.) = 1 .09 1„ or the thickness 
of the socket wall, 
whichever is smaller 



Approximately V 16 in. (2.0 mm} 
before welding 



Fig. 127.4.8(A) Typical Welded Branch Connection 
Without Additional Reinforcement 




Fig. 127.4.8(B) Typical Welded Branch Connection 
With Additional Reinforcement 




Fig. 127.4.8(C) Typical Welded Angular Branch 
Connection Without Additional Reinforcement 




77 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. X, . 

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ASME B31.1-2007 



reinforcement. No attempt has been made to show all 
acceptable types of construction and the fact that a cer- 
tain type of construction is illustrated does not indicate 
that it is recommended over other types not illustrated. 
(B) Figure 127.4.8(D) shows basic types of weld 
attachments used in the fabrication of branch connec- 
tions. The location and minimum size of these attach- 
ment welds shall conform to the requirements of para. 
127.4.8. Welds shall be calculated in accordance with 
para. 104.3.1 but shall not be less than the sizes shown 
in Fig. 127.4.8(D). 

The notations and symbols used in this paragraph 
and in Fig. 127.4.8(D) are as follows: 

t c = the smaller of % in. (6.0 mm) or Q.7t n \, 
/■ min = the smaller of t,., h or t nr 

nominal thickness of branch wall, in. (mm) 
nominal thickness of header wall, in. (mm) 
nominal thickness of reinforcing element (ring 
or saddle), in. (mm) 



mm 
tub 
tnh 



(C) Figure 127.4.8(E) shows branch connections made 
by welding half couplings or adapters directly to the 
run pipe. 

These branch connections and specially made inte- 
grally reinforced branch connection fittings which abut 
the outside surface of the run wall, or which are inserted 
through an opening cut in the run wall, shall have open- 
ing and branch contour to provide a good fit and shall 
be attached by means of full penetration groove welds 
except as otherwise permitted in (F) below. 

The full penetration groove welds shall be finished 
with cover fillet welds and meet the requirements of 
para. 104. The cover fillet w r elds shall have a minimum 
throat dimension not less than that shown in 
Fig. 127.4.8(E). 

(D) In branch connections having reinforcement pads 
or saddles, the reinforcement shall be attached by welds 
at the outer edge and at the branch periphery as follows: 

(D.l) If the weld joining the added reinforcement 
to the branch is a full penetration groove weld, it shall 
be finished with a cover fillet weld having a minimum 
throat dimension not less than t c ; the weld at the outer 
edge, joining the added reinforcement to the run, shall be 
a. fillet weld with a minimum throat dimension of Q.5t nr 

(D.l) If the weld joining the added reinforcement 
to the branch is a fillet weld, the throat dimension shall 
not be less than 0.7f min . The weld at the outer edge 
joining the outer reinforcement to the run shall also be 
a fillet weld with a minimum throat dimension of 0.5t m , 

(E) When rings or saddles are used, a vent hole shall 
be provided (at the side and not at the crotch) in the 
ring or saddle to reveal leakage in the weld between 
branch and main run and to provide venting during 
welding and heat treating operations. Rings or saddles 
may be made in more than one piece if the joints between 
the pieces have strength equivalent to ring or saddle 
parent metal and if each piece is provided with a vent 



Fig. 127.4.8(D) Some Acceptable Types of Welded 

Branch Attachment Details Showing Minimum 

Acceptable Welds 




0.5f nr 



t 



A 






(d) 



0.5f n , 



I 4^T 




r 



0.7 t m 



(e) 



GENERAL NOTE: Weld dimensions may be larger than the 
minimum values shown here. 



78 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 127.4.8(E) Typical Full Penetration Weld Branch Connections for NPS 3 and Smaller Half Couplings or 

Adapters 



Cover fillet weld 
3 / 16 in. (5.0 mm) min 




Socket-welding or 
threaded half coupling 

Full penetration 
groove weld 



Cover fillet 
weld 



Header or run pipe 

3 / 16 in. (5 mm) min 



Per WPS 




Socket-welding or 
threaded adapter 



Full penetration 
groove weld 



r- Header or run 
* pipe 



Bore after welding 



(a) Branch Connection Using ASME B16.11 

Forged Steel Socket-Welding or 

Threaded Half Coupling [See Mote {1}] 



(b) Branch Connection Using Forged Steel Socket-Welding or 

Threaded Adapter for Pressure and Temperature Conditions 

Greater Than Permitted for ASME B16.11 Forged Steel Fittings 



NOTE: 

(1) Refer to para. 104.3.1 (C.2) for branch connections not requiring reinforcement calculations. 



Fig. 127.4.8(F) Typical Partial Penetration Weld Branch Connection for NPS 2 and Smaller Fittings 

Socket-welding or 
threaded fitting 



Cover fil 
3 / 16 in. (5.0 mm) min 




Partial penetration 
groove weld 

Header or run pipe 



^[see para. 104.3.KC.2)] 



hole. A good fit shall be provided between reinforcing 
rings or saddles and the parts to which they are attached. 
(F) Branch connections MPS 2 and smaller which do 
not require reinforcements (see para. 104.3) may be con- 
structed as shown in Fig. 127.4.8(F). The groove welds 
shall be finished with cover fillet welds with a minimum 
throat dimension not less than that shown in 
Fig. 127.4.8(F). This construction shall not be used at 
design temperatures greater than 750°F (400°C) nor at 
design pressures greater than 1,025 psi (7 100 kPa). 



127.4.9 Attachment Welds. Structural attachments 
may be made by complete penetration, partial penetra- 
tion, or fillet welds. 

(A) Low energy capacitor discharge welding may be 
used for the welding of temporary attachments directly 
to pressure parts, provided that they be removed prior 
to subjecting the piping system to operating pressure 
or temperature. After their removal, the affected areas 
shall be examined in accordance with para. 136.4. Per- 
formance and procedure qualifications are not required. 



79 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



This method of welding may also be used for the 
permanent attachment of nonstructural items, such as 
strain gages or thermocouples, provided that 

64.1) a welding procedure specification is prepared 
describing the capacitor discharge equipment, the mate- 
rials to be joined, and the techniques of application; the 
qualification of the procedure is not required 

(A. 2) the minimum thickness of the material to 
which the attachment is to be made is 0.090 in. (2.3 mm) 

(A3) the power input is limited to less than 
125 W-sec 

127.4.10 Heat Treatment. Preheat and postweld 
heat treatment for welds shall be in accordance with 
para, 131 or 132 as applicable. 

127.4.11 Repair Welding 

(A) Defect Removal All defects in welds or base mate- 
rials requiring repair shall be removed by flame or arc 
gouging, grinding, chipping, or machining. Preheating 
may be required for flame or arc gouging on certain 
alloy materials of the air hardening type in order to 
prevent surface checking or cracking adjacent to the 
flame or arc gouged surface. When a defect is removed 
but welding repair is unnecessary, the surface shall be 
contoured to eliminate any sharp notches or corners. 
The contoured surface shall be reinspected by the same 
means originally used for locating the defect. 

(B) Repair Welds. Repair welds shall be made in accor- 
dance with a WPS using qualified welders or welding 
operators (see para. 127.5), recognizing that the cavity 
to be repair welded may differ in contour and dimension 
from a. normal joint preparation and may present differ- 
ent restraint conditions. The types, extent, and methods 
of examination shall be in accordance with Table 136.4. 
For repairs to welds the minimum examination shall be 
the same method that revealed the defect in the original 
weld. For repairs to base material, the minimum exami- 
nation shall be the same as required for butt welds. 

127.5 Qualification 

127.5.1 General. Qualification of the WPS to be 

used, and of the performance of welders and welding 
operators, is required, and shall comply with the require- 
ments of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 
(Section IX) except as modified herein. 

Certain materials listed in Appendix A do not appear 
in ASME Section IX P-Number groups. Where these 
materials have been assigned P-Numbers in Appendix 
A, they may be welded under this Code for nonboiler 
external piping only without separate qualification as 
if they were listed in ASME Section IX. 

127.5.2 Welding Responsibility. Each employer (see 
para. 100.2) shall be responsible for the welding per- 
formed by his/her organization and the performance of 
welders or welding operators employed by that organi- 
zation. 



127.5.3 Qualification Responsibility 

(A) Procedures. Each employer shall be responsible 
for qualifying any WPS that he/she intends to have used 
by personnel of his/her organization. However, to avoid 
duplication of effort, and subject to approval of the 
Owner, a WPS qualified by a technically competent 
group or agency may be used: 

(A.l) if the group or agency qualifying the WPS 
meets all of the procedure qualification requirements of 
this Code 

(A.l) if the fabricator accepts the WPS thus qual- 
ified 

(A3) if the user of the WPS has qualified at least 
one w T elder using the WPS 

(A. 4) if the user of the WPS assumes specific 
responsibility for the procedure qualification w 7 ork done 
for him/her by signing the records required by para. 
127.6 

All four of the above conditions shall be met before 
a WPS thus qualified may be used. 

(B) Welders and Welding Operators. Each employer 
shall be responsible for qualifying all the welders and 
welding operators employed by him/her. 

However, to avoid duplication of effort he/she may 
accept a Welder/ Welding Operator Performance Quali- 
fication (WPQ) made by a previous employer (subject 
to the approval of the Owner or his/her agent) on piping 
using the same or an equivalent procedure wherein the 
essential variables are within the limits established in 
Section IX, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. An 
employer accepting such qualification tests by a previ- 
ous employer shall obtain a copy (from the previous 
employer) of the WPQ, showing the name of the 
employer by whom the welders or welding operators 
were qualified, the dates of such qualification, and evi- 
dence that the welder or w ? elding operator has main- 
tained qualification in accordance with QW-322 of 
Section IX, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The 
employer shall then prepare and sign the record required 
in para. 127.6 accepting responsibility for the ability of 
the welder or welding operator. 

127.5.4 Standard Welding Procedure Specifica- 
tions. Standard Welding Procedure Specifications pub- 
lished by the American Welding Society and listed in 
Appendix E of Section IX of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code are permitted for Code construc- 
tion within the limitations established by Article V of 
ASME Section IX. 

127.6 Welding Records 

The employer shall maintain a record (WPS and /or 
WPQ) signed by him/her, and available to the purchaser 
or his/her agent and the inspector, of the WPSs used 
and the welders and /or welding operators employed 
by him/her, showing the date and results of procedure 
and performance qualification. 



80 



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AS/ViE B31.1-2007 



The WPQ shall also show the identification symbol 
assigned to the welder or welding operator employed 
by him/her, and the employer shall use this symbol to 
identify the welding performed by the welder or weld- 
ing operator. This may be accomplished by the applica- 
tion of the symbol on. the weld joint in a manner specified 
by the employer. Alternatively, the employer shall main- 
tain records which identify the weld(s) made by the 
welder or welding operator. 

128 BRAZING AND SOLDERING 

128.1 General 

128.1.1 The brazing processes that are to be used 
under this part of the Code shall meet all the test require- 
ments of Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code. 

128.1.2 Soldering. Solderers shall follow the proce- 
dure in ASTM B 828, Standard Practice for Making 
Capillary Joints by Soldering of Copper and Copper 
Alloy Tube and Fittings. 

128.2 Materials 

128.2.1 Filler Metal. The brazing alloy or solder 
shall melt and flow freely within the specified or desired 
temperature range and, in conjunction with a suitable 
flux or controlled atmosphere, shall wet and adhere to 
the surfaces to be joined. 

128.2.2 Flux. A flux that is fluid and chemically 
active at brazing or soldering temperature shall be used 
when necessary to eliminate oxidation of the filler metal 
and the surfaces to be joined, and to promote free flow 
of the brazing alloy or solder. 

1283 Preparation 

128.3.1 Surface Preparation, The surfaces to be 
brazed or soldered shall be clean and free from grease, 
oxides, paint, scale, dirt, or other material that is detri- 
mental to brazing. A suitable chemical or mechanical 
cleaning method shall be used if necessary to provide 
a clean w T ettable surface. 

128.3.2 Joint Clearance. The clearance between sur- 
faces to be joined by brazing or soldering shall be no 
larger than is necessary to allow complete capillary dis- 
tribution of the brazing alloy or solder. 

128.4 Procedure 

128.4.1 General 

(A) Qualification of the brazing procedures to be used 
and of the performance of the brazer and brazing opera- 
tors is required and shall comply with the requirements 
of para. 128.5. 

(B) No brazing shall be done if there is impingement 
of rain, snow, sleet, or high wind on the area to be 
brazed. 



128.4.2 Heating. To minimize oxidation, the joint 
shall be brought to brazing or soldering temperature in 
as short a time as possible without localized underheat- 
ing or overheating, 

128.4.3 Flux Removal. Residual flux shall be 
removed if detrimental. 

128.5 Brazing Qualification 

128.5.1 General. The qualification of the brazing- 
procedure and of the performance of brazers and brazing 
operators shall be in accordance with the requirements 
of Part QB, Section IX, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code, except as modified herein. 

128.5.2 Brazing Responsibility. Each employer (see 
para. 100.2) shall be responsible for the brazing per- 
formed by his/her organization and the performance of 
brazers or brazing operators employed by that organi- 
zation. 

128.53 Qualification Responsibility 

(A) Procedures. Each employer shall be responsible 
for qualifying any Brazing Procedure Specification (BPS) 
that he/she intends to have used by personnel of his/ 
her organization. However, to avoid duplication of 
effort, and subject to approval of the Owner, a BPS quali- 
fied by a technically competent group or agency may 
be used: 

(A.l) if the group or agency qualifying the proce- 
dures meets all of the procedure qualification require- 
ments of this Code 

(A.2) if the fabricator accepts the procedure thus 
qualified 

(A3) if the user of the procedure has qualified at 
least one brazer using the BPS 

(A A) if the user of the procedure assumes specific 
responsibility for the procedure qualification work done 
by him/her by signing the records required by para. 
128.6 

All four of the above conditions shall be met before 
a procedure thus qualified may be used. 

(B) Brazers and Brazing Operators. Each employer 
shall be responsible for qualifying all the brazers and 
brazing operators employed by him/her. 

However, to avoid duplication of effort, he/she may 
accept a Brazer/ Brazing Operator Performance 
Qualification (BPQ) made by a previous employer (sub- 
ject to the approval of the Owner or his/her agent) on 
piping using the same or an equivalent procedure 
wherein the essential variables are within the limits 
established in Section IX, ASME Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code. An employer accepting such qualification 
tests by a previous employer shall obtain a copy (from 
the previous employer) of the BPQ, showing the name of 
the employer by whom the brazers or brazing operators 
were qualified, the dates of such qualification, and the 
date the brazer last brazed pressure piping components 



81 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



under such qualification. The employer shall then pre- 
pare and sign the record required in para. 128.6 accepting 
responsibility for the ability of the brazer or brazing 
operator. 

128.6 Brazing Records 

The employer shall maintain a record signed by him/ 
her and available to the purchaser or his/her agent and 
the inspector/ showing the date and results of procedure 
and performance qualification. 

The BPQ shall also show the identification symbol 
assigned to the brazer or brazing operator employed by 
him/her, and the employer shall use this symbol to 
identify the brazing performed by the brazer or brazing 
operator. This may be accomplished by the application 
of the symbol on the braze joint in a manner specified by 
the employer. Alternatively/ the employer shall maintain 
records which identify the braze joints(s) made by the 
brazer or brazing operator. 

129 BENDING AND FORMING 

129.1 Bending 

Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to 
any radius that will result in a bend surface free of 
cracks. Such bends shall meet the design requirements 
of para. 102.4.5 with regard to minimum wall thickness. 
Where limits on flattening and buckling are not specified 
by design/ as delineated in para. 104.2.1/ manufacturing 
limits of PFI ES-24 shall be met. When defaulting to 
PFI ES-24/ mutual agreement between purchaser and 
fabricator beyond the stated manufacturing limits shall 
not be allowed without the approval of the designer. 

The use of bends designed as creased or corrugated 
is not prohibited. 

129.2 Forming 

Piping components may be formed (swedging, lap- 
ping/ or upsetting of pipe ends, extrusion of necks/ etc.) 
by any suitable hot or cold working method/ provided 
such processes result in formed surfaces which are uni- 
form and free of cracks or other defects, as determined 
by method of inspection specified in the design. 

129.3 Heat Treatment of Bends and Formed 
Components 

129.3.1 Hot bending or forming is performed at 
a temperature above T crit - 100°F (56°C), where T crit is 
the lower critical temperature of the material. Cold 
bending or forming is performed at a temperature below 
T crit - 100°F (56°C). (See Table 129.3.2 for lower critical 
temperatures.) 

129.3.2 A postbending or postforming heat treat- 
ment at the time and temperature cycles listed for post- 
weld heat treatment in Table 132 is required on all carbon 
steel (P-No. 1) materials with a nominal wall thickness in 



Table 129.3.2 Approximate Lower Critical 
Temperatures 







Approximate 






Lower Critical 






Temperature, 






°F (°C) 


Material 




[Note (1)] 


Carbon steel (P-No. 1) 




1,340 (725) 


Carbon molybdenum steel (P-No. 3) 


1,350 (730) 


lCr-y 2 Mo (P-No. 4, Gr. No. : 





1,375 (745) 


iy 4 Cr-V 2 Mo (P-No. 4, Gr. Nc 


••2) 


1,430 (775) 


2 1 /iCr-lMo, 3Cr~lMo (P-No. 


5A) 


1,480 (805) 


5Cr-y 2 Mo (P-No. 5B, Gr. No. 


1) 


1,505 (820) 


9Cr 




1,475 (800) 



NOTE: 

(1) These values are intended for guidance only. The user may 

apply values obtained for the specific material in lieu of these 

values. 



excess of % in. (19.0 mm) unless the bending or forming 
operations are performed and completed at tempera- 
tures of 1,650°F (900°C) or greater. 

129.3.3 A postforming or postbending heat treat- 
ment as defined below is required for all ferritic alloy 
steel (excluding P-No. 1) materials with a nominal pipe 
size 4 in. and larger or with a nominal thickness of \ in. 
(13.0 mm) or greater. 

(A) If hot bending or forming is performed, the mate- 
rial shall receive a full anneal, normalize and temper, 
or tempering heat treatment as specified by the designer. 

(B) If cold bending or forming is performed, a heat 
treatment is required at the time and temperature cycle 
listed for the material in Table 132. 

129.3.4 Postbending or postforming heat treat- 
ment of other materials including austenitic stainless 
steel is neither required nor prohibited. If a postbending 
or postforming heat treatment is to be performed, the 
designer shall fully describe the procedure to be used. 

130 REQUIREMENTS FOR FABRICATING AND 
ATTACHING PIPE SUPPORTS 

130.1 Pipe Supports 

Standard pipe hangers and supports shall be fabri- 
cated in accordance with the requirements of MSS SP-58. 
Welders, welding operators, and WPSs shall be qualified 
in accordance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX. 

130.2 Alternate Pipe Supports 

Special hangers, supports, anchors, and guides, not 
defined as standard types of hanger components in MSS 
SP-58, shall be welded in accordance with the require- 
ments of para. 127 (para. 132 is not applicable except as 



82 



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ASME 831.1-2007 



required by the weld procedure used) and inspected in 
accordance with the requirements of para. 136.4.2. 

130.3 Pipe Support Welds 

Welds attaching hangers, supports, guides, and 
anchors to the piping system shall conform to the 
requirements of Chapters V and VI of this Code. 

131 WELDING PREHEAT 

131.1 Minimum Preheat Requirements 

The preheat requirements listed herein are mandatory 
minimum values. 

The base metal temperature prior to welding shall be 
at or above the specified minimum temperature in all 
directions from the point of welding for a distance of 
3 in. or 1.5 times the base metal thickness (as defined 
in para. 131.4.1), whichever is greater. 

The base metal temperature for tack welds shall be 
at or above the specified minimum temperature for a 
distance not less than 1 in. in all directions from the 
point of welding. 

131.2 Different P»Number Materials 

When welding two different P-Number materials, the 
minimum preheat temperature required shall be the 
higher temperature for the material to be welded. 

1313 Preheat Temperature Verification 

The preheat temperature shall be checked by use of 
temperature-indicating crayons, thermocouple pyrome- 
ters, or other suitable methods to assure that the required 
preheat temperature is obtained prior to and uniformly 
maintained during the welding operation. 

131.4 Preheat Temperature 

The minimum preheat for all materials shall be 50 °F 
(10°Q unless stated otherwise in the following para- 
graphs. 

131.4.1 Thickness referred to is the greater of the 
nominal thicknesses at the weld of the parts to be joined. 

131.4.2 P-No. 1. 175°F (80°C) for material that has 
both a specified maximum carbon content in excess of 
0.30% and a thickness at the joint in excess of 1 in. 
(25.0 mm). Preheat may be based or\ the actual carbon 
content as determined from a ladle or product analysis 
in accordance with the material specification in lieu of 
the maximum carbon content specified in the material 
specification. 

131.4.3 P-Mo. 3. 175°F (80°C) for material or prod- 
uct form that has either a specified minimum tensile 
strength in excess of 60,000 psi (413.7 M Pa) or a thickness 
at the joint in excess of V 2 in. (13.0 mm). 

131.4.4 P-No. 4. 250°F (120°C) for all materials. 



131.4.5 P-Nos. 5A and SB 

(A) 400°F (200°C) for material which has either a spec- 
ified minimum tensile strength in excess of 60,000 psi 
(413.7 MPa), or has both a specified minimum chromium 
content above 6.0% and a thickness at the joint in excess 
of \ in. (13.0 mm) 

(B) 300°F (150°C) for all other materials having this 
P-Number 

131.4.6 P-No. 6. 400°F (200°C) for all materials. 

131.4.7 P-Nos. 9A asid 9B 

(A) 250°F (120°C) for P-No. 9 A materials 

(B) 300°F (150°C) for P-No. 9B materials 

131.4.8 P-No. 101. 300°F (150°C) with an interpass 
temperature of 450°F (230°C) maximum. 

131.5 GTAW Welding 

For inert gas tungsten arc root pass welding, a low 7 er 
preheat temperature in accordance with the temperature 
established in the WPS may be used. 

131.6 Interruption of Welding 

131.6.1 After welding commences, the minimum 
preheat temperature shall be maintained until any 
required PWHT is performed on P-Nos. 3, 4, 5 A, 5B, 
and 6, except when all of the following conditions are 
satisfied. 

(A) A minimum of at least % in, thickness of weld is 
deposited or 25% of the welding groove is filled, which- 
ever is less (the weldment shall be sufficiently supported 
to prevent overstressing the weld if the weldment is to 
be moved or otherwise loaded). 

(B) For P-Nos. 3, 4, and 5A (with a chromium content 
of 3.0% maximum) materials, the weld is allowed to cool 
slowly to room temperature. 

(C) For P-No. 5B (with a chromium content greater 
than 3.0%) and P-No. 6 materials, the weld is subjected 
to an adequate intermediate heat treatment with a con- 
trolled rate of cooling. 

(D) After cooling and before welding is resumed, 
visual examination of the w 7 eld shall be performed to 
assure that no cracks have formed. 

(E) Required preheat shall be applied before welding 
is resumed. 



132 POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT 
132.1 Minimum PWHT Requirements 

Before applying the detailed requirements and 
exemptions in these paragraphs, satisfactory qualifica- 
tion of the WPS to be used shall be performed in accor- 
dance with the essential variables of the ASME Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX including the con- 
ditions of postweld heat treatment or lack of postw^eld 
heat treatment and including other restrictions listed 



83 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



below. Except as otherwise provided in paras. 1322 and 
132.3, all welds in materials included in the P-Numbers 
listed in Table 132 shall be given a postweld heat treat- 
ment within the temperature range specified in 
Table 132. (The range specified in Table 132 may be 
modified by Table 132.1 for the lower limit and para. 
132.2 for the upper limit.) The materials in Table 132 
are listed in accordance with the material P-Number 
grouping of Appendix A. Welds of materials not 
included in Table 132 shall be heat treated in accordance 
with the WPS. 



132.2 Mandatory PWHT Requirements 

Heat treatment may be accomplished by a suitable 
heating method which will provide the desired heating 
and cooling rates, the required metal temperature, tem- 
perature uniformity, and temperature control. 

(A) The upper limit of the PWHT temperature range 
in Table 132 is a recommended value which may be 
exceeded provided the actual temperature does not 
exceed the lower critical temperature of either material 
(see Table 129.3.2). 

(B) When parts of two different P-Numbers are joined 
by welding, the postweld heat treatment shall be that 
specified for the material requiring the higher PWHT 
temperature. When a nonpressure part is welded to a 
pressure part and PWHT is required for either part, 
the maximum PWHT temperature shall not exceed the 
maximum temperature acceptable for the pressure 
retaining part. 

(C) Caution is necessary to preclude metallurgical 
damage to some materials or welds not intended or 
qualified to withstand the PWHT temperatures 
required. 

132.3 Exemptions to Mandatory PWHT Requirements 

132.3.1 Postweld heat treatment is not required 
for the following conditions: 

(A) welds in nonferrous materials 

(B) welds exempted in Table 132 

(C) wields subject to temperatures above the lower 
critical temperature (see Table 129.3.2) during fabrica- 
tion provided the WPS has been qualified with PWHT 
(see para. 132.1) at the temperature range to be reached 
during fabrication 

132.3.2 The postweld heat treatment exemption 
of Table 132 may be based on the actual chemical compo- 
sition as determined by a ladle or product analysis in 
accordance with the material specification in lieu of the 
specified or maximum specified chemical composition 
limits. 

132.4 Definition of Thickness Governing PWHT 

132,4.1 The term nominal thickness as used in 
Table 132 and Notes is the lesser thickness of (A) or (B) 
as follows: 



(A) the thickness of the weld 

(B) the thicker of the materials being joined at the 
weld 

132.4.2 Thickness of the weld, which is a factor 
in determining the nominal thickness, is defined as 
follows: 

(A) groove welds (girth and longitudinal) — the 
thicker of the two abutting ends after w T eld preparation, 
including I.D. machining 

(B) fillet welds — the throat thickness of the weld 

(C) partial penetration welds — the depth of the weld 
groove 

(D) material repair welds — the depth of the cavity 
to be repaired 

(E) branch w 7 elds — the weld thickness is the dimen- 
sion existing in the plane intersecting the longitudinal 
axes and is calculated as indicated for each detail using 

t c = the smaller of \ in. or 0.7t nb 

(1) for welds described in Fig. 127.4.8(D): 



Detail (a) 



Detail (b) 



weld thickness = t n t + t c 



weld thickness ~ t nh + t c 



Detail (c) 

weld thickness — greater of t m + t c or t n < + t c 
Detail (d) 

weld thickness = t nU + t nr + t c 



Detail (e) 



weld thickness 



tc 



(2) for welds described in Figs. 127.4.8(E) and (F): 

weld thickness = depth of groove weld 

+ throat thickness of cover fillet 

132.4.3 The term nominal material thickness as used 
in Table 132 is the thicker of the materials being joined 
at the weld. 

132.5 PWHT Heating and Cooling Requirements 

Above 600°F (315°C), the rate of heating and cooling 
shall not exceed 600°F (335°C) per hr divided by V 2 the 
maximum thickness of material in inches at the weld 
but in no case shall the rate exceed 600°F (335°C) per hr. 
(See Table 132 for cooling rate requirements for P-Nos. 
7 and 101 materials.) 

132.6 Furnace Heating 

(A) Heating an assembly in a furnace should be used 
when practical; however, the size or shape of the unit 



84 



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A5ME B31.1-2007 



Table 132 Postweld Heat Treatment 



P . Nymb er Holding Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 

From Temperature Up to 2 in. Over 2 in. 

Appendix A Range, °F (°C) (50 mm) (50 mm) 

P-No. 1 1,100 (600) 1 hr/in. (25 mm), 2 hr plus 15 min 

Gr. Nos. 1, 2, 3 to 15 min minimum for each additional inch 

1,200 (650) over 2 in. (50 mm) 

GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) PWHT of P-No. 1 materials is not mandatory, provided that all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) the nominal thickness, as defined in para, 132.4.1, is % in. (19.0 mm) or less 

(2) a minimum preheat of 200°F (95°C) is applied when the nominal material thickness of either of the base metals exceeds 1 in. 
(25.0 mm) 

(b) PWHT of low hardenability P-No. 1 materials with a nominal material thickness, as defined in para. 132.4.3, over % in. (19.0 mm) but 
not more than lV 2 in. (38 mm) is not mandatory, provided all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) the carbon equivalent, CE, is < 0.50, using the formula 

CE = C + (Mn + Si)/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15 

The maximum chemical composition limit from the material specification or actual values from a chemical analysis or material test 
report shall be used in computing CE. If analysis for the last two terms is not available, 0.1% may be substituted for those two terms 
as follows: 

CE = C + (Mn + Si)/6 + 0.1 

(2) a minimum preheat of 250°F (121°C) is applied 

(3) the maximum weld deposit thickness of each weld pass shall not exceed % in. (6 mm) 

(c) When it is impractical to PWHT at the temperature range specified in Table 132, it is permissible to perform the PWHT of this material 
at lower temperatures for longer periods of time in accordance with Table 132.1. 

P-Nurnber Holding Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 

From Temperature Up to 2 in. Over 2 En. 

Appendix A Range, °F (°C) (50 mm) (50 mm) 

P-No. 3 1,100 (600) 1 hr/in. (25 mm), 2 hr plus 15 min 

Gr. Nos. 1, 2 to 15 min minimum for each additional inch 

1,200 (650) over 2 in. (50 mm) 

GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) PWHT of P-No. 3 materials is not mandatory, provided all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) the nominal thickness, as defined in para. 132.4.1, is % in. (16.0 mm) or less 

(2) a minimum preheat of 200°F (95°C) is applied when the nominal material thickness of either of the base metals exceeds % in. 
(16.0 mm) 

(3) the specified carbon content of the P-No. 3 base material is 0.25% or less 

(b) When it is impractical to PWHT at the temperature range specified in Table 132, it is permissible to perform the PWHT of this material 
at lower temperatures for longer periods of time in accordance with Table 132.1. 



85 



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ASME B31.1-2O07 



(07) Table 132 Postweld Heat Treatment (Cont'd) 

P-Number Holding Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 

From Temperature Up to 2 in. Over 2 in. 

Appendix A Range, °F (°C) (50 mm) (50 mm) 

P-No. 4 1,200(650) 1 hr/in. (25 mm), 2 hr plus 15 min 

Gr. Nos. 1, 2 to 15 min minimum for each additional inch 

1,300 (700) over 2 in. (50 mm) 

GENERAL NOTE: PWHT is not mandatory for P-No. 4 material under the following conditions: 

(a) welds in pipe or attachment welds to pipe complying with all of the following conditions: 

(1) a nominal material thickness of x / 2 m - (13.0 mm) or less 

(2) a specified carbon content of the material to be welded of 0.15% or less 

(b) for seal welding of threaded or other mechanical joints, provided the seal weld has a throat thickness of % in. (9.0 mm) or less 

(c) attachment welds for nonload-carrying attachments provided in addition to (a)(2) above: 

(1) stud welds or fillet welds made by the SMAW or GTAW process shall be used. 

(2) the hardened portion of the heat affected zone (HAZ) shall not encroach on the minimum wall thickness of the pipe, as determined 
by welding procedure qualification using the maximum welding heat input. The depth of the HAZ shall be taken as the point where the HAZ 
hardness does not exceed the average unaffected base metal hardness by more than 10%. 

(3) if SMAW is used, the electrode shall be the low hydrogen type. 

(4) the thickness of the test plate used in making the welding procedure qualification of Section IX shall not be less than that of the 
material to be welded. 

(5) the attachment weld has a throat thickness of 3 / 15 in. or less. 

(d) for socket welded components and slip-on flange welds provided 

(1) the throat thickness is l / 2 in. (13 mm) or less 

(2) the wall thickness of the pipe is l / 2 in. (13 mm) or less 

(3) the specified carbon content of the pipe is 0.15% or less 

P-Number Holding Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 

From Temperature Up to 2 in. Over 2 in. 

Appendix A Range, °F (°C) (50 mm) (50 mm) 

P-No. 5A 1,300 (700) 1 hr/in. (25 mm), 2 hr plus 15 min 

Gr. No. 1 to 15 min minimum for each additional inch 

1,400 (760) over 2 in. (50 mm) 

GENERAL NOTE: PWHT is not mandatory for P-No. 5A material under the following conditions: 

(a) welds in pipe or attachment welds to pipe complying with all of the following conditions: 

(1) a nominal material thickness of l / 2 i n - (13.0 mm) or less 

(2) a specified carbon content of the material to be welded of 0.15% or less 

(b) for seal welding of threaded or other mechanical joints, provided the seal weld has a throat thickness of % in. (9.0 mm) or less 

(c) attachment welds for non-load-carrying attachments provided in addition to (a)(2) above: 

(1) stud welds or fillet welds made by the SMAW or GTAW process shall be used. 

(2) the hardened portion of the heat affected zone (HAZ) shall not encroach on the minimum wall thickness of the pipe, as determined 
by welding procedure qualification using the maximum welding heat input. The depth of the HAZ shall be taken as the point where the HAZ 
hardness does not exceed the average unaffected base metal hardness by more than 10%. 

(3) if SMAW is used, the electrode shall be the low hydrogen type. 

(4) the thickness of the test plate used in making the welding procedure qualification of Section IX shall not be less than that of the 
material to be welded, 

(5) the attachment weld has a throat thickness of 3 / 16 in. or less. 

(d) for socket welded components and slip-on flange welds provided 

(1) the throat thickness is l / 2 in. (13 mm) or less 

(2) the wall thickness of the pipe is V 2 in. (13 mm) or less 

(3) the specified carbon content of the pipe is 0.15% or less 



86 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Table 132 Postweld Heat Treatment (Cont'd) 



P-Number 

From 
Appendix A 



Holding 
Temperature 
Range, °F (°C) 



Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 



Up to 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



Over 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



P-No. 5B 
Gr. Nos. 1, 2 



1,300 (700) 

to 
1,400 (760) 



1 hr/in. (25 mm), 
15 min minimum 



2 hr plus 15 min 
for each additional inch 
over 2 in. (50 mm) 



P-Number 

From 
Appendix A 



Holding 
Temperature 
Range, °F (°C) 



Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 



Up to 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



Over 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



P-No. 6 

Gr. Nos. 1, 2, 3 



1,400 (760) 

to 
1,475 (800) 



1 hr/in. (25 mm), 
15 min minimum 



2 hr plus 15 min 
for each additional inch 
over 2 in. (50 mm) 



GENERAL NOTE: PWHT is not mandatory for P-No. 6 Type 410 material, provided ail of the following conditions are met: 
(a) the specified carbon content is not more than 0.08% 



(b) the nominal material thickness is % in. (10 mm) or less 

(c) the weld is made with A-No. 8, A-No. 9, or F-No. 43 filler metal 



P-Number 

From 
Appendix A 



Holding 
Temperature 
Range, °F (°C) 



Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 



Up to 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



Over 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



P-No. 7 
Gr. Nos. 1, 



1,350 (730) 

to 
1,425 (775) 



1 hr/in. (25 mm), 
15 min minimum 



2 hr plus 15 min 
for each additional inch 
over 2 in. (50 mm) 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) in lieu of the cooling rate described in para. 132.5, P-No. 7 material cooling rate shall be not greater than 100°F (55°C) per hr in the 
range above 1,200°F (650°C), after which the cooling rate shall be sufficiently rapid to prevent embrittlement. 

(b) PWHT is not mandatory for P-No. 7 Type 405 material, provided all of the following conditions are met: 

(1) the specified carbon content is not more than 0.08% 

(2) the nominal material thickness is % in. (10 mm) or less 

(3) the weld is made with A-No. 8, A-No. 9, or F-No. 43 filler metal 



P-Number 

From 
Appendix A 



Holding 
Temperature 
Range, °F (°C) 



Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 



Up to 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



Over 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



P-No. 8 
Gr. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 



None 



None 



None 



GENERAL NOTE: PWHT is neither required nor prohibited for joints between P-No. 8 austenitic stainless steels. 



87 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table 132 Postweld Heat Treatment (Cont'd) 



P-Number 

From 
Appendix A 



Holding 
Temperature 
Range, °F (°C) 



Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 



Up to 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



Over 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



P-No. 9A 
Gr. No. 1 



1,100 (600) 

to 
1,200 (650) 



1 hr/in. (25 mm), 
15 min minimum 



2 hr plus 15 min 
for each additional inch 
over 2 in. (50 mm) 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) PWHT is not mandatory for P-No. 9A material when welds on pipe or attachment welds to pipe comply with all of the following condi- 
tions: 

(1) a nominal material thickness of a / 2 i n - (13.0 mm) or less 

(2) a specified carbon content of the material to be welded of 0.15% or less 

(3) a minimum preheat of 250°F (120°C) is maintained during welding 

(b) When it is impractical to PWHT at the temperature range specified in Table 132, it is permissible to perform the PWHT of this material 
at lower temperatures for longer periods of time in accordance with Table 132.1, but the minimum PWHT shall not be less than 
l,000 o F(550 o C). 



P-Number 

From 
Appendix A 



Holding 
Temperature 
Range, °F (°Q 



Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 



Up to 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



Over 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



P-No. 9B 
Gr. No. 1 



1,100 (600) 

to 
1,175 (630) 



1 hr/in. (25 mm), 
15 min minimum 



2 hr plus 15 min 
for each additional inch 
over 2 in. (50 mm) 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) PWHT of P-No. 9B material is not mandatory for a nominal material thickness of % in. (16.0 mm) or less provided the Welding Proce- 
dure Qualification has been made using material of thickness equal to or greater than the production weld. 

(b) When it is impractical to PWHT at the temperature range specified in Table 132, it is permissible to perform the PWHT of this material 
at lower temperatures for longer periods of time in accordance with Table 132.1, but the minimum PWHT temperature shall not be less 
than 1,000°F (550°C). 



P-Number 

From 
Appendix A 



Holding 
Temperature 
Range, °F (°C) 



Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 



Up to 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



Over 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



P-No. 10H 
Gr. No. 1 



GENERAL NOTE: Postweld heat treatment is neither required nor prohibited. If any heat treatment is performed after forming or welding, it 
shall be performed within the temperature range listed below for the particular alloy, followed by a rapid cool: 



Alloy S31803 
Alloy S32550 
Alloy S32750 
All others 



1,870°F-2,010°F 
1,900°F-2,050°F 
1,880°F-2,060°F 
1,800°F-1,900°F 



P-Number 

From 
Appendix A 



Holding 
Temperature 
Range, °F (°C) 



Holding Time Based on Nominal Thickness 



Up to 2 in. 
(50 mm) 



Over 2 En. 
(50 mm) 



P-No. 10! 
Gr. No. 1 



1,350 (730) 

to 
1,500 (815) 



1 hr/in. (25 mm), 
15 min minimum 



1 hr/in. (25 mm) 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) In lieu of the cooling rate described in para. 132.5, the P-No. 101 material cooling rate shall be not greater than 100°F (55°C) per hr in 
the range above 1,200°F (650°C), after which the cooling rate shall be sufficiently rapid to prevent embrittlement. 

(b) Postweld heat treatment is neither required nor prohibited for a nominal thickness of y 2 in. (13 mm) or less. 



88 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table 132.1 Alternate Postweld Heat Treatment 
Requirements for Carbon and Low Alloy Steels 



Decrease in Temperatures 

Below Minimum Specified 

Temperature, 

°F (°C) 



Minimum Holding Time at 

Decreased Temperature, 

hr [Note (1)] 



50 (28) 

100 (56) 

150 (84) [Note (2)] 

200 (112) [Note (2)] 



2 

4 

10 

20 



GENERAL NOTE: Postweld heat treatment at lower temperatures for 
longer periods of time, in accordance with this Table, shall be used 
only where permitted in Table 132. 
NOTES: 

(1) Times shown apply to thicknesses up to 1 in. (25 mm). Add 
15 min/in. (15 min/25 mm) of thickness for thicknesses 
greater than 1 in. (25 mm). 

(2) A decrease of more than 100°F (56°C) below the minimum 
specified temperature is allowable only for P-No. 1, Gr. Nos. 1 
and 2 materials. 



or the adverse effect of a desired heat treatment on one 
or more components where dissimilar materials are 
involved, may dictate alternative procedures such as 
heating a section before assembly/ or by applying local 
heating in accordance with para. 132.7. 

(B) An assembly may be postweld heat treated in 
more than one heat in a furnace provided there is at 
least a 1 ft (300 mm) overlap of the heated sections 
and the portion of the assembly outside the furnace is 
shielded so that the temperature gradient is not harmful 

(C) Direct impingement of flame on the assembly is 
prohibited. 

132.7 Local Heating 

Welds may be locally PWHT by heating a circumferen- 
tial band around the entire component with the weld 
located in the center of the band. The width of the band 
heated to the PWHT temperature for girth welds shall 
be at least three times the wall thickness at the weld of 
the thickest part being joined. For nozzle and attachment 
welds, the width of the band heated to the PWHT tem- 
perature shall extend beyond the nozzle weld or attach- 
ment weld on each side at least two times the header 
thickness and shall extend completely around the 
header. 



133 STAMPING 

Stamping, if used, shall be performed by a method 
that will not result in sharp discontinuities. In no case 
shall stamping infringe on the minimum wall thickness 
or result in dimpling or denting of the material being 
stamped. 



CAUTIONARY NOTE: Detrimental effects can result from 
stamping of material which will be in operation under long term 
creep or creep fatigue conditions. 

135 ASSEMBLY 

135.1 General 

The assembly of the various piping components, 
whether done in a shop or as field erection, shall be 
done so that the completely erected piping conforms 
with the requirements of the engineering design. 

135.2 Alignment 

135.2.1 Equipment Connections. When making 
connections to equipment such as pumps or turbines 
or other piping components which are sensitive to exter- 
nally induced loading, forcing the piping into alignment 
is prohibited if this action introduces end reactions 
which exceed those permitted by design. 

135.2.2 Cold Springs. Before assembling joints in 
piping to be cold sprung, an examination shall be made 
of guides, supports, and anchors for obstructions which 
might interfere with the desired movement or result in 
undesired movement. The gap or overlap of piping prior 
to assembly shall be checked against the design specifi- 
cations and corrected if necessary. 

135.3 Bolted Flanged Connections 

135.3.1 Fit Up. All flanged joints shall be fitted up 
so that the gasket contact surfaces bear uniformly on 
the gasket and then shall be made up with relatively 
uniform bolt stress. 

135.3.2 Gasket Compression. When bolting gas- 
keted flange joints, the gasket shall be properly com- 
pressed in accordance with the design principles 
applicable to the type of gasket being used. 

135.33 Cast Iron to Steel Joints. Cast iron to steel 
flanged joints in accordance with para 108.3 shall be 
assembled with care to prevent damage to the cast iron 
flange. 

135.3.4 Bolt Engagement. All bolts shall be 
engaged so that there is visible evidence of complete 
threading through the nut or threaded attachment. 

135.3.5 Nonmetallic Lined Joints. When assembling 
nonmetallic lined joints, such as plastic lined steel pipe, 
consideration should be given to maintaining electrical 
continuity between flanged pipe sections where 
required. 

135.4 Packed Joints and Caulked Joints 

Care shall be used to assure adequate engagement of 
joint members. Where packed joints are used to absorb 
thermal expansion, proper clearance shall be provided 
at the bottom of the sockets to permit movement. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 135.5.3 Typical Threaded Joints Using Straight Threads 




(a) 



(b) 



(c) 



GENERAL NOTE: Threads are ASME B1.1 straight threads. 



135.5 Threaded Piping 

135.5.1 Thread Compound. Any compound or 
lubricant used in threaded joints shall be suitable for 
the service conditions, and shall be compatible with the 
piping material and the service fluid. 

135.5.2 Joints for Seal Welding. Threaded joints 
which are intended to be seal welded in accordance with 
para. 127.4.5 should be made up without any thread 
compound. 

135.5.3 Joints Using Straight Threads. Some joints 
using straight threads, with sealing at a surface other 
than threads, are shown in Fig. 135.5.3. Care shall be 
used to avoid distorting the seal when incorporating 
such joints into piping assemblies by welding or brazing. 



135.5.4 Backing Off. Backing off threaded joints to 
allow for alignment is prohibited. 

135.6 Tubing Joints 

135.6.1 Flared. The sealing surface shall be free of 
injurious defects before installation. 

135.6.2 Flareless and Compression. Flareless and 
compression joints shall be assembled in accordance 
with manufacturer's recommendations. 

135.7 Ductile iron Bell End Piping 

Assembly of ductile iron pipe, using ANSI/ AW WA 
Clll/ A21.ll mechanical or push-on joints, shall comply 
with AWWA C600. 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
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ASME B31.1-2007 



Chapter VI 
Inspection, Examination, and Testing 



136 IMSPECTION AND EXAMINATION 
136.1 Inspection 

136.1.1 General. This Code distinguishes between 
"examination" and "inspection." Inspection is the 
responsibility of the Owner and may be performed by 
employees of the Owner or a party authorized by the 
Ow T ner, except for the inspections required by para. 
136.2. Prior to initial operation, a piping installation shall 
be inspected to assure compliance with the engineering 
design and with the material, fabrication, assembly, 
examination, and test requirements of this Code. 

136.1.2 Verification of Compliance. Compliance 
with the requirements of this Code shall be verified by 
an Authorized Inspector when a Code stamp is required 
by Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code. The rules of this Code and the quality control 
system requirements of Appendix A-300 of Section I of 
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code shall apply. 
The quality control system requirements are shown in 
Appendix J of this Code. The duty of the Inspector shall 
be as defined in PG-90, Section I, of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code. Data Report Forms are included in 
the Appendix of ASME Section I for use in developing 
the necessary inspection records. The Inspector shall 
assure himself/ herself that the piping has been con- 
structed in accordance with the applicable requirements 
of this Code. 

136.1.3 Rights of Inspectors. Inspectors shall have 
access to any place where w 7 ork concerned with the 
piping is being performed. This includes manufacture, 
fabrication, heat treatment, assembly, erection, examina- 
tion, and testing of the piping. They shall have the right 
to audit any examination, to inspect the piping using 
any appropriate examination method required by the 
engineering design or this Code, and to review all certifi- 
cations and records necessary to satisfy the Owner's 
responsibility as stated in para. 136.1.1. 

136.1.4 Qualifications of the Owner's Inspector 

(A) The Owner's Inspector shall be designated by the 
Owner and shall be an employee of the Owner, an 
employee of an engineering or scientific organization, 
or of a recognized insurance or inspection company 
acting as the Owner's agent. The Owner's Inspector shall 
not represent nor be an employee of the piping manufac- 
turer, fabricator, or erector unless the Owner is also the 
manufacturer, fabricator, or erector. 



(B) The Owner's Inspector shall have not less than 10 
years experience in the design, manufacture, erection, 
fabrication, or inspection of power piping. Each year of 
satisfactorily completed work toward an engineering 
degree recognized, by the Accreditation Board for Engi- 
neering and Technology shall be considered equivalent 
to 1 year of experience, up to 5 years total. 

(O In delegating the performance of inspections, the 
Owner is responsible for determining that a person to 
whom an inspection function is delegated is qualified 
to perform that function. 

136.2 Inspection and Qualification of Authorized 
Inspector for Boiler External Piping 

136.2.1 Piping for which inspection and stamping 
is required as determined in accordance with para. 
100.1.2(A) shall be inspected during construction and 
after completion and at the option of the Authorized 
Inspector at such stages of the work as he/she may 
designate. For specific requirements see the applicable 
parts of Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code, PG-104 through PG-113. Each manufacturer, fabri- 
cator, or assembler is required to arrange for the services 
of Authorized Inspectors. 

136.2.1.1 The inspections required by this Sec- 
tion shall be performed by an Inspector employed by 
an ASME accredited Authorized Inspection Agency. 

136.2.2 Certification by stamping and Data 
Reports, where required, shall be as per PG-104, PG-105, 
PG-109, PG-110, PG-111, and PG-112 of Section I of the 
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 

136.3 Examination 

136.3.1 General. Examination denotes the func- 
tions performed by the manufacturer, fabricator, erector, 
or a party authorized by the Owner which include non- 
destructive examinations (NDE), such as visual, radiog- 
raphy, ultrasonic, eddy current, liquid penetrant, and 
magnetic particle methods. The degree of examination 
and the acceptance standards beyond the requirements 
of this Code shall be a matter of prior agreement between 
the manufacturer, fabricator, or erector and the Owner. 

136.3.2 Qualification of NDE Personnel Personnel 
who perform nondestructive examination of welds shall 
be qualified and certified for each examination method 
in accordance with a program established by the 



91 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



employer of the personnel being certified, which shall 
be based on the following minimum requirements: 

(A) instruction in. the fundamentals of the nonde- 
structive examination method. 

(B) on-the-job training to familiarize the NDE person- 
nel with the appearance and interpretation of indica- 
tions of weld defects. The length of time for such training 
shall be sufficient to assure adequate assimilation of the 
knowledge required. 

(C) an eye examination performed at least once each 
year to determine optical capability of NDE personnel 
to perform the required examinations. 

(D) upon completion of (A) and (B) above, the NDE 
personnel shall be given an oral or written examination 
and performance examination by the employer to deter- 
mine if the NDE personnel are qualified to perform the 
required examinations and interpretation of results. 

(E) certified NDE personnel whose work has not 
included performance of a specific examination method 
for a period of 1 year or more shall be recertified by 
successfully completing the examination of (D) above 
and also passing the visual examination of (C) above. 
Substantial changes in procedures or equipment shall 
require recertification of the NDE personnel. 

As an alternative to the preceding program, the 
requirements of ASME Section V, Article 1 may be used 
for the qualification of NDE personnel Personnel quali- 
fied to AWS QC1 may be used for the visual examination 
of welds. 

136.4 Examination Methods of Welds 

(07) 136.4.1 Nondestructive Examination. Nondestruc- 

tive examinations shall be performed in accordance with 
the requirements of this Chapter. The types and extent 
of mandatory examinations for pressure welds and 
welds to pressure retaining components are specified 
in Table 136.4. For welds other than those covered by 
Table 136.4, only visual examination is required. Welds 
requiring nondestructive examination shall comply with 
the applicable acceptance standards for indications as 
specified in paras. 136.4.2 through 136.4.6. As a guide, 
the detection capabilities for the examination method 
are shown in Table 136.4.1 . Welds not requiring examina- 
tion (i.e., RT, UT, MX or FT) by this Code or the engi- 
neering design shall be judged acceptable if they meet 
the examination requirements of para. 136.4.2 and the 
pressure test requirements specified in para. 137. NDE 
for P-Nos. 3, 4, 5A, and 5B material welds shall be per- 
formed after postweld heat treatment unless directed 
otherwise by engineering design. Required NDE for 
welds in all other materials may be performed before 
or after postweld heat treatment. 

136.4.2 Visual Examination. Visual examination as 
defined in para. 100.2 shall be performed in accordance 
with the methods described in Section V, Article 9, of 



the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Visual exam- 
inations may be conducted, as necessary, during the 
fabrication and erection of piping components to pro- 
vide verification that the design and WPS requirements 
are being met. In addition, visual examination shall be 
performed to verify that all completed welds in pipe 
and piping components comply with the acceptance 
standards specified in (A) below or with the limitations 
on imperfections specified in the material specification 
under which the pipe or component was furnished. 

(A) Acceptance Standards, The following indications 
are unacceptable: 

(A.l) cracks — external surface. 

(A.2) undercut on surface which is greater than 
V 32 in. (1.0 mm) deep. 

(A.3) weld reinforcement greater than specified in 
Table 127.4.2. 

(A A) lack of fusion on surface, 

(A. 5) incomplete penetration (applies only when 
inside surface is readily accessible). 

(A.6) any other linear indications greater than % 6 in. 
(5.0 mm) long. 

(A. 7) surface porosity with rounded indications 
having dimensions greater than % 6 in. (5.0 mm) or four 
or more rounded indications separated by V 16 in. 
(2.0 mm) or less edge to edge in any direction. Rounded 
indications are indications which are circular or elliptical 
with their length less than three times their width. 

136.4.3 Magnetic Particle Examination. Whenever 
required by this Chapter (see Table 136.4), magnetic 
particle examination shall be performed in accordance 
with the methods of Article 7, Section V, of the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 
(A) Evaluation of Indications 

(A.l) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface will 
be indicated by the retention of the examination 
medium. All indications are not necessarily defects; 
however, certain metallurgical discontinuities and mag- 
netic permeability variations may produce similar indi- 
cations which are not relevant to the detection of 
unacceptable discontinuities. 

(A.l) Any indication which is believed to be nonrel- 
evant shall be reexamined to verify whether or not actual 
defects are present. Surface conditioning may precede 
the reexamination. Nonrelevant indications which 
would mask indications of defects are unacceptable. 

(A.3) Relevant indications are those which result 
from unacceptable mechanical discontinuities. Einear 
indications are those indications in which the length is 
more than three times the width. Rounded indications 
are indications which are circular or elliptical with the 
length less than three times the width. 

(A A) An indication of a discontinuity may be larger 
than the discontinuity that causes it; however, the size 
of the indication and not the size of the discontinuity 
is the basis of acceptance or rejection. 



92 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Table 136.4 Mandatory Minimum Nondestructive Examinations for Pressure Welds or Welds to Pressure-Retaining Components 



Piping Design Conditions and Nondestructive Examination 



% 




o 








•a 


O 




o 


o 


Tt 


£L 


1 <J 


c 


n 


u. 


<fr 


O 




B 


© 


& 


K> 


*< 


O 




O 


B 




£13 

9* 


* 


(b 


o 


o 


! 


CO 


2. 




g 


r& 


W3 


Hi. 


O 


{L 


o 


I. 




£* 


o 


o 


►+> 


& 


g 




CD 




O 


£.. 


tT 


3 


B 


» 


o 


o 


05 


o 


f — l 


t* 


w 


W5 


rs 


0) 


B' 


o 


a» 


H4, 


CO 


c/i 




rC 


^x 




^s 



Type Weld 



Temperatures Over 750°F 

(400°C) and at All 

Pressures 



Temperatures Between 350°F 

(175°C) and 750°F (400°C) 

Inclusive, With All Pressures 

Over 1,025 psig [7 100 kPa 

(gage)] 



Butt weids (girth and longitudi- 
nal) [Note (l)] 



Welded branch connections (size 
indicated is branch size) [Notes 
(3) and (4)] 



RTor UT for over NP5 2. 
MT or PT for NPS 2 and 
less [Note (2)]. 



RTor UT for over NPS 4. 
MT or PT for NPS 4 and 
less [Note (2)]. 



Fillet, socket, attachment, 
and seal welds 



PT or MT for all sizes and 
thicknesses [Note (5)] 



RTor UT for over NPS 2 
with thickness over % in. 
(19.0 mm). VT for all sizes 
with thickness % in. 
(19.0 mm) or less. 

RT or UT for branch over NPS 4 
and thickness of branch over 
% in. (19.0 mm) 

MT or PT for branch NPS 4 
and less with thickness of 
branch over % in. (19 mm) 

VT for all sizes with branch 
thickness % in. (19.0 mm) or 
less 

VT for all sizes and 
thicknesses 



All Others 



Visual for all sizes and 
thicknesses 



VT for all sizes and 
thicknesses 



> 



VT for all sizes and 
thicknesses 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) Alt welds shall be given a visual examination in addition to the type of specific nondestructive examination specified. 

(b) NPS — nominal pipe size. 

(c) RT — radiographic examination; UT — ultrasonic examination; MT — magnetic particle examination; PT — liquid penetrant examination; VT — visual examination. 

(d) For nondestructive examinations of the pressure retaining component, refer to the standards listed in Table 126.1 or manufacturing specifications. 

(e) Acceptance standards for nondestructive examinations performed are as follows: MT — see para. 136.4.3; PT — see para. 136.4.4; VT — see para. 136.4.2; RT — see para. 136,4.5; 
UT — see para. 136.4.6. 

NOTES: 

(1) The thickness of butt welds is defined as the thicker of the two abutting ends after end preparation. 

(2) RT may be used as an alternative to PT or MT when it is performed in accordance with para. 136,4.5, 

(3) RT or UT of branch welds shall be performed before any nonintegral reinforcing material is applied. 

(4) In lieu of volumetric examination (RT, U"Q of welded branch connections when required above, surface examination (PT, MT) is acceptable and, when used, shall be performed at the 
lesser of one-half of the weld thickness or each x / 7 in. (12.5 mm) of weld thickness and all accessible final weld surfaces. 

(5) Fillet welds not exceeding % in, (6 mm) throat thickness which are used for the permanent attachment of nonpressure retaining parts are exempt from the PT or MT requirements of 
the above Table. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table 136.4.1 Weld Imperfections Indicated by Various Types of Examination 









Magnetic 


Liquid 






Imperfection 


Visual 




Particle 


Penetrant 


Radiography 


Ultrasonic 


Crack — surface 


X [Note (1)3 




X [Note (1)] 


X [Note (1)] 


X 


X 


Crack — internal 










X 


X 


Undercut — surface 


X [Note (1)] 




X [Note (1)3 


X [Note (1)] 


X 




Weld reinforcement 


X [Note (1)] 








X 




Porosity 


X [Notes (1), 


(2)] 


X [Notes (1), (2)] 


X [Notes (1), (2)] 


X 




Slag inclusion 


X [Note (2)] 




X [Note (2)] 


X [Note (2)j 


X 


X 


Lack of fusion 


X [Notes (1), 


(2)] 


X [Notes (1), (2)] 


X [Notes (1), (2)] 


X 


X 


(on surface) 














incomplete penetration 


X [Note (3)] 




X [Note (3)] 


X [Note (3)] 


X 


X 



NOTES: 

(1) Applies when the outside surface is accessible for examination and/or when the inside surface is readily accessible. 

(2) Discontinuities are detectable when they are open to the surface. 

(3) Applies only when the inside surface is readily accessible. 



(B) Acceptance Standards. Indications whose major 
dimensions are greater than V 16 in. (2.0 mm) shall be 
considered relevant. The following relevant indications 
are unacceptable: 

(B.l) any cracks or linear indications 

(B.2) rounded indications with dimensions greater 
than 3 / l6 in. (5.0 mm) 

(B.3) four or more rounded indications in a line 
separated by V 16 in. (2.0 mm) or less, edge to edge 

(B.4.) ten or more rounded indications in any 6 in. 2 
(3 870 mm 2 ) of surface with the major dimension of this 
area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) with the area taken in 
the most unfavorable location relative to the indications 
being evaluated 

136.4.4 Liquid Penetrant Examination. Whenever 
required by this Chapter (see Table 136.4), liquid pene- 
trant examination shall be performed in accordance with 
the methods of Article 6, Section V, of the ASME Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Code. 
(A) Evaluation of Indications 

(A.l) Mechanical discontinuities at the surface will 
be indicated by bleeding out of the penetrant; however, 
localized surface imperfections, such as may occur from 
machining marks or surface conditions, may produce 
similar indications which are nonrelevant to the detec- 
tion of unacceptable discontinuities. 

(A, 2) Any indication that is believed to be nonrele- 
vant shall be regarded as a defect and shall be reexam- 
ined to verify whether or not actual defects are present. 
Surface conditioning may precede the reexamination. 
Nonrelevant indications and broad areas of pigmenta- 
tion which would mask indications of defects are unac- 
ceptable. 

(A3) Relevant indications are those which result 
from mechanical discontinuities. Linear indications are 
those indications in which the length is more than three 
times the width. Rounded indications are indications 



which are circular or elliptical with the length less than 
three times the width. 

(A.4.) An indication of a discontinuity may be larger 
than the discontinuity that causes it; however, the size 
of the indication and not the size of the discontinuity 
is the basis of acceptance or rejection. 

(B) Acceptance Standards. Indications whose major 
dimensions are greater than V 16 in. (2.0 mm) shall be 
considered relevant. The following relevant indications 
are unacceptable: 

(B.l) any cracks or linear indications 

(B.l) rounded indications with dimensions greater 
than % D in. (5.0 mm) 

(B3) four or more rounded indications in a line 
separated by V 16 in. (2.0 mm) or less edge to edge 

(BA) ten or more rounded indications in any 6 in. 2 
(3 870 mm 2 ) of surface with the major dimension of this 
area not to exceed 6 in. (150 mm) with the area taken in 
the most unfavorable location relative to the indications 
being evaluated 

136.4.5 Radiography. When required by this Chap- 
ter (see Table 136.4), radiographic examination shall be 
performed in accordance with Article 2 of Section V of 
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, except that 
the requirements of T-285 are to be used as a guide but 
not for the rejection of radiographs unless the geometri- 
cal unsharpness exceeds 0.07 in. (2.0 mm). 

(A) Acceptance Standards. Welds that are shown by 
radiography to have any of the following types of dis- 
continuities are unacceptable: 

(A.l) any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion 
or penetration 

(A.l) any other elongated indication which has a 
length greater than 

(A.2.1) % in. (6.0 mm) for t up to % in. (19.0 mm), 
inclusive 



94 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
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ASME B31. 1-2007 



(All) %t for t from % in. (19.0 mm) to l\ in. 
(57.0 mm), incl. 

(A13) % in. (19.0 mm) for t over 2V 4 in. (57.0 mm) 
where t is the thickness of the thinner portion of the weld 

NOTE: t referred to in (A.2.1), (A.2.2), and (A.2.3) above pertains 
to the thickness of the weld being examined; if a weld joins two 
members having different thickness at the weld, t is the thinner 
of these two thickness. 

(A3) any group of indications in line that have an 
aggregate length greater than t in a length of lit, except 
where the distance between the successive indications 
exceeds 6L where L is the longest indication in the group 

(A A) porosity in excess of that shown as acceptable 
in Appendix A-250 of Section I of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code 

(A. 5) root concavity when there is an abrupt change 
in density, as indicated on the radiograph 

(07) 136.4.6 Ultrasonic Examination. When required by 
this Chapter (see Table 136.4), ultrasonic examination 
(UT) shall be performed in accordance with Article 4 of 
Section V of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 
and the following additional requirements. 

(A) The following criteria shall also be met when per- 
forming ultrasonic examinations: 

(A.l) The equipment used to perform the examina- 
tion shall be capable of recording the UT data to facilitate 
the analysis by a third party and for the repeatability 
of subsequent examinations, should they be required. 
Where physical obstructions prevent the use of systems 
capable of recording the UT data, manual UT may be 
used with the approval of the Owner. 

(AD NDE personnel performing and evaluating 
UT examinations shall be qualified and certified in 
accordance with their employer's written practice and 
the requirements of para. 136.3.2 of this Code. Personnel, 
procedures, and equipment used to collect and analyze 
UT data shall have demonstrated their ability to perform 
an acceptable examination using test blocks approved 
by the Owner. 

(B) Acceptance Standards. Welds that are shown by 
ultrasonic examination to have discontinuities which 
produce an indication greater than 20% of the reference 
level shall be investigated to the extent that ultrasonic 
examination personnel can determine their shape, iden- 
tity, and location so that they may evaluate each disconti- 
nuity for acceptance in accordance with (B.l) and (B.2) 
below^. 

(B.l) Discontinuities evaluated as being cracks, lack 
of fusion, or incomplete penetration are unacceptable 
regardless of length. 

(B.l) Other discontinuities are unacceptable if the 
indication exceeds the reference level and their length 
exceeds the following: 

(Bl.l) \ in. (6.0 mm) for t up to % in. (19.0 mm). 



(BID %t for t from % in. (19.0 mm) to l\ in. 
(57,0 mm). 

(B13) % in. (19.0 mm) for t over l\ in. (57.0 mm) 
where t is the thickness of the weld being examined. If 
the weld joins two members having different thicknesses 
at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. 

137 PRESSURE TESTS 

137.1 General Requirements 

137.1.1 Subassemblies. When conducted in accor- 
dance w ? ith the requirements of this Code, the pressure 
testing of piping systems to ensure leak tightness shall 
be acceptable for the determination of any leaks in pip- 
ing subassemblies. 

137.1.2 Temperature of Test Medium. The tempera- 
ture of the test medium shall be that of the available 
source unless otherwise specified by the Owner. The 
test pressure shall not be applied until the system and 
the pressurizing medium are approximately at the same 
temperature. When conducting pressure tests at low 
metal temperatures, the possibility of brittle fracture 
shall be considered. 

137.1.3 Personnel Protection. Suitable precautions 
in the event of piping system rupture shall be taken to 
eliminate hazards to personnel in the proximity of lines 
being tested. 

137.1.4 Maximum Stress During Test At no time 
during the pressure test shall any part of the piping 
system be subjected to a stress greater than that permit- 
ted by para. 1023.3(B). 

137.1.5 Testing Schedule. Pressure testing shall be 
performed following the completion of postweld heat 
treatment, required by para. 132, nondestructive exami- 
nations required by Table 136.4, and all other fabrication, 
assembly and erection activities required to provide the 
system or portions thereof subjected to the pressure test 
with pressure retaining capability. 

137.2 Preparation for Testing 

137.2.1 Exposure of Joints. All joints including 
welds not previously pressure tested shall be left uninsu- 
lated and exposed for examination during the test. By 
prior agreement the complete system or portions thereof 
subject to test may be insulated prior to the test period 
provided an extended holding time pressurization of 
the system is performed to check for possible leakage 
through the insulation barrier. 

137.2.2 Addition of Temporary Supports. Piping 
systems designed for vapor or gas shall be provided 
with additional temporary supports if necessary to sup- 
port the weight of the test liquid. Such supports shall 
meet the requirements for testing and system cleanup 
procedures described in para. 122.10. 



95 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



137.2.3 Restraint or Isolation of Expansion Joints. 

Expansion joints shall be provided with temporary 
restraint if required for the additional pressure load 
under test, or they shall be isolated during the system 
test. 

137.2.4 Isolation of Equipment and Piping Not Sub- 
jected to Pressure Test. Equipment that is not to be 
subjected to the pressure test shall be either disconnected 
from the system or isolated by a blank or similar means. 
Valves may be used for this purpose provided that valve 
closure is suitable for the proposed test pressure. Owner 
shall be aware of the limitations of pressure and temper- 
ature for each valve subject to test conditions and as 
further described in para. 107.1(C). Isolated equipment 
and piping must be vented. 

137.2.5 Treatment of Flanged Joints Containing 
Blanks. Flanged joints at which blanks are inserted to 
blank off other equipment during the test need not be 
tested after removal of the blank provided the require- 
ments of para. 137.7.1 are subsequently performed. 

137.2.6 Precautions Against Test Medium Expan- 
sion. If a pressure test is to be maintained for a period 
of time during which the test medium in the system Is 
subject to thermal expansion, precautions shall be taken 
to avoid excessive pressure. A pressure relief device set 
at I/3 times the test pressure is recommended during 
the pressure test, provided the requirements of paras. 
137.1.4, 137.4.5, and 137.5.5 are not exceeded. 

137.3 Requirements for Specific Piping Systems 

1373.1 Boiler External Piping. Boiler external pip- 
ing [see para. 100.1.2(A)] shall be hydrostatically tested 
in accordance with PG-99 of Section I of the ASME Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Code. The test shall be conducted 
in the presence of the Authorized Inspector. 

137.3.2 Nonboiler External Piping. All nonboiler 
external piping shall be hydrostatically tested in accor- 
dance with para. 137.4. As an alternative, when specified 
by the owner, the piping may be leak tested in accor- 
dance with para. 137.5, 137.6, or 137.7. Lines open to 
the atmosphere, such as vents or drains downstream of 
the last shutoff valve, need not be tested. 

137.4 Hydrostatic Testing 

137.4.1 Material. When permitted by the Material 
Specification, a system hydrostatic test may be per- 
formed in lieu of the hydrostatic test required by the 
material specifications for material used in the piping 
subassembly or system provided the minimum test pres- 
sure required for the piping system is met. 

137.4.2 Provision of Air Vents at High Points. Vents 
shall be provided at all high points of the piping system 
in the position in which the test is to be conducted to 
purge air pockets while the component or system is 



filling. Venting during the filling of the system may be 
provided by the loosening of flanges having a minimum 
of four bolts or by the use of equipment vents. 

137.4.3 Test Medium. Water shall normally be used 
as the test medium unless otherwise specified by the 
Owner. Test water shall be clean and shall be of such 
quality as to minimize corrosion of the materials in the 
piping system. Further recommended precautions on 
the quality of test water used for hydrotesting of austen- 
i tic (300 series) and ferritic (400 series) stainless steels 
are contained in Appendix IV, para. IV-3.4. 

137.4.4 Check of Test Equipment Before Applying 
Pressure. The test equipment shall be examined before 
pressure is applied to ensure that it is tightly connected. 
All low-pressure filling lines and all other items not 
subject to the test pressure shall be disconnected or iso- 
lated by valves or other suitable means. 

137.4.5 Required Hydrostatic Test Pressure. The 

hydrostatic test pressure at any point in the piping sys- 
tem shall not be less than 1.5 times the design pressure, 
but shall not exceed the maximum allowable test pres- 
sure of any nonisolated components, such as vessels, 
pumps, or valves, nor shall it exceed the limits imposed 
by para. 102.3.3(B). The pressure shall be continuously 
maintained for a minimum time of 10 minutes and may 
then be reduced to the design pressure and held for such 
time as may be necessary to conduct the examinations 
for leakage. Examinations for leakage shall be made of 
all joints and connections. The piping system, exclusive 
of possible localized instances at pump or valve packing, 
shall show no visual evidence of weeping or leaking. 

137.5 Pneumatic Testing 

137.5.1 General. Except for preliminary testing in 
accordance with para. 137.5.4, pneumatic testing shall 
not be used unless the Owner specifies pneumatic test- 
ing or permits its use as an alternative. It is recom- 
mended that pneumatic testing be used only when one 
of the following conditions exists: 

(A) when piping systems are so designed that they 
cannot be filled with water 

(B) when piping systems are to be used in services 
where traces of the testing medium cannot be tolerated 

137.5.2 Test Medium. The gas used as the test 
medium shall be nonflammable and nontoxic. Since 
compressed gas may be hazardous when used as a test- 
ing medium, it is recommended that special precautions 
for protection of personnel be observed when a gas 
under pressure is used as the test medium. 

137.53 Check of Test Equipment Before Applying 
Pressure. The test equipment shall be examined before 
pressure is applied to ensure that it is tightly connected. 
All items not subjected to the test pressure shall be 



96 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



disconnected or isolated by valves or other suitable 
means. 

137.5.4 Preliminary Test. A preliminary pneumatic 
test not to exceed 25 psig [175 k.Pa (gage)] may be 
applied, prior to other methods of leak testing, as a 
means of locating major leaks. If used/ the preliminary 
pneumatic test shall be performed in accordance with 
the requirements of paras. 137.5.2 and 137.5.3. 

137.5.5 Required Pneumatic Test Pressure. The 

pneumatic test pressure shall be not less than 1.2 nor 
more than 1.5 times the design pressure of the piping 
system. The test pressure shall not exceed the maximum 
allowable test pressure of any nonisolated component, 
such as vessels, pumps, or valves, in the system. The 
pressure in the system shall gradually be increased to 
not more than one-half of the test pressure, after which 
the pressure shall be increased in steps of approximately 
one- tenth of the test pressure until the required test 
pressure has been reached. The pressure shall be contin- 
uously maintained for a minimum time of 10 minutes. 
It shall then be reduced to the lesser of design pressure 
or 100 psig [700 kPa (gage)] and held for such time as 
may be necessary to conduct the examination for leak- 
age. Examination for leakage detected by soap bubble 
or equivalent method shall be made of all joints and 
connections. The piping system, exclusive of possible 
localized instances at pump or valve packing, shall show 
no evidence of leaking. 

137.6 Mass-Spectrometer and Halide Testing 

137.6.1 When specified by the Owner, systems 
with conditions of operation and design that require 
testing methods having a greater degree of sensitivity 
than can be obtained by a hydrostatic or pneumatic 
test shall be tested by a method, such as helium mass- 
spectrometer test or halide test, which has the required 
sensitivity. 

137.6.2 When a mass-spectrometer or halide test 
is performed, it shall be conducted in accordance with 
the instructions of the manufacturer of the test equip- 
ment. In all cases a calibrated reference leak, with a leak 
rate not greater than the maximum permissible leakage 
from the system, shall be used. The equipment shall be 
calibrated against the reference leak in such a way that 
the system leakage measured by the equipment can be 
determined to be not greater than the leak rate of the 
reference leak. 

137.7 Initial Service Testing 

137.7.1 When specified by the owner, an initial 
service test and examination is acceptable when other 



types of tests are not practical or when leak tightness 
is demonstrable due to the nature of the service. One 
example is piping where shut-off valves are not available 
for isolating a line and where temporary closures are 
impractical. Others may be systems where during the 
course of checking out of pumps, compressors, or other 
equipment, ample opportunity is afforded for examina- 
tion for leakage prior to full scale operation. An initial 
service test is not applicable to boiler external piping. 

137.7.2 When performing an initial service test, the 
piping system shall be gradually brought up to normal 
operating pressure and continuously held for a mini- 
mum time of 10 minutes. Examination for leakage shall 
be made of all joints and connections. The piping system 
exclusive of possible localized instances at pump or 
valve packing shall show no visual evidence of weeping 
or leaking. 

137.8 Retesting After Repair or Additions 

1 37.8.1 Repairs may be made to the pressure parts 
of boiler external piping after the hydrostatic test 
required by para. 137.3.1, provided the requirements of 
PW-54.2 of Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure 
Vessel Code are met. 

137.8.2 Nonpressure parts may be welded, to the 
pressure parts of boiler external piping after the hydro- 
static test required by para. 137.3.1, provided the require- 
ments of PW-54.3 of Section I of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code are met. 

137.8.3 In the event repairs or additions to non- 
boiler external piping are made following a test, the 
affected piping shall be retested in accordance with the 
provisions of para. 137.3.2. However, a system need not 
be retested after seal welding or after attachments of 
lugs, brackets, insulation supports, nameplates, or other 
nonpressure retaining attachments provided 

(A) the attachment fillet weld does not exceed % in. 
(10.0 mm) thickness or, if a full penetration weld is used, 
the material attached does not exceed the nominal thick- 
ness of the pressure retaining member or V 2 i n - (12.0 mm), 
whichever is less 

(B) welds shall be preheated as required by para. 131 

(C) w 7 elds shall be examined as required by Table 
136.4 

(D) seal welds shall be examined for leakage after 
system startup 

137.8.4 All weld defect repairs shall be made in 
accordance with para. 127.4.11. 



97 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



(07) 



Chapter VII 
Operation and Maintenance 



138 GENERAL 

Safety is the overriding concern in design, operation, 
and maintenance of power piping. Managing safe piping 
service begins with the initial project concept and contin- 
ues throughout the service life of the piping system. The 
Operating Company is responsible for the safe operation 
and maintenance of its power piping. 

The Code does not prescribe a detailed set of operating 
and maintenance procedures that will encompass all 
cases. Each Operating Company shall develop operation 
and maintenance procedures for piping systems deemed 
necessary to ensure safe facility operations based on the 
provisions of this Code, relevant industry experience, 
the Operating Company's experience and knowledge 
of its facility, and conditions under which the piping 
systems are operated. The additional requirements 
described in paras. 139 through 141 apply to covered 
piping systems (CPS). 



139 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 
PROCEDURES 

For CPS, this shall be accomplished by the issuance 
of written operation and maintenance procedures. The 
operation and maintenance procedures established by 
the Operating Company for assuring safe operation of 
its CPS may vary, but the following aspects shall be 
covered: 

(A) operation of piping system within design limits 

(B) documentation of system operating hours and 
modes of operation 

(C) documentation of actual operating temperatures 
and pressures 

(D) documentation of significant system transients or 
excursions including thermal hydraulic events (e.g., 
steam hammers, liquid slugging) 

(E) documentation of modifications, repairs, and 
replacements 

(F) documentation of maintenance of pipe supports 
for piping operating within the creep regime 

(G) documentation of maintenance of piping system 
elements such as vents, drains, relief valves, desuper- 
heaters, and instrumentation necessary for safe oper- 
ation 

(H) assessment of degradation mechanisms, includ- 
ing, but not limited to, creep, fatigue, graphitization, 
corrosion, erosion, and flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) 



(I) quality of flow medium (e.g., dissolved oxygen, 
pH) 

(J) documentation of the condition assessment (see 
para. 140) 

(K) other required maintenance 

140 CONDITION ASSESSMENT OF CPS 

A program shall be established to provide for the 
assessment and documentation of the condition of all 
CPS. The documentation shall include a statement as to 
any actions necessary for continued safe operation. A 
condition assessment shall be performed at periodic 
intervals as determined by an engineering evaluation. 

Condition assessments shall be made of CPS based on 
established industry practices. The condition assessment 
may range from a review of previous inspection findings 
and operating history since the previous inspection, to 
a thorough nondestructive examination (NDE) and engi- 
neering evaluation. The extent of the assessment per- 
formed shall be established by the Operating Company 
or its designee with consideration of the age of the CPS, 
the previous documented assessment, and anticipated 
operating conditions. 

The condition assessment documentation, in a form 
established by the Operating Company, should contain 
(but not be limited to) as many of the following elements 
as available: 

(A) system name 

(B) listing of original material specifications and their 
editions 

(C) design diameters and wall thicknesses 

(D) design temperature and pressure 

(E) normal operating temperature and pressure 

(F) operating hours, both cumulative (from initial 
operation) and since last condition assessment 

(G) actual modes of operation since last condition 
assessment (such as the number of hot, warm, and cold 
starts) 

(H) pipe support hot and cold walk-down readings 
and conditions since last condition assessment for pip- 
ing systems that are operated within the creep regime 

(I) modifications and repairs since last condition 
assessment 

(]) description and list of any dynamic events, includ- 
ing thermal hydraulic events, since the last condition 
assessment 



98 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



(K) actual pipe wall thickness and outside diameter 
measurements taken since the last condition assessment 
as appropriate based on service 

(L) summary of pipe system inspection findings, 
including list of areas of concern 

(M.) recommendations for reinspection interval and 
scope 

Guidance on condition assessment may be found in 
Nonmandatory Appendix V of this Code. 

141 CPS RECORDS 

CPS records shall be maintained and easily accessible 
for the life of the piping systems and should consist of, 
but not be limited to 

(A) procedures required by para. 139 

(B) condition assessment documentation required by 
para. 140 

(C) original, as-built, and as modified or repaired pip- 
ing drawings 

(D) design and modified or repaired pipe support 
drawings for piping operating within the creep regime 



99 



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Page intentionally blank 



100 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



MANDATORY APPENDICES 



MANDATORY APPENDIX A 



Begins on next page. 



101 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
l^ No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-l Carbon Steel 



Spec. 
No. 



Grade 



Type or Class 



Nominal P- 

Composition No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


f 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 



A 53 


A 


S 




B 


S 


A 106 


A 
B 
C 




A 179 






A 192 






A 210 


A-l 
C 




A 333 


1 
6 




A 369 


FPA 

FPB 




API 5L 


A 
B 




Furnace Butt Welded Pipe 




A 53 




F 



API 5L 



A25 



! & I! 



Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube 

A 53 A E 



A 135 


A 




B 


A 178 


A 




C 


A 214 




A 226 




A 333 


1 




6 



C 


1 


(2) 


48 


30 


1.00 


C-Mn 


1 


(2) 


60 


35 


1.00 


C-Si 


1 


(2) 


48 


30 


1.00 


C-Si 


1 


(2) 


60 


35 


1.00 


C-Si 


1 


(2) 


70 


40 


1.00 


C 


1 


(1)(2)(5) 


(47) 


26 


1.00 


C-Si 


1 


(2) (5) 


(47) 


26 


1.00 


C-Si 


1 


(2) 


60 


37 


1.00 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(2) 


70 


40 


1.00 


C-Mn 


1 


(1) 


55 


30 


1.00 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1) 


60 


35 


1.00 


C-Si 


1 


(2) 


48 


30 


1.00 


C-Mn 


1 


(2) 


60 


35 


1.00 


C 


1 


(1)(2)(14) 


48 


30 


1.00 


C-Mn 


1 


(1)(2)(14) 


60 


35 


1.00 


C 


1 


(4) 


48 


30 


0.60 


C 


1 


(1)(4)(14) 


45 


25 


0.60 


c 


1 


(2) 


48 


30 


0.85 


C-Mn 


1 


(2) 


60 


35 


0.85 


C 


1 


(1)(2) 


48 


30 


0.85 


C-Mn 


1 


CD (2) 


60 


35 


0.85 


C 


1 


(2) (5) 


(47) 


26 


0.85 


C 


1 


(2) 


60 


37 


0.85 


C 


1 


(D(2)(5) 


(47) 


26 


0.85 


C-Si 


1 


(2) (5) 


(47) 


26 


0.85 


C-Mn 


1 


(1) 


55 


30 


0.85 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1) 


60 


35 


0.85 



102 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ^ 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^2 



ASME B31.1-2007 



-20 
to 
100 



Table A-l Carbon Steel 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 



200 300 



400 



500 600 



650 



700 



750 



800 



Grade 



Spec. 
No. 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 



13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


12.5 


10.7 


9.0 


A 


A 53 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


15.6 


13.0 


10.8 


B 




13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


12.5 


10.7 


9.0 


A 


A 106 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


15.6 


13.0 


10.8 


B 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.8 


18.3 


14.8 


12.0 


C 




13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13,4 


13.3 


12.8 


12.4 


10.7 


9.2 




A 179 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


12.8 


12.4 


10.7 


9.0 




A 192 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


15.6 


13.0 


10.8 


A-l 


A 210 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.8 


18.3 


14.8 


12.0 


C 




15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.3 


14.8 








1 


A 333 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


15.6 






6 




13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


12.5 


10.7 


9.0 


FPA 


A 369 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


15.6 


13.0 


10.8 


FPB 




13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


12.5 


10.7 


9.0 


A 


API 5L 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


15.6 


13.0 


10.8 


B 
Furnace 


Butt Welded Pipe 


8.2 


8.2 


8.2 


8.2 


8.2 


8.2 


8.2 


7.5 








A 53 


7 J 


7.7 


7.7 


7.7 














A25 


API 5L 



Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube 



11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


10.6 


9.1 


7.7 


A 


A 53 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


13.3 


11.1 


9.2 


B 




11.7 


11.7 


11,7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


10.6 


9.1 


7.9 


A 


A 135 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


13.3 


11.1 


9.2 


B 




11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.3 


10.9 


10.5 


9.1 


7.7 


A 


A 178 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


13.3 


11.1 


9.2 


C 




11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.3 


10.9 


10.5 


9.1 


7.8 




A 214 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.3 


10.9 


10.5 


9.1 


7.8 




A 226 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.0 


12.6 








1 


A 333 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


13.3 






6 





103 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-l Carbon Steel (Cont'd) 



Spec, 
No. 



Grade 



Type or Class 



Nominal 
Composition 



P- 
No. 



Notes 



specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 



API 5L 



A25 

A 

B 



c 


1 


(D(14) 


45 


25 


0.85 


c 


1 


(1)(2)(14) 


48 


30 


0.85 


C-Mn 


1 


(1)(2)(14) 


60 


35 


0.85 



A 587 



Electric Fusion Welded Pipe — Filler Metal Added 

A 134 



A 134 



A 139 



API 5L 



A 211 



A 671 



A 671 



A 671 



A 671 



A 671 



A283A 




A283B 




A283C 




A283D 




A285A 




A285B 




A285C 




A 




B 




A 




B 




A570-30 




A570-33 




A570-40 




CA55 


10,13 


CA55 


1142 


CA55 


20,23,30,33 


CAS 5 


21,22,31,32 


CB60 


10,13 


CB60 


11,12 


CB60 


20,23,30,33 


CB60 


21,22,31,32 


CB65 


10,13 


CB65 


11,12 


CB65 


20,23,30,33 


CB65 


21,22,31,32 


CB70 


10,13 


CB70 


11,12 


CB70 


20,23,30,33 


CB70 


21,22,31,32 


CC60 


10,13 


CC60 


11,12 


CC60 


20,23,30,33 


CC60 


21,22,31,32 



C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C-Mn 


1 


C 


1 


C-Mn 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C 


1 


C-Si 


1 


C-Si 


1 


C-Si 


1 


C-Si 


1 


C-Si 


1 


C-Si 


1 


C-Si 


1 


C-Si 


1 


C-Si 


1 


C~Si 


1 


C-Si 


1 


c-si 


1 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


C-Mn-Si 


1 



:d(2) 



1X7) 
D(7) 
D(7) 
D(7) 

1)(2)(8) 
1)(2)(8) 

1)(2)(8) 

1)(2)(14) 
1)(2)(14) 

1X2XU) 
1X2X14) 

1)(7)(14)(16) 
1X7)(14)(16) 
1)(7)(14)(16) 

1X2X15) 
1X2X15) 
1)(2) 
1)(2) 

1)(2)(15) 
1X2X15) 
D(2) 

:d(2) 
:i)(2)d5) 

1X2X15) 

:«(2) 

1X2) 

;i)(2)(i5) 

D(2)(15) 

1)(2) 

1)(2) 

1)(2)(15) 
1)(2)(15) 
1)(2) 
D(2) 



48 



45 
50 
55 
60 

45 
50 
55 

48 
60 

48 
60 

49 
52 
55 

55 
55 
55 
55 

60 
60 
60 
60 

65 
65 
65 
65 

70 
70 
70 
70 

60 
60 
60 
60 



30 



24 
27 
30 
33 

24 
27 
30 

30 
35 

30 
35 

30 
33 
40 

30 
30 
30 
30 

32 
32 
32 
32 

35 
35 
35 
35 

38 
38 
38 
38 

32 
32 
32 
32 



0.85 



0.80 
0.80 
0.80 
0.80 

0.80 
0.80 
0.80 

0.80 
0.80 

0.90 
0.90 

0.75 
0.75 
0.75 

0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1.00 

0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1.00 

0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1.00 

0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1.00 

0.90 

1.00 
0.90 

1.00 



104 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



-20 
to 
100 



Table A-l Carbon Steel (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 



200 



300 400 



500 



600 



650 700 



750 



800 



Grade 



Spec. 
No. 



0.9 


10.9 


10.9 


10.9 














A2 


1.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


10.6 


9.1 


7.7 


A 


4.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


14.6 


133 


11.1 


9.2 


B 



11.7 



11.7 



11.7 



11.7 



11.7 



11.7 



11.7 



10.6 



Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 

API 5L 



A 587 



9.1 



7.8 



Electric Fusion Welded Pipe — Filler A/letal Added 

A 134 



A 134 



10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


9.8 


9.5 








A283A 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11,0 


10.7 








A283B 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.3 


11.9 








A283C 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.5 


13.0 








A283D 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


9.8 


9.5 


9.2 


8.6 


6.6 


A285A 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11,4 


11.4 


11.0 


10.7 


10.0 


8.8 


6.5 


A285B 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.6 


12.3 


11.9 


11.5 


10.4 


8.6 


A285C 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


11.0 


10.0 


8.6 


7 A 


A 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


13.7 


12.5 


10.4 


8.6 


B 


12.3 


12.3 


12.3 


12.3 


12.3 


12.3 


12.3 


113 


9.6 


83 


A 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


14.0 


11.7 


9.7 


B 


10.5 


10.5 


















A570-30 


11.1 


11.1 


















A570-33 


11.8 


11.8 


















A570-40 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


13.8 


13.3 


12.9 


11.7 


9.7 


CA55 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.3 


14.8 


14.3 


13.0 


10.8 


CA55 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


13.8 


13.3 


12.9 


11.7 


9.7 


CA55 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.3 


14.8 


14.3 


13.0 


10.8 


CA55 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


14,7 


14.2 


13.7 


11.7 


9.7 


CB60 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.4 


15.8 


15.3 


13.0 


10.8 


CB60 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


14.7 


14.2 


13.7 


11.7 


9.7 


CB60 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.4 


15.8 


15.3 


13.0 


10.8 


CB60 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.1 


15.6 


15.0 


12.5 


103 


CB65 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.9 


17.3 


16.7 


13.9 


11.4 


CB65 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.1 


15.6 


15.0 


12.5 


103 


CB65 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.9 


17.3 


16.7 


13.9 


11.4 


CB65 


18.0 


18,0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.5 


16.9 


16.3 


133 


10.8 


CB70 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.1 


14.8 


12.0 


CB70 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.5 


16.9 


16.3 


133 


10.8 


CB70 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.1 


14.8 


12.0 


CB70 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


14.7 


14.2 


13.7 


11.7 


9.7 


CC60 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.4 


15.8 


15.3 


13.0 


10.8 


CC60 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15,4 


14.7 


14.2 


13.7 


11.7 


9.7 


CC60 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.4 


15.8 


15.3 


13.0 


10.8 


CC60 



A 139 



API 51 



A 211 



A 671 



A 671 



A 671 



A 671 



A 671 



105 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-l Carbon Steel (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 
















Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 






Nominal 


p- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Type or Class 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 


Electric Fusion Welded Pipe 


- Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 












A 671 


CC65 


10,13 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


65 


35 


0.90 




CC65 


11,12 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X2) (15) 


65 


35 


1.00 




CC65 


20,23,30,33 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X2) 


65 


35 


0.90 




CC65 


21,22,31,32 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X2) 


65 


35 


1.00 


A 671 


CC70 


10,13 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X2) (15) 


70 


38 


0.90 




CC70 


11,12 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X2X15) 


70 


38 


1.00 




CC70 


20,23,30,33 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X2) 


70 


38 


0.90 




CC70 


21,22,31,32 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X2) 


70 


38 


1.00 


A 671 


CK75 


10,13 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


75 


42 


0.90 




CK75 


11,12 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


75 


42 


1.00 




CK75 


20,23,30,33 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X2) 


75 


40 


0.90 




CK75 


21,22,31,32 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X2) 


75 


40 


1.00 


A 671 


CD70 


10,13 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


70 


50 


0.90 




CD70 


11,12 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


70 


50 


1.00 




CD70 


20,23,30,33 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1)(3) 


70 


50 


0.90 




CD70 


21,22,31,32 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X3) 


70 


50 


1.00 


A 671 


CD80 


10,13 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(D(15) 


80 


60 


0.90 




CD80 


11,12 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(0(15) 


80 


60 


1.00 




CD80 


20,23 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(0(3) 


80 


60 


0.90 




CD80 


21,22 


C-Mn-Si 


1 


(1X3) 


80 


60 


1.00 


A 672 


A45 


10,13 


C 


1 


(0(2X15) 


45 


24 


0.90 




A45 


11,12 


C 


1 


(0(2) (15) 


45 


24 


1.00 




A45 


20,23,30,33 


c 


1 


(0(2) 


45 


24 


0.90 




A45 


21,22,31,32 


c 


1 


(0(2) 


45 


24 


1.00 


A 672 


A50 


10,13 


c 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


50 


27 


0.90 




A50 


11,12 


c 


1 


(0(2) (15) 


50 


27 


1.00 




A50 


20,23,30,33 


c 


1 


(0(2) 


50 


27 


0.90 




A50 


21,22,31,32 


c 


1 


(0(2) 


50 


27 


1.00 


A 672 


ASS 


10,13 


c 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


55 


30 


0.90 




A55 


11,12 


c 


1 


(0(2) (15) 


55 


30 


1.00 




A55 


20,23,30,33 


c 


1 


(0(2) 


55 


30 


0.90 




A55 


21,22,31,32 


c 


1 


(0(2) 


55 


30 


1.00 


A 672 


B55 


10,13 


c 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


55 


30 


0.90 




B55 


11,12 


c 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


55 


30 


1.00 




B55 


20,23,30,33 


c 


1 


(0(2) 


55 


30 


0.90 




B55 


21,22,31,32 


c 


1 


(0(2) 


55 


30 


1.00 


A 672 


B60 


10,13 


c 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


60 


32 


0.90 




B60 


11,12 


c 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


60 


32 


1.00 




B60 


20,23,30,33 


c 


1 


(0(2) 


60 


32 


0.90 




B60 


21,22,31,32 


c 


1 


(0(2) 


60 


32 


1.00 



106 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831.1-2007 



Table A-l Carbon Steel (Cont'd) 





Maximum Allowable Stress Values 


in Tension, 


ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 








-20 
to 




















Spec. 


100 


200 


300 


400 


500 


600 


650 


700 


750 


800 


Grade 


No. 
















Electric Fusion Welded Pipe - 


Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.1 


15.6 


15.0 


12.5 


10.3 


CC65 


A 671 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.9 


173 


16.7 


13.9 


11.4 


CC65 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.1 


15.6 


15.0 


12.5 


10.3 


CC65 




18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.9 


173 


16.7 


13.9 


11.4 


CC65 




18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.5 


16.9 


163 


13.3 


10.8 


CC70 


A 671 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.1 


14.8 


12.0 


CC70 




18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.5 


16.9 


163 


13.3 


10.8 


CC70 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.1 


14.8 


12.0 


CC70 




193 


193 


193 


193 


193 


193 


18.7 


17.6 


14.1 


113 


CK75 


A 671 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


20.8 


19.6 


15.7 


12.6 


CK75 




193 


193 


193 


193 


193 


18.4 


17.8 


17.2 


14.1 


11.3 


CK75 




21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


20.4 


19.8 


19.1 


15.7 


12.6 


CK75 




18.0 


18.0 


17.7 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 








CD70 


A 671 


20.0 


20.0 


19.7 


19.5 


19,5 


19.5 


19.5 








CD70 




18.0 


18.0 


17.7 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 








CD70 




20.0 


20.0 


19.7 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 








CD70 




20.6 


20.6 


203 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 








CD80 


A 671 


22.9 


22.9 


22.6 


223 


223 


223 


223 








CD80 




20.6 


20.6 


203 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 








CD80 




22.9 


22.9 


22.6 


223 


22.3 


223 


22.3 








CD80 




11.6 


11.6 


11.6 


11.6 


11.6 


11.0 


10.7 


103 


9.6 


8.1 


A45 


A 672 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


123 


11.9 


11.5 


10.7 


9.0 


A45 




11.6 


11.6 


11,6 


11.6 


11.6 


11.0 


10.7 


103 


9.6 


8.1 


A45 




12.9 


12.9 


12,9 


12.9 


12.9 


123 


11.9 


11.5 


10.7 


9.0 


A45 




12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.4 


12.0 


11.3 


10A 


8.6 


A50 


A 672 


143 


143 


143 


143 


143 


13.8 


133 


12.5 


11.2 


9.6 


A50 




12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.4 


12.0 


11.3 


10.1 


8.6 


A50 




143 


143 


143 


143 


143 


13.8 


133 


12.5 


11.2 


9.6 


A50 




14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


13.8 


13.3 


12.9 


10.9 


9.2 


A55 


A 672 


15,7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


153 


14.8 


143 


12.1 


10.2 


A55 




14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


13.8 


133 


12.9 


10.9 


9.2 


A55 




15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


153 


14.8 


143 


12.1 


10.2 


A55 




14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


13.8 


133 


12.9 


10.9 


9.2 


B55 


A 672 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


153 


14.8 


143 


12.1 


10.2 


B55 




14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


13.8 


133 


12.9 


10,9 


9.2 


B55 




15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.3 


14.8 


143 


12.1 


10.2 


B55 




15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


14.7 


14.2 


13.7 


11.7 


9.7 


B60 


A 672 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.4 


15.8 


153 


13.0 


10.8 


B60 




15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


14.7 


14.2 


13.7 


11.7 


9.7 


B60 




17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.4 


15.8 


153 


13.0 


10.8 


B60 





107 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-l Carbon Steel (Cont'd) 



















Specified 


Specified 




















Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Spec. 






Nominal 


p. 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Type or Class 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 


Electric Fusion Welded Pipe 


- Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 














A 672 


B65 


10,13 


C 






1 


(1)(2)(15) 


65 


35 


0.90 




B65 


11,12 


C 






1 


(1)(2)(15) 


65 


35 


1.00 




B65 


20,23,30,33 


C 






1 


(D(2) 


65 


35 


0.90 




B65 


21,22,31,32 


C 






1 


(D(2) 


65 


35 


1.00 


A 672 


B70 


10,13 


C 






1 


(1X2) (15) 


70 


38 


0.90 




B70 


11,12 


C 






1 


(D(2)(15) 


70 


38 


1.00 




B70 


20,23,30,33 


C 






1 


(1X2) 


70 


38 


0.90 




B70 


21,22,31,32 


C 






1 


(1X2) 


70 


38 


1.00 


A 672 


C55 


10,13 


C 






1 


(1)(2)(15) 


55 


30 


0.90 




C55 


11,12 


C 






1 


(1)(2)(15) 


55 


30 


1.00 




C55 


20,23,30,33 


C 






1 


(1X2) 


55 


30 


0.90 




C55 


21,22,31,32 


C 






1 


(«(2) 


55 


30 


1.00 


A 672 


C60 


10,13 


C 






1 


(1)(2)(15) 


60 


32 


0.90 




C60 


11,12 


C 






1 


(1)(2)(15) 


60 


32 


1.00 




C60 


20,23,30,33 


C 






1 


(D(2) 


60 


32 


0.90 




C60 


21,22,31,32 


C 






1 


UX2) 


60 


32 


1.00 


A 672 


C65 


10,13 


C 






1 


(1)(2)(15) 


65 


35 


0.90 




C65 


11,12 


C 






1 


(1X2X15) 


65 


35 


1.00 




C65 


20,23,30,33 


C 






1 


0X2) 


65 


35 


0.90 




C65 


21,22,31,32 


C 






1 


UX2) 


65 


35 


1.00 


A 672 


C70 


10,13 


C 






1 


(1)(2)(15) 


70 


38 


0.90 




C70 


11,12 


C 






1 


(1)(2)(15) 


70 


38 


1.00 




C70 


20,23,30,33 


c 






1 


(1X2) 


70 


38 


0.90 




C70 


21,22,31,32 


C 






1 


(0(2) 


70 


38 


1.00 


A 672 


D70 


10,13 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(15) 


70 


50 


0.90 




D70 


11,12 


c- 


■Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(15) 


70 


50 


1.00 




D70 


20,23,30,33 


c- 


-Mn~ 


-Si 


1 


(0(3) 


70 


50 


0.90 




D70 


21,22,31,32 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(3) 


70 


50 


1.00 


A 672 


D80 


10,13 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(15) 


80 


60 


0.90 




D80 


11,12 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(15) 


80 


60 


1.00 




D80 


20,23 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(3) 


80 


60 


0.90 




D80 


21,22 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(3) 


80 


60 


1.00 


A 672 


N75 


10,13 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(2) (15) 


75 


42 


0.90 




N75 


11,12 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(1)(2)(15) 


75 


42 


1.00 




N75 


20,23,30,33 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(2) 


75 


40 


0.90 




N75 


21,22,31,32 


c- 


-Mn~ 


-Si 


1 


(0(2) 


75 


40 


1.00 


A 691 


CMSH-70 


10,13 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(15) 


70 


50 


0.90 




CMSH-70 


11,12 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(15) 


70 


50 


1.00 




CMSH-70 


20,23,30,33 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(3) 


70 


50 


0.90 




CMSH-70 


21,22,31,32 


c- 


-Mn- 


-Si 


1 


(0(3) 


70 


50 


1.00 



108 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831.1-2007 



-20 
to 
100 



Table A-l Carbon Steel (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 



200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 



Grade 



Spec. 
No. 



Electric Fusion Welded Pipe — Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 

A 672 



A 672 



16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.1 


15.6 


15.0 


12.5 


103 


B65 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.9 


17.3 


16.7 


13.9 


11.4 


B65 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.1 


15.6 


15.0 


12.5 


103 


B65 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.9 


17.3 


16.7 


133 


11.4 


B65 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.5 


16.9 


16.3 


133 


10.8 


B70 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.1 


14.8 


12.0 


B70 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.5 


16.9 


16.3 


133 


10.8 


B70 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.1 


14.8 


12.0 


B70 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


14.1 


13.8 


13.3 


12.9 


10.9 


9.2 


C55 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.3 


14.8 


14.3 


12.1 


10.2 


C55 


14.1 


14.1 


14,1 


14.1 


14.1 


13.8 


13.3 


12.9 


10.9 


9.2 


C55 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.3 


14.8 


14.3 


12A 


10.2 


C55 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


14.7 


14.2 


13.7 


11.7 


9.7 


C60 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.4 


15.8 


15.3 


13.0 


10.8 


C60 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


14.7 


14.2 


13.7 


11.7 


9.7 


C60 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.4 


15.8 


15.3 


13.0 


10.8 


C60 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.1 


15.6 


15.0 


12.5 


103 


C65 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.9 


17.3 


16.7 


13.9 


11.4 


C65 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.1 


15.6 


15.0 


12.5 


103 


C65 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.9 


17.3 


16.7 


13,9 


11.4 


C65 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.5 


16.9 


16.3 


133 


10.8 


C70 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.1 


14.8 


12.0 


C70 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.5 


16.9 


16.3 


133 


10.8 


C70 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.1 


14,8 


12.0 


C70 


18.0 


18.0 


17.7 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 








D70 


20.0 


20.0 


19.7 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 








D70 


18.0 


18.0 


17.7 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 








D70 


20.0 


20.0 


19.7 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 








D70 


20.6 


20.6 


20.3 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 








D80 


22.9 


22.9 


22.6 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 








D80 


20.6 


20.6 


20.3 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 


20.1 








D80 


22,9 


22.9 


22.6 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 


22.3 








D80 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


18.4 


17.8 


17.2 


14.1 


113 


N75 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


20.4 


19.8 


19.1 


15.7 


12.6 


N75 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


18.4 


17.8 


17.2 


14A 


113 


N75 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


20.4 


19.8 


19.1 


15.7 


12.6 


N75 


18.0 


18.0 


17.7 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 








CMSH-70 


20.0 


20.0 


19.7 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 








CMSH-70 


18.0 


18.0 


17.7 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 


17.6 








CMSH-70 


20.0 


20.0 


19.7 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 


19.5 








CMSH-70 



A 672 



A 672 



A 672 



A 672 



A 672 



A 672 



A 672 



A 691 



109 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A»l Carbon Steel (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 
















Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Spec. 






Nominal 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Type or Class 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Electric Fusion Welded Pipe 

A 691 CMSH-80 

CMSH-80 
CMSH-80 
CMSH-80 



Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 



A 691 CMS-75 

CMS-75 
CMS-75 
CMS-75 

Copper Brazed Tubing 
A 254 

Plate 

A 36 



10,13 
11,12 
20,23 
21,22 

10,13 
11,12 

20,23,30,33 
21,22,31,32 



C~Mn- 
C-Mn- 
G~Mn- 
C-Mn- 



C-Mn-Si 
C-Mn-Si 
C-Mn-Si 

C-Mn-Si 



C-Mn-Si 



CD (15) 
(D(15) 
(1)(3) 
(D(3) 

(D(2)(15) 
(D(2)(15) 
(D(2) 

(D(2) 



(1)(9)(10) 



(1)(7)(21) 



80 
80 
80 
80 

75 
75 
75 
75 



42 



58 



60 
60 
60 
60 

42 
42 

40 
40 



25 



36 



0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1.00 

0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1,00 



1.00 



0.92 



A 283 



A 285 



A 299 



A 515 



A 516 



55 
60 
65 
70 

55 
60 
65 
70 



c 
c 
c 
c 


1 
1 
1 
1 


(D(7) 
(D(7) 
(1X7) 
(1X7) 


c 
c 
c 


1 
1 
1 


(2) 

(2) 
(2) 


C-Mn-Si 
C-Mn-Si 


1 
1 


(2X23) 
(2)(22) 


C-Si 
C-Si 
C-Si 
C-Si 


1 
1 
1 

1 


(2) 
(2) 
(2) 
(2) 


C-Si 

C-Mn-Si 
C-Mn-Si 
C-Mn-Si 


1 

1 
1 
1 


(2) 
(2) 
(2) 
(2) 



45 


24 


0.92 


50 


27 


0.92 


55 


30 


0.92 


60 


33 


0.92 


45 


24 


1.00 


50 


27 


1.00 


55 


30 


1.00 


75 


40 


1.00 


75 


42 


1.00 


55 


30 


1.00 


60 


32 


1.00 


65 


35 


1.00 


70 


38 


1.00 


55 


30 


1.00 


60 


32 


1.00 


65 


35 


1.00 


70 


38 


1.00 



Forcings 

A 105 

A 181 



60 
70 



C-Si 

C-Si 
C-Si 



(2) 

(2) 
(2) 



70 

60 
70 



36 

30 
36 



1.00 

1.00 
1.00 



110 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



AS/VIE 831.1-2007 



-20 
to 
100 



Table A-l Carbon Steel (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 



200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 



Grade 



Spec. 
No. 



Electric Fusion Welded Pipe 



20.6 
22.9 
20.6 
22.9 

19.3 
21.4 
19.3 
21.4 



6.0 



15.2 



20.6 
22.9 
20.6 
22.9 

19.3 
21.4 
19.3 
21.4 



5.5 



15.2 



20.3 
22.6 
20.3 
22.6 

19.3 
21.4 
19.3 
21.4 



4.8 



15.2 



20.1 
22.3 
20.1 
22.3 

19.3 
21.4 
19.3 
21.4 



3.0 



15.2 



20.1 
22.3 
20.1 
22.3 

19.3 

21.4 
19.3 
21.4 



20.1 
22.3 
20.1 
22.3 

18.4 
20.4 
18.4 
20.4 



20.1 
22.3 
20.1 
22.3 

17.8 
19.8 
17.8 
19.8 



17.2 
19.1 
17.2 
19.1 



14.1 
15.7 
14.1 
15 J 



113 
12.6 
11.3 
12.6 



15.2 



15.2 



15,2 



Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 

CMSH-80 A 691 

CMSH-80 
CMSH-80 
CMSH-80 

CMS-75 A 691 

CMS-75 

CMS-75 

CMS-75 

Copper Brazed Tubing 

A 254 

Plate 

A 36 



11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.3 


10.9 








A 


A 283 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


12.7 


12.3 








B 




14,5 


14.5 


14.5 


14.5 


14.5 


14.1 


13.6 








C 




15.8 


15.8 


15.8 


15.8 


15.8 


15.5 


15.0 








D 




12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.3 


11.9 


11.5 


10.7 


8.3 


A 


A 285 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


13.8 


13.3 


12.5 


11.0 


9.4 


B 




15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.3 


14.8 


14.3 


13.0 


10.8 


C 




21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


20.4 


19.8 


19.1 


15.7 


12.6 




A 299 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


20.8 


19.6 


15.7 


12.6 






15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.3 


14.8 


14.3 


13.0 


10.8 


55 


A 515 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.4 


15.8 


15.3 


13.0 


10.8 


60 




18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.9 


17.3 


16.7 


13,9 


11.4 


65 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.1 


14.8 


12.6 


70 




15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.3 


14.8 


14.3 


13.0 


10.8 


55 


A 516 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.4 


15.8 


15.3 


13.0 


10.8 


60 




18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.9 


17.3 


16.7 


13.9 


11.4 


65 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.1 


14.8 


12.0 


70 


Forgings 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.6 


18.4 


17.8 


17.2 


14.8 


12.0 




A 105 



17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.3 


15.3 


14.8 


14.3 


13.0 


10.8 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.6 


18.4 


17.8 


17.2 


14.8 


12.0 



A 181 



111 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-l Carbon Steel (Cont'd) 



Spec. 
No. 



Grade 



Type or Class 



Nominal 
Composition 



P- 
No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Wrought Fittings (Seamless and Welded) 

A 234 WPB 

WPC 



Castings 

A 216 



WCA 

WCB 
WCC 



Bars and Shapes 

A 36 
A 992 



Bolts, Nuts, and Studs 
A 193 



A 194 
A 307 
A 449 



1, 2, 2H 



C-Si 
C-Si 


1 
1 


(2) 
(2) 


C-Si 
C-Si 

C-Mn-Si 


1 
1 
1 


(2)(6) 
(2)(6) 

(2)(6) 


C-Mn-Si 
C-Mn-Si 


1 
1 


(D(2) 

(D(2) 

(11) 
(12) 



60 


35 


1.00 


70 


40 


1.00 


60 


30 


0.80 


70 


36 


0.80 


70 


40 


0.80 


58 


36 


1.00 


65 


50 


1.00 



(D(13)(21) 



60 



(1)(17)(18) 


120 


92 


(1)(17)(19) 


105 


81 


(1)(17)(20) 


90 


58 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The tabulated specifications are ANSI/ASTM or ASTM, except API 5L. For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see 
related specifications in Section il of the ASME Code. 

(b) The stress values in this Table may be interpolated to determine values for intermediate temperatures. 

(c) The P-Numbers indicated in this Table are identical to those adopted by ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Qualification of weld- 
ing procedures, welders, and welding operators is required and shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Section 
IX) except as modified by para. 127.5. 

(d) Tensile strengths and allowable stresses shown in "ksi" are "thousands of pounds per square inch." 

(e) The materials listed in this Table shall not be used at design temperatures above those for which allowable stress values are given 
except as permitted by para. 122.6.2(G). 

(0 The tabulated stress values are S x E (weld joint efficiency factor) orSxF (material quality factor), as applicable. Weld joint efficiency 
factors are shown in Table 102.4.3. 

(g) Pressure-temperature ratings of piping components, as published in standards referenced in this Code, may be used for components 
meeting the requirements of those standards. The allowable stress values given in this Table are for use in designing piping compo- 
nents which are not manufactured in accordance with referenced standards. 

(h) All the materials listed are classified as ferritic [see Table 104.1.2(A)]. 

(i) The tabulated stress values that are shown in italics are at temperatures in the range where creep and stress rupture strength govern 
the selection of stresses. 

NOTES: 

(1) THIS MATERIAL IS NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR CONSTRUCTION OF PRESSURE RETAINING PARTS OF BOILER EXTERNAL PIPING - SEE FIGS. 
100.1.2(A) AND (B). 

(2) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800°F (427°C), the carbide phase of carbon steel may be converted to graphite. 

(3) The allowable stress values given are for pipe fabricated from plate not exceeding 2 1 / 2 in. in thickness. 

(4) This material shall not be used for flammable fluids. Refer to para. 105.2.1(A). 

(5) Tensile value in parentheses is expected minimum. 

(6) The 0.80 material quality factor for casting may be increased in accordance with para. 102.4.6. 

(7) The stress values for structural quality plate include a material quality factor of 0.92. The allowable stresses for A 283 Grade D and A 
36 plate have been limited to 12.7 ksi. 



112 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-l Carbon Steel (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 



-20 
to 
100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 Grade 



Spec. 
No. 



Wrought Fittings (Seamless and Welded) 



17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


15.6 


13.0 


10.8 


WPB 




A 234 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.8 


18.3 


14.8 


12.0 


WPC 




Castings 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.3 


15.3 


14.8 


14.3 


13.0 


10.8 


WCA 




A 216 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.6 


18.4 


17.8 


17.2 


14.8 


12.0 


WCB 






20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.8 


18.3 


14.8 


12.0 


WCC 




























Bars and Shapes 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


15.6 


13.0 


10.8 






A 36 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


16.9 


13.9 


11.4 


Bolts, 


, Nuts, 


A 992 

and Studs 

A 193 



1, 2, 2H 



A 194 



7.0 



7.0 



7.0 



7.0 



A 307 



23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


23.0 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


20.2 


14.5 


14.5 


14.5 


14.5 


14.5 


14.5 


14.5 



A 449 



NOTES (Cont'd): 

(8) These stress values are permitted only if killed or semikiUed steels are used. 

(9) A 254 is copper brazed (not welded) steel pipe. 

(10) For saturated steam at 250 psi (406°F), the values given for 400°F may be used. 

(11) For A 193 alloy and stainless steel bolts for use with carbon steel piping, see Tables A-2 and A-3. 

(12) This is a product specification. Allowable stresses are not necessary, Limitations on metal temperature for materials covered by this 
specification for use under B31.1 are: 



Grades 1 and 2 
Grade 2H 



-20°Fto 600°F 
-20°Fto 800°F 



(13) This material shall not be used above 400°F. The allowable stress value is 7,000 psi. 

(14) This material is not listed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX. However, weld procedures shall be qualified in 
accordance with the P-Number shown. See para. 127.5.1. 

(15) This material shall not be used in nominal wall thicknesses exceeding % in. 

(16) These allowable stress values are for pipe made using a butt-welded joint process. Pipe made by other processes shall not be used. 

(17) These allowable stress values are established from a consideration of strength only and will be satisfactory for average service. For 
bolted joints, where freedom from leakage over a long period of time without retightening is required, lower stress values may be 
necessary as determined from the relative flexibility of the flange, bolts, and corresponding relaxation properties. 

(18) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials less than or equal to 1 in. diameter. 

(19) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials greater than 1 in. diameter and less than or equal to 1V2 in. 

(20) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials greater than V/ 2 in. diameter and less than or equal to 3 in. diameter. 

(21) The allowable stress values listed in MSS SP-58 for this material may be used for pipe supporting elements designed in accordance 
with MSS SP-58. 

(22) These values apply to material less than or equal to 1 in. thick. 

(23) These values apply to material greater than 1 in. thick. 



113 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-2 Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel 



Spec. 
No. 



Grade 



Type or Class 



Nominal 
Composition 



P-No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


f 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 

A 199 



A 199 



A 213 



A 213 



A 213 



A 333 



335 



A 335 



A 335 



A 369 



A 369 



T5 
T9 

Til 
T21 
T22 

T2 
T5 
T5b 

T5c 

T9 

Til 

T12 
T21 
T22 
T91 
T91 

3 
4 
7 
9 

PI 
P2 
P5 
P5b 

P5c 

P9 
Pll 

P12 
P21 
P22 

P91 
P91 

FP1 
FP2 
FP5 

FP9 
FPU 



5Cr- a / 2 Mo 
9Cr-lMo 

lViCr-ViMo 

3Cr-lMo 
2 1 / 4 Cr-lMo 

VaCr-VzMo 

5Cr-V 2 Mo 

SCr-^Mo-lVjSi 

5Cr- a / 2 Mo-Ti 
9Cr-lMo 

iy 4 Cr-y 2 Mo 

lCr-y 2 Mo 

3Cr-lMo 

2y 4 Cr-lMo 

90-lMo-V 

9Cr-lMo-V 

3V 2 Ni 

3 / 4 Cr- 3 / A Ni~Cu~AI 

2V 2 N1 

2Ni-lCu 

C-V2M0 

y 2 cr-y 2 Mo 

5Cr-y 2 Mo 

5Cr-y 2 Mo-iy 2 Si 

5Cr-y 2 Mo-Ti 
9Cr-lMo 

iyCr-y 2 Mo-Si 

lCr-y 2 Mo 

3Cr-lMo 

2 a / 4 Cr-lMo 

9Cr-lMo-V 

9Cr-lMo-V 

C-y 2 Mo 

y 2 Cr-y 2 Mo 

5Cr-y 2 Mo 

9Cr-lMo 

iycr-y 2 Mo-Si 



' 2 b\ 



5B 


CD 


5B 


(1) 


4 


(1) 


5A 


CD 


5A 


(D(17) 


3 




5B 




5B 




5B 




5B 




4 




4 




5A 




5A 


(17) 


5B 


(19) 


5B 


(20) 


9B 


CD 


4 


CD 


9A 


(D 


9A 


CD 


3 


(2) 


3 




5B 




5B 




5B 




5B 




4 




4 




5A 




5A 


(17) 


5B 


(19) 


5B 


(20) 


3 


(2) 


3 




5B 




5B 




4 





60 
60 

60 
60 
60 

60 
60 
60 

60 
60 
60 

60 
60 
60 
85 
85 

65 
60 
65 
63 

55 
55 
60 
60 

60 
60 
60 

60 
60 
60 
85 
85 

55 
55 
60 

60 
60 



25 
25 

25 
25 
25 

30 
30 
30 

30 
30 
30 

30 
30 
30 
60 
60 

35 
35 
35 
46 

30 
30 
30 
30 

30 
30 
30 

32 
30 
30 
60 
60 

30 
30 
30 

30 
30 



1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 



114 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-2 Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 

to Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 

Seamless Pipe and Tube 

A 199 

A 199 



16.7 


15.1 


14.5 


14.3 


14.2 


14.0 


13.8 


13.6 


13.3 


12.8 


12.3 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


13 


T5 


16.7 


15.1 


14.5 


14.3 


14.2 


14.0 


13.8 


13.6 


13.3 


12.8 


12.3 


11.7 


10.6 


7.4 


5.0 


33 


2.2 


1.5 


T9 


16.7 


15.4 


14.6 


14.0 


13.5 


13.1 


12.8 


12.6 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.3 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 


1.9 


1.2 


Til 


16.7 


15.6 


15.1 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


14.9 


14.8 


14.5 


12.0 


9.0 


7.0 


5.5 


4.0 


2.7 


1.5 


T21 


16.7 


15.6 


15.1 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


14.9 


14.8 


14.5 


13.6 


10.8 


8.0 


5.7 


3.8 


2.4 


1.4 


T22 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.9 


16.4 


16.1 


15.7 


15.4 


14.9 


14.5 


13.9 


9,2 


5.9 










T2 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


T5 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


T5b 


17.1 


17,1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


T5C 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


13.0 


10.6 


7.4 


5.0 


33 


2.2 


1.5 


T9 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.2 


15.7 


15.4 


15.1 


14.8 


14.4 


14.0 


13.6 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






Til 


17.1 


16.8 


16.5 


16.5 


16.5 


16.3 


16.0 


15.8 


15.5 


15.3 


14.9 


14.5 


113 


7.2 


4.5 


2.8 






T12 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.0 


12.0 


9.0 


7.0 


5.5 


4.0 






T21 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


13.6 


10.8 


8.0 


5.7 


3.8 






T22 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.3 


14.0 


103 


7.0 


43 


T91 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.3 


12.9 


9.6 


7.0 


43 


T91 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.5 


16.7 
























3 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 
























4 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


17.5 


16.7 
























7 


18.0 




































9 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.4 


14.9 


14.5 
















PI 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.4 


14.9 


14.5 


13.9 


9.2 


5.9 










P2 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


P5 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


P5b 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16,4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


P5C 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


13.0 


10.6 


7.4 


5.0 


33 


2.2 


1.5 


P9 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.2 


15.7 


15.4 


15.1 


14.8 


14.4 


14.0 


13.6 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






Pll 


17.1 


16.8 


16.5 


16,5 


16.5 


16.3 


16.0 


15.8 


15.5 


15.3 


14.9 


14,5 


113 


7.2 


4.5 


2.8 






PI 2 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.0 


12.0 


9.0 


7.0 


5.5 


4.0 






P21 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


13.6 


10.8 


8.0 


5.7 


3.8 






P22 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.3 


14.0 


103 


7.0 


43 


P91 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.3 


12.9 


9.6 


7.0 


4.3 


P91 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.4 


14.9 


14.5 
















FP1 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15,7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.4 


14.9 


14.5 


13.9 


9.2 


5.9 










FP2 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


FP5 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


13.0 


10.6 


7.4 


5.0 


33 


2.2 


1.5 


FP9 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.2 


15.7 


15.4 


15.1 


14.8 


14.4 


14.0 


13.6 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






FPU 



115 



A 213 



A 213 



A 213 



A 333 



A 335 



A 335 



A 335 



A 369 



A 369 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-2 Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel (Cont'd) 



Spec. 
No. 



Grade 



Type or Class 



Nominal 
Composition 



P-No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 



A 369 



A 714 



FP12 
FP21 
FP22 

V 



Centrifugally Cast Pipe 

A 426 CP1 
CP2 
CP5 

CP5b 

A 426 CP9 
CPU 

A 426 CP12 
CP21 
CP22 



Electric Resistance Welded Pipe 



A 333 



lCr-y 2 Mo 


4 




60 


32 


1.00 


3Cr~lMo 


5A 




60 


30 


1.00 


2y 4 Cr-lMo 


5A 


(17) 


60 


30 


1.00 


2Ni-lCu 


9A 


(1) 


65 


46 


1.00 


C-V2M0 


3 


(1)(2)(3)(4)(7) 


65 


35 


0.85 


V 2 Cr-y 2 Mo 


3 


(«(3)(4)(7) 


60 


30 


0.85 


5Cr-V 2 Mo 


5B 


(D(3)(4)(7) 


90 


60 


0.85 


5Cr-y 2 Mo-Si 


5B 


(D(3)(4)(7) 


60 


30 


0.85 


9Cr-lMo 


5B 


(D(3)(4)(7) 


90 


60 


0.85 


iy 4 Cr-y 2 Mo 


4 


(D(3)(4)(7) 


70 


40 


0.85 


lCr-y 2 Mo 


4 


(1)(3)(4)(7) 


60 


30 


0.85 


3Cr-lMo 


5A 


(1)(3)(4)(7) 


60 


30 


0.85 


2y 4 Cr-lMo 


5A 


(1) (3) (4) (7) (17) 


70 


40 


0.85 


3V,Ni 


9B 


(1) 


65 


35 


0.85 


2y 2 Ni 


9A 


(1) 


65 


35 


0.85 


2NI-1CU 


9A 


(1) 


63 


46 


0.85 



A 714 



2Ni-Cu 



9A 



(1) 



65 



46 



0.85 



A 672 



A 672 



A 672 



A 691 



A 691 



A 691 



A 691 



ion Welded Pipe — Filler Metal Added 


L65 

L65 


20,23,30,33,40,43 
21,22,31,32,41,42 


C- a / 2 Mo 
C-y 2 Mo 


L70 
L70 


20,23,30,33,40,43 
21,22,31,32,41,42 


C-y 2 Mo 
C-y 2 Mo 


L75 

L75 


20,23,30,33,40,43 
21,22,31,32,41,42 


c-y 2 Mo 
c-y 2 Mo 


CM-65 
CM-65 


20,23,30,33,40,43 
21,22,31,32,41,42 


c-y 2 Mo 
c-y 2 Mo 


CM-70 
CM-70 


20,23,30,33,40,43 
21,22,31,32,41,42 


c-y 2 Mo 
c-y 2 Mo 


CM-75 
CM-75 


20,23,30,33,40,43 
21,22,31,32,41,42 


c-y 2 Mo 
c-y 2 Mo 


ycR 
y 2 cR 
y>cR 
y 2 cR 


20,23 

21,22 

20,23,30,33,40,43 

21,22,31,32,41,42 


y 2 cr-y 2 Mo 

y 2 Cr-y 2 Mo 

y 2 cr-y 2 Mo 
y 2 cr-y 2 Mo 



3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(1) 


3 


(i)(ii) 


3 


(D(ii) 


3 


(1X12) 


3 


(1X12) 



65 
65 

70 
70 

75 
75 

65 
65 

70 
70 

75 
75 

55 
55 
70 
70 



37 
37 

40 
40 

43 

43 

37 
37 

40 
40 

43 
43 

33 
33 
45 
45 



0.90 
1.00 

0.90 

1.00 

0.90 
1.00 

0.90 

1.00 

0.90 
1.00 

0.90 
1,00 

0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1.00 



116 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831.1-2007 



Table A-2 Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for JVSetal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 

to Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 



17.1 16.8 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.3 16.0 15.8 15.5 15.3 14.9 14.5 113 
17.1 17.1 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.0 12.0 9.0 
17.1 17.1 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 16.6 13.6 10.8 







Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 


7.2 


4.5 


2.8 FP12 A 369 


7.0 


5.5 


4.0 FP21 


8.0 


5.7 


3.8 ... ... FP22 



18.6 



A 714 



15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8 15.6 15.2 14.8 14.4 

14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.4 13.9 13.7 13.3 13.1 12.7 12.3 11.8 7.8 

21.9 21.8 21.2 21.0 20.9 20.6 20.3 19.9 19.3 18.5 12.2 9.3 6.8 

14.6 14.5 14.1 14.0 14.0 13.8 13.5 13.3 12.9 12.4 11.8 93 6.8 

21.9 21.8 21.2 21.0 20.9 20.7 20.3 19.9 19.3 18.5 17.7 14.0 9.4 

17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 16.7 16.3 15.9 11.6 7.9 

14.5 14.3 14.0 13.8 13.3 12.9 12.8 12.6 12.4 12.2 11.9 11.6 9.6 

14.5 14.5 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 13.6 10.2 7.7 

17,0 17.0 16.7 16.5 16.4 16.3 16.2 16.0 15.7 15.2 14.6 13.4 9.7 



15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8 14.9 14.2 

15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8 14.9 14.2 

15.3 

15.8 . . . . 











Cen 


[rifugall\ 


t Cast Pipe 












CP1 


A 426 


5.0 










CP2 




4.9 


3.6 


2.5 


1.5 


0.85 


CP5 




4.9 


3.6 


2.5 


1.5 


0.85 


CP5b 




63 


43 


2.8 


1.9 


13 


CP9 


A 426 


5.4 


3.6 


2.4 






CPU 




6.1 


3.8 


2.4 






CP12 


A 426 


6.0 


4.7 


3.4 






CP21 




6.6 


43 


2.7 






CP22 










Electric Resistance Welded Pipe 












3 


A 333 












7 














9 





A 714 



16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.6 16.1 

18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.4 17.9 

18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 17.9 17.4 

20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 19.9 19.3 

19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 18.7 

21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 20.7 

16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.6 16.1 
18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.6 18.4 17.9 

18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 17.9 17.4 

20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 19.9 19.3 

19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 19.3 18.7 

21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 20.7 



14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 13.8 12.9 83 

15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.3 14.3 9.2 

18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 17.6 16.7 83 

20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 19.5 18.6 9.2 



Electric Fusion Welded Pipe — Filler Metal Added 

A 672 



53 
5.9 
53 
5.9 



L65 
L65 

L70 
L70 

L75 
L75 

CM-65 
CM-65 

CM-70 
CM-70 

CM-75 
CM-75 

y 2 cR 

V 2 CR 

y 2 cR 

ycR 



A 672 



A 672 



A 691 



A 691 



A 691 



A 691 



117 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-2 Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 
















Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Spec. 






Nominal 






Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Type or Class 


Composition 


P-No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Electric Fusion Welded Pipe 

A 691 



Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 



A 691 



A 691 



A 691 



A 691 



A 691 

Plate 

A 387 



A 387 



A 387 



A 387 



1CR 
1CR 
1CR 
1CR 

lV 4 CR 
1V4CR 
lY*CR 

1V4CR 

2%CR 
2V4CR 
2 a /4CR 
2 a / 4 CR 

3CR 
3CR 
3CR 
3CR 

SCR 
SCR 
SCR 
SCR 

91 
91 



2 
2 
5 
5 

11 
11 
12 
12 

21 
21 
22 
22 

91 
91 



20,23 

21,22 

20,23,30,33,40,43 

21,22,31,32,41,42 

20,23 

21,22 

20,23,30,33,40,43 

21,22,31,32,41,42 

20,23 

21,22 

20,23,30,33,40,43 

21,22,31,32,41,42 

20,23 

21,22 

20,23,30,33,40,43 

21,22,31,32,41,42 

20,23 

21,22 

20,23,30,33,40,43 

21,22,31,32,41,42 

40,43,50,53 
41,42,51,52 



lCr- a / 2 Mo 
lCr-V 2 Mo 
lCr-V 2 Mo 

lCr-y 2 Mo 

l^Cr-Y Mo-Si 
lViCr-Vi Mo-Si 
lV^Cr-Vi Mo-Si 
lViCr-Vi Mo-Si 

2 x /;Cr-lMo 

2%Cr-lMo 

2V 4 Cr-lMo 
2ViCr-lMo 

3Cr-lMo 
3Cr-lMo 
3Cr-lMo 
3Cr-lMo 

5Cr-V 2 Mo 
5Cr-V 2 Mo 
5Cr-y 2 Mo 
5Cr-V 2 Mo 

9Cr-lMo-V 
9Cr-lMo~-V 



VjCr-ViMo 
1 /2Cr~y 2 Mo 

5Cr-y 2 Mo 
5Cr-y 2 Mo 

iy 4 Cr-y 2 Mo-Si 
ly.Cr-Y Mo-Si 
lCr~ a / 2 Mo 
lCr-Y 2 Mo 

3Cr-lMo 
3Cr-lMo 
2y,Cr-lMo 
2yCr-lMo 

9Cr-lMo-V 
9Cr-lMo-V 



4 


(D(ll) 


4 


(D(ll) 


4 


(D(12) 


4 


(D(12) 


4 


(D(ii) 


4 


(D(ii) 


4 


(1X12) 


4 


(D(12) 


5A 


(1)(11)(17) 


5A 


(1XHX17) 


5A 


(D(12)(17) 


5A 


(1)(12)(17) 


5A 


(DUD 


5A 


(D(ll) 


5A 


(1X12) 


5A 


(D(12) 


SB 


axii) 


SB 


(D(ii) 


SB 


(1X12) 


SB 


(D(12) 


SB 


(1)(12)(17) 


SB 


(D(12)(17) 


3 




3 


(1) 


SB 




SB 


(1) 


4 




4 




4 




4 




5A 




5A 




5A 


(17) 


5A 


(17) 


SB 


(19) 


SB 


(20) 



55 
55 
65 
65 

60 
60 
75 
75 

60 
60 
75 
75 

60 
60 
75 
75 

60 
60 
75 
75 

85 
85 



55 
70 
60 
75 

60 
75 
55 
65 

60 
75 
60 
75 

85 
85 



33 
33 
40 
40 

35 
35 
45 
45 

30 
30 
45 
45 

30 
30 
45 
45 

30 
30 
45 
45 

60 
60 



33 
45 
30 
45 

35 
45 
33 
40 

30 
45 
30 

45 

60 
60 



0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1.00 

0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1.00 

0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1,00 

0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1.00 

0.90 
1.00 
0.90 
1.00 

0.90 

1.00 



1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 

1.00 
1.00 



118 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831.1-2007 



Table A-2 Low and intermediate Alloy Steel (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksf, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 

to Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 



Electric Fusion Welded Pipe — Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 



14.1 


13.9 


13.6 


13.6 


13.6 


13.6 


13.6 


13.6 


13.6 


13.6 


13.6 


13.2 


10.2 


6.5 


4.1 


2.5 






1CR 


A 691 


15-7 


15.4 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


14.7 


113 


7.2 


4.5 


2.8 






1CR 




16.7 


16.4 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 


15.6 


10.2 


6.5 


4.1 


2.5 






1CR 




18.6 


18.2 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.4 


113 


7.2 


4.5 


2.8 






1CR 




15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.1 


14.7 


12.3 


8.4 


5.7 


3.8 


2.5 






lV 4 CR 


A 691 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.4 


13.7 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






iViCR 




19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


19.3 


18.2 


123 


8.4 


5.7 


3.8 


2.5 






1V4CR 




21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


20.2 


13.7 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






lViCR 




15.4 


15.4 


15.0 


14.9 


14.8 


14.6 


14.4 


14.2 


14,0 


13.7 


13.4 


13.0 


103 


7.0 


4.6 


2.9 






2V 4 CR 


A 691 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


13.6 


10.8 


8.0 


5.7 


3.8 






2V4CR 




19.3 


19.3 


18.8 


18.6 


18.5 


18.3 


18.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.4 


16.8 


14.2 


103 


7.0 


4.6 


2.9 






2V4CR 




21.4 


21.4 


20.9 


20.6 


20.5 


20.4 


20.2 


20.0 


19.7 


19.3 


18.7 


15.8 


11.4 


7.8 


5.1 


3.2 






2V4CR 




15.4 


15.4 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


14.4 


10.8 


8.1 


63 


5.0 


3.6 






3CR 


A 691 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.0 


12.0 


9.0 


7.0 


5.5 


4.0 






3CR 




19.3 


19.3 


18.8 


18.6 


18.5 


18.3 


18.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.4 


163 


11.8 


8.6 


6.1 


4.4 


2.9 






3CR 




21.4 


21.4 


20.9 


20.6 


20.5 


20.4 


20.2 


20.0 


19.7 


19.3 


18.1 


13.1 


9.5 


6.8 


4.9 


3.2 






3CR 




15.4 


15.4 


14.9 


14.8 


14.8 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


13.6 


13.1 


12.5 


9.8 


7.2 


5.2 


3.8 


2.6 


1.6 


0.9 


5CR 


A 691 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15,1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


5CR 




19.3 


19.2 


18.7 


18.5 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.5 


17.0 


16.4 


12.9 


9.8 


7.2 


5.2 


3.8 


2.6 


1.6 


0.9 


5CR 




21.4 


21.4 


20.8 


20.6 


20.5 


20.2 


19.9 


19.5 


18.9 


18.2 


14.3 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


5CR 




21.9 


21.9 


21.9 


21.8 


21.7 


21.4 


21.0 


20.6 


20,0 


19.2 


18.3 


17.2 


16.0 


14.7 


12.6 


93 


63 


3.8 


91 


A 691 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19,1 


17.8 


16.3 


14.0 


103 


7.0 


43 


91 


Plate 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.3 


143 


9.2 


5.9 










2 


A 387 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.5 


18.6 


9.2 


5.9 










2 




17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1,0 


5 




21.4 


21.4 


20.8 


20.6 


20.5 


20.2 


19.9 


19.5 


18.9 


18.2 


14.3 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


5 




17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.4 


13.7 


9.3 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






11 


A 387 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


21.4 


20.2 


13.7 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






11 




15.7 


15.4 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


14.7 


113 


7.2 


4.5 


2.8 






12 




18.6 


18.2 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17.9 


17,4 


113 


7.2 


4.5 


2.8 






12 




17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.0 


12.0 


9.0 


7.0 


5.5 


4.0 






21 


A 387 


21.4 


21.4 


20.9 


20.6 


20.5 


20.4 


20.2 


20.0 


19.7 


19.3 


18.1 


13.1 


9.5 


6.8 


4.9 


3.2 






21 




17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


13.6 


10.8 


8.0 


5.7 


3.8 






22 




21.4 


21.4 


20.9 


20,6 


20.5 


20.4 


20.2 


20.0 


19.7 


19.3 


18.7 


15.8 


11.4 


7.8 


5.1 


3.2 






22 




24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.3 


14.0 


103 


7.0 


43 


91 


A 387 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.3 


12.9 


9.6 


7.0 


43 


91 





119 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-2 Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel (Cont'd) 



Spec. 
No. 



Grade 



Type or Class 



Nominal 
Composition 



P-No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


f 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Forgings 
A 182 



A 182 



A 336 



A 350 



A 234 



A 234 



Fl 




F2 




F5 




F5a 




F9 




F91 




Fll 


Class 1 


Fll 


Class 2 


F12 


Class 1 


F12 


Class 2 


F21 




F22 


Class 1 


F22 


Class 3 


Fl 




F5 




F5A 




Fll 


Class 1 


Fll 


Class 2 


F12 




F21 


Class 1 


F21 


Class 3 


F22 


Class 1 


F22 


Class 3 


F91 




F91 




LF3 




LF4 




LF5 


Class 1 


LF5 


Class 2 


LF9 




ttings (Seamless anc 


WP1 




WP5 




WP9 




WP11 


Class 1 


WP12 


Class 1 


WP22 


Class 1 


WP91 




WP91 





c-y 2 Mo 

7 2 Cr-y>Mo 

5Cr-V 2 Mo 

5Cr-V 2 Mo 

9Cr-lMo 

9Cr-lMo-V 

i 1 / 4 Cr- 1 / 2 Mo-Si 

lViCr-Vi Mo-Si 

lCr-V 2 Mo 

lCr-y 2 Mo 

3Cr-lMo 

2y 4 Cr-lMo 

2y 4 Cr-lMo 

c-y 2 Mo 

5Cr- a / 2 Mo 

5Cr- a / 2 Mo 

lM.Cr-y Mo-Si 

iy 4 Cr-y 2 Mo-Si 

lCr-y 2 Mo 

3Cr-lMo 

3Cr-lMo 

2 a / 4 Cr-lMo 

2y 4 Cr-lMo 

9Cr-lMo-V 

9Cr-lMo-V 

3y 2 Ni 

3 / A Cr- 3 / 4 Ni-Cu-Al 

iy 2 Ni 

iy 2 Ni 
2Ni-lCu 



c-y 2 Mo 

5Cr-y 2 Mo 
9Cr-lMo 
iyCr- ] / 2 Mo 
lCr-y 2 Mo 

2y ( Cr-lMo 
9Cr-lMo-V 
9Cr-lMo-V 



3 


(2) 


3 




5B 




5B 




5B 




5B 




4 




4 




4 




4 




5A 




5A 


(17) 


5A 


(17) 


3 


(2) 


5B 




5B 




4 




4 




4 




5A 




5A 




5A 


(17) 


5A 


(17) 


5B 


(19) 


5B 


(20) 


9B 


(1) 


4 


(1) 


9A 


(1) 


9A 


(1) 


9A 


(1) 


3 


(2) 


5B 




5B 




4 




4 


(6) 


5A 


(17) 


5B 


(19) 


5B 


(20) 



70 


40 


1.00 


70 


40 


1.00 


70 


40 


1.00 


90 


65 


1.00 


85 


55 


1.00 


85 


60 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


70 


40 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


70 


40 


1.00 


75 


45 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


75 


45 


1.00 


70 


40 


1.00 


60 


36 


1.00 


80 


50 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


70 


40 


1.00 


70 


40 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


75 


45 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


75 


45 


1.00 


85 


60 


1.00 


85 


60 


1.00 


70 


40 


1.00 


60 




1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


70 


37 


1.00 


63 


46 


1.00 


55 


30 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


60 


30 


1.00 


85 


60 


1.00 


85 


60 


1.00 



120 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASAAE B31. 1-2007 



Table A- 2 Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 

to Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 









































Forgings 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 
















Fl 


A 182 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.6 


9.2 


5.9 










F2 




20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


19.2 


19.2 


18.9 


18.6 


18.2 


17.6 


17.0 


143 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


F5 




25.7 


25.7 


24.9 


24.7 


24.6 


24.3 


23.9 


23.4 


22.7 


19.1 


14.3 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


F5a 





24.3 24.2 23.5 23.4 23.3 22.9 22.6 22.1 21.4 20.6 19.6 16.4 11.0 7.4 



5.0 



33 



24.3 24.3 24.3 24.2 24.1 23.7 23.4 22.9 22.2 21.3 20.3 19.1 17.1 



16.3 14.0 103 



2.2 
7.0 



1.5 F9 
4.3 F91 



A 182 



17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.2 


15.7 


15.4 


15.1 


14.8 


14.4 


14.0 


13.6 


93 


6.3 


4.2 


2.8 






Fll 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.7 


19.2 


18.7 


13.7 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






Fll 




17.1 


16.8 


16.5 


16.5 


16.5 


16.3 


16.0 


15. S 


15.5 


15.3 


14.9 


14.5 


113 


7.2 


4.5 


2.8 






F12 




20.0 


19.6 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.1 


18.6 


18.0 


113 


7.2 


43 


23 






F12 




21.4 


21.4 


20.9 


20.6 


20.5 


20.4 


20.2 


20.0 


19.7 


19.3 


18.1 


13.1 


9.5 


6.8 


4.9 


3.2 






F21 




17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


13.6 


10.8 


8.0 


5.7 


3.8 






F22 




21.4 


21.4 


20.9 


20.6 


20.5 


20.4 


20.2 


20.0 


19.7 


19.3 


18.7 


15.8 


11.4 


7.8 


5.1 


3.2 






F22 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


13.7 


8.2 


4.8 










Fl 


A 336 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 1.0 


F5 




22.9 


22.8 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


21.6 


21.3 


20.8 


20.2 


19.1 


14.3 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 1.0 


F5A 




17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.2 


15.7 


15.4 


15.1 


14.8 


14.4 


14.0 


13.6 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






Fll 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.7 


19.2 


18.7 


13 J 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






Fll 




20.0 


19.6 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.2 


19.1 


18.6 


18.0 


113 


7.2 


4.5 


2.8 






F12 




17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.0 


12.0 


9.0 


7.0 


5.5 


4.0 


2.7 1.5 


F21 




21.4 


21.4 


20.9 


20.6 


20.5 


20.4 


20.2 


20.0 


19.7 


19.3 


18.1 


13.1 


9.5 


6.8 


4.9 


3.2 


2.i 


t 13 


F21 




17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


13.6 


10,8 


8.0 


5.7 


3.8 






F22 




21.4 


21.4 


20.9 


20.6 


20.5 


20.4 


20.2 


20.0 


19.7 


19.3 


18.7 


15.8 


11.4 


73 


5.1 


3.2 






F22 




24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.3 


14.0 


103 


7.0 43 


F91 




24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.3 


12.9 


9.6 


7.0 43 


F91 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.9 
























LF3 


A 350 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 
























LF4 




17.1 


16.5 


15.7 


15.3 


15.3 




























LF5 




20.0 


19.2 


18.3 


17.8 


17.8 




























LF5 




18.0 




































LF9 


































Wrought Fittings (Seamless an 


d Welded) 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.4 


14.9 


14.5 
















WP1 


A 234 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


10.9 


8.0 


5.8 


4.2 


2.9 


1.8 1.0 


WP5 




17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.6 


15.1 


14.5 


13.8 


13.0 


10.6 


7.4 


5.0 


33 


2.2 1.5 


WP9 




17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.2 


15.7 


15.4 


15.1 


14.8 


14.4 


14.0 


13.6 


93 


63 


4.2 


2.8 






WP11 




17.1 


16.8 


16.5 


16,5 


16.5 


16.3 


16.0 


15.8 


15.5 


15.3 


14.9 


14.5 


113 


72 


4.5 


2.8 






WP12 




17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


16.6 


13.6 


10.8 


8.0 


5.7 


3.8 






WP22 


A 234 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.3 


14.0 


103 


7.0 4.3 


WP91 




24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.2 


24.1 


23.7 


23.4 


22.9 


22.2 


21.3 


20.3 


19.1 


17.8 


16.3 


12.9 


9.6 


7.0 43 


WP91 





121 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-2 Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel (Cont'd) 



Spec. 
No. 



Grade 



Type or Class 



Nominal 
Composition 



P-No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Castings 

A 217 



A 217 



WC1 
WC4 
WC5 

WC6 

WC9 
C5 
C12 
C12A 



Bolts, Nuts, and Studs 



A 193 



A 193 



A 194 



A 320 



A 354 



B5 
B7 
B7 
B7 
B7M 

B16 
B16 
B16 

3 
4 

7 

U 

L7M 

L43 

BC 
BC 
BD 
BD 



C-V 2 Mo 
lNi-y 2 Cr-V 2 Mo 

%Ni-lMo- 3 / 4 Cr 
iy 4 Cr-y 2 Mo 

2y 4 Cr-lMo 
5Cr~y 2 Mo 
9Cr-lMo 
9Cr-lMo-V 



5Cr-y 2 Mo 
lCr~y 5 Mo 
lCr-y 5 Mo 
lCr-y 5 Mo 
lCr-y 5 Mo 

lCr-y 2 Mo-V 
lCr-y 2 Mo-V 
lCr-y 2 Mo-V 

5Cr-y 2 Mo-V 

C-Mo 

Cr-Mo 

lCr-y 5 Mo 
lCr-y 5 Mo 

l 3 / 4 Ni~ 3 / 4 Cr--y 4 Mo 

Alloy steel 
Alloy steel 
Alloy steel 
Alloy steel 



3 
4 

4 
4 


(2) (3) (4) 

(3) (4) 
(3) (4) 
(3) (4) 


5A 
5B 
5B 
5B 


(3) (4) 
(3) (4) 
(3) (4) 
(3) (4) 




(8) (9) (13) 

(14) 

(15) 

(16) 

(1)(14) 




(14) 
(15) 
(16) 




(10) 

(2)(10) 

(10) 




(DCS) (18) 

(1)(14) 

(1)(8)(18) 




(8) (9) (14) 
(8) (9) (15) 
(8) (9) (14) 
(8)(9)(15) 



65 
70 
70 
70 

70 
90 
90 
85 



100 
125 
115 
100 
100 

125 
110 
100 



125 
100 
125 

125 
115 
150 
140 



35 


0.80 


40 


0.80 


40 


0.80 


40 


0.80 


40 


0.80 


60 


0.80 


60 


0.80 


60 


0.80 


80 


1.00 


05 


1.00 


95 


1.00 


75 


1.00 


80 


1.00 


05 


1.00 


95 


1.00 


85 


1.00 



105 


1.00 


80 


1.00 


105 


1.00 


109 


1.00 


99 


1.00 


130 


1.00 


120 


1.00 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The tabulated specifications are ANSI/ASTM or ASTM. For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related specifica- 
tions in Section it of the ASME Code. 

(b) The stress values in this Table may be interpolated to determine values for intermediate temperatures. 

(c) The P-Numbers indicated in this Table are identical to those adopted by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX, except 
as modified by para. 127.5. 

(d) Tensile strengths and allowable stresses shown in "ksi" are "thousands of pounds per square inch." 

(e) The materials listed in this Table shall not be used at design temperatures above those for which allowable stress values are given. 

(f) The tabulated stress values are 5 x E (weld joint efficiency factor) orSxf (material quality factor), as applicable. Weld joint effi- 
ciency factors are shown in Table 102.4.3. 

(g) Pressure-temperature ratings of piping components, as published in standards referenced in this Code, may be used for components 
meeting the requirements of those standards. The allowable stress values given in this Table are for use in designing piping compo- 
nents which are not manufactured in accordance with referenced standards. 

(h) All the materials listed are classifed as ferritic [see Table 104.1.2(A)]. 

(i) The tabulated stress values that are shown in italics are at temperatures in the range where creep and stress rupture strength govern 
the selection of stresses. 



122 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-2 Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

»20 

to Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 



14.9 


14.9 


14.9 


14.9 


14.9 


14.9 


14.9 


14.7 


14.3 


13.9 


13.5 




16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


15.4 


12.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


15.4 


13.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


15.8 


15.4 


15.0 


11.0 



7A 



7.4 



4.7 
5.5 
5.0 



16.0 16.0 15,8 15.5 15.4 15.4 15.3 15.0 14.8 14.3 13.8 12.6 9.1 6.2 

20.6 20.6 19.9 19.8 19.7 19.4 19.1 18.7 18.2 15.3 11.4 8.7 6.4 4.6 

20.6 20.6 19.9 19.8 19.7 19.4 19.1 18.7 18.2 17.4 16.6 13.1 8.8 5.9 

19.4 19.4 19.4 19.4 19.3 19.0 18.7 18.3 17.7 17.1 16.2 15.3 14,2 13.0 



3.7 
3.4 

4.1 

3 A 

4.0 

11.2 



2.2 
2.2 

2.6 

23 1 

2.6 1 

8.2 5. 



... WC1 

. . . WC4 

... WC5 

... WC6 

. . . WC9 

0.8 C5 

1.2 C12 

3.4 C12A 



Castings 

A 217 



A 217 



20.0 20.0 20.0 
25.0 25.0 25.0 
23.0 23.0 23.0 



20.0 
25.0 

23.0 



20.0 
25.0 
23.0 



20.0 
25.0 
23.0 



20.0 
25.0 
23.0 



20.0 
25.0 
23.0 



20.0 
23.6 
22.2 



18.5 
21.0 
20.0 



14.5 
16.3 
16.3 



10.4 
12.5 
12.5 



7.6 
8.5 
8.5 



5.6 

4.5 
4.5 



18.8 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.0 163 12.5 8.5 4.5 
20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 18.5 163 12.5 8.5 4.5 



25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25,0 


25.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 



20.0 18.5 163 12.5 8.5 



25.0 25.0 25.0 25,0 25.0 25.0 25.0 

23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 

30.0 30.0 30,0 30,0 30.0 30.0 30.0 

28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 



43 



4.2 



25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


25.0 


23.5 


20.5 


16.0 


11.0 


63 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


21.0 


18.5 


153 


11.0 


63 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


16.7 


143 


11.0 


63 



Bolts, Nuts, and Studs 

13 B5 A 193 

B7 
B7 
B7 
B7M 

B16 
B16 
B16 



3 
4 
7 

17 

L7M 

L43 

BC 
BC 
BD 
BD 



A 193 



A 194 



A 320 



A 354 



NOTES: 

(1) THIS MATERIAL IS NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR USE ON BOILER EXTERNAL PIPING - SEE FIGS. 100.1.2(A) AND (B). 

(2) Upon prolonged exposure to temperature above 875°F, the carbide phase of carbon-molybdenum steel may be converted to graphite. 

(3) These allowable stress values apply to normalized and tempered material only. 

(4) The material quality factors and allowable stress values for these materials may be increased in accordance with para. 102.4.6. 

(5) DELETED 

(6) If A 234 Grade WP-12 fittings are made from A 387 Grade 12 annealed plate, the allowable stress values shall be reduced by the 
ratio of 55 divided by 60 in the temperature range — 20°F through 850°F. At 900°F through 1,100°F, the values shown may be used. 

(7) The mutual quality factor for centrifugaliy cast pipe (0.85) is based on all surfaces being machined, after heat treatment, to a surface 
finish of 250 pJn. arithmetic average deviation or better. 

(8) These allowable stress values are established from a consideration of strength only and will be satisfactory for average service. For 
bolted joints, where freedom from leakage over a long period of time without retightening is required, lower stress values may be 
necessary as determined from the relative flexibility of the flange and bolts and corresponding relaxation properties. 



123 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-2 Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel (Cont'd) 

NOTES: 
(9) Between temperatures of — 20°F and 400°F, allowable stress values equal to the lower of the following may be used: 20% of the 
specified tensile strength, or 25% of the specified yield strength. 

(10) This is a product specification. Allowable stress values are not necessary. Limitations on metal temperature for materials covered by 
this specification for use under ASME B31.1 are: 

Grade 3 ™20°F to 1,100°F 

Grade 4 -20°F to 900°F 

Grade 7 ~-20°F to 1,100°F 

(11) These allowable stress values are for pipe fabricated from ASTM A 387 Class 1 plate in the annealed condition. 

(12) These allowable stress values are for pipe fabricated from ASTM A 387 Class 2 plate. 

(13) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials 4 in. in diameter and smaller. 

(14) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials 2 J / 2 i n - ana " smaller. 

(15) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials larger than 2 l / 2 ' n - but. not larger than 4 in. in diameter. 

(16) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials larger than 4 in. but not larger than 7 in. in diameter. 

(17) For use at temperatures above 850°F, the carbon content of the base material and, where applicable, weld filler metal shall be 
0.05% or higher. See para. 124.2(D). 

(18) Minimum tempering temperature shall be 800°F. 

(19) These allowable stress values apply to thickness less than 3 in. 

(20) These allowable stress values apply to thickness 3 in. or greater. 



124 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this mateiial without written consent of ASME. 



ASAAE 831.1-2007 



Table A-3 begins on the next page. 



125 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels 



Spec. 
No. 



Type or 
Grade 



Class 



UNS 

Alloy 

No. 



Nominal 
Composition 



P- 
No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 
Austenitic 



A 213 



A 213 



A 213 



A 213 



A 213 



A 213 



A 213 



A 213 



A 213 



A 312 



TP304 
TP304 
TP304H 
TP304H 

TP304L 
TP304L 
TP304N 
TP304N 



TP309H 
TP309H 
TP310H 
TP310H 

TP316 
TP316 
TP316H 

TP316H 

TP316L 
TP316L 
TP316N 
TP316N 

TP321 
TP321 
TP321H 
TP321H 

TP347 
TP347 

TP347H 
TP347H 

TP348 
TP348 
TP348H 
TP348H 

TP304 
TP304 
TP304H 
TP304H 



S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30451 


18Cr-8Ni- 


M 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni- 


Si 


S30815 


21Cr-llNi 


-N 


S30815 


21Cr-llNi 


-N 


S30909 


23Cr-12Ni 




$30909 


23Cr-12Ni 




S31009 


25Cr-20Ni 




S31009 


25Cr-20Ni 




S31600 


16Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo 


S31600 


16Cr~12Ni 


-2Mo 


S31609 


l6Cr-12NI 


-2Mo 


S31609 


l6Cr-12Ni 


-2MQ 


S31603 


!6Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo 


S31603 


!6Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni 


-2MO-N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo~N 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32109 


ISCr-lONi 


-Ti 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34709 


18Cr~10Ni 


-Cb 


S34709 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30400 


lSCr-8Ni 




S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 





do) 

(9)(10) 

(9) 

(1) 

UX9) 
(10) 
(9) (10) 

(1) 
(1X9) 

(9) 

(9) 



(10) 
(9)(10) 

(9) 

(1) 

(1X9) 
(10) 
(9)(10) 

(10) 
(9X10) 

(9) 

(10) 
(9) (10) 

&) 

(10) 
(9) (10) 

(9) 

(10) 
(9X10) 

(9)' 



75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


70 


25 


1.00 


70 


25 


1.00 


80 


35 


1.00 


80 


35 


1.00 


87 


45 


1.00 


87 


45 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


70 


25 


1.00 


70 


25 


1.00 


80 


35 


1.00 


80 


35 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 



126 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 





































Seamless Pipe 


and Tube 






































Austenitic 


20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304 


A 213 


20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304 




20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304H 




16.7 


14.3 


12.8 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.7 


















TP304L 


A 213 


16.7 


16.7 


16,7 


15.8 


14.7 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.0 


















TP304L 




22.9 


19.1 


16.7 


15,1 


14.0 


13.3 


13.0 


12.8 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


11.8 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304N 




22.9 


22.9 


21.7 


20.3 


18.9 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.6 


16.3 


16.0 


15.6 


15.2 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304N 




24.9 


24.7 


22.0 


19.9 


18.5 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


17.0 


16,8 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 




A 213 


24.9 


24.7 


23.3 


22.4 


21.8 


21.4 


21.2 


21.0 


20.8 


20.6 


20.3 


20.0 


19.1 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 






20.0 


20.0 


20,0 


20.0 


19,4 


18.8 


18.5 


18.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


13.8 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


TP309H 


A 213 


20.0 


17.5 


16,1 


15.1 


14,4 


13.9 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


TP309H 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


13.8 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


TP310H 




20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15,1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


TP310H 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316 


A 213 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316H 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18,0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316H 




16.7 


14.1 


12.7 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


8.9 


8.8 


8.0 


7.9 


6.5 


6.4 


TP316L 


A 213 


16.7 


16.7 


16.0 


15.6 


14.8 


14.0 


13.8 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12,4 


12.0 


11.9 


10.8 


10.2 


8.8 


6.4 


TP316L 




22.9 


20.7 


19.0 


17.6 


16.5 


15.6 


15.2 


14.9 


14,5 


14.2 


13.9 


13.7 


13.4 


13.2 


12.9 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316N 




22,9 


22,9 


22.0 


21.5 


21.2 


21.0 


20.5 


20.0 


19.6 


19.2 


18.8 


18.5 


18.1 


17.8 


15.8 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316N 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


TP321 


A 213 


20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


TP321 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


11.9 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


TP321H 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


12.3 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


TP321H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP347 


A 213 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9 A 


6.1 


4.4 


TP347 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


TP347H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 


TP347H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP348 


A 213 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP348 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


TP348H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 


TP348H 




20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304 


A 312 


20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304 




20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304H 





127 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 

















Specified 


Specified 










UNS 








Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 



A 312 



A 312 



A 312 



A 312 



A 312 



A 312 



A 312 



A 312 



A 312 



TP304L 
TP304L 
TP304N 
TP304N 



TP309H 

TP309H 
TP310H 

TP310H 

TP316 
TP316 
TP316H 
TP316H 

TP316L 

TP316L 
TP316N 
TP316N 

TP317 

TP317 

TP321 

TP321 

TP321H 

TP321H 

TP347 
TP347 
TP347H 
TP347H 

TP348 
TP348 
TP348H 
TP348H 

TPXM-15 
TPXM-15 
TPXM-19 
TPXM-19 



S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-f 


n| 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-f 


^J 


S30815 


21Cr-llNi- 


-N 


S30815 


21Cr-llNi- 


-N 


S30909 


23Cr-12Ni 




S30909 


23Cr-12Ni 




S31009 


25Cr-20Ni 




S31009 


25Cr-20Ni 




S31600 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31609 


l6Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31609 


l6Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31651 


l6Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo-N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni- 


~2Mo-N 


S31700 


18Cr-13Ni 


-3Mo 


S31700 


18Cr-13Ni 


-3M0 


S32100 


lSCr-lONi 


~Ti 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni 


~Ti 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34709 


l8Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34709 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34800 


18Cr~10Ni 


-Cb 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34809 


ISCr-lONi 


-Cb 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S38100 


18Cr-18Ni 


-2Si 


S38100 


18Cr-18Ni 


-2Si 


S20910 


22Cr-13Ni 


-5Mn 


S20910 


22Cr-13Ni 


~5Mn 


S31254 


20Cr-18Ni 


-6M0 


S31254 


20Cr-18Ni 


-6M0 



(1) 

(D(9) 

(10) 

(9)(10) 

(1) 
(1)(9) 

(9) 

(9) 



(10) 
(9)(10) 

(9) 

(1) 

(D(9) 
(10) 
(9)(10) 

ft)(10) 
(D(9)(10) 
(10) 
(9)(10) 

(9) 

(10) 
(9)(10) 

(9) 

(10) 
(9)(10) 

(9) 

(1) 

(1X9) 

(1) 

(1)(9) 

(1) 

(D(9) 



70 
70 

80 
80 

87 
87 

75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 

70 
70 
80 
80 

75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
100 
100 
94 
94 



25 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


45 


1.00 


45 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1,00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


55 


1.00 


55 


1.00 


44 


1.00 


44 


1.00 



128 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B3M-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 



































Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 




































Austenitic (Cont'd) 


16.7 


14.3 


12.8 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.7 


















TP304L 


A 312 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


15.8 


14.7 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.0 


















TP304L 




22.9 


19.1 


16.7 


15.1 


14.0 


13.3 


13.0 


12.8 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


11.8 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304N 




22.9 


22.9 


21.7 


20.3 


18.9 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.6 


16.3 


16.0 


15.6 


15.2 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304N 




24.9 


24.7 


22.0 


19.9 


18.5 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


17.0 


16.8 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 




A 312 


24.9 


24.7 


23.3 


22.4 


21.8 


21.4 


21.2 


21.0 


20.8 


20.6 


20.3 


20.0 


19.1 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 






20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.5 


18.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


13.8 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


TP309H 


A 312 


20.0 


17.5 


16.1 


15.1 


14.4 


13.9 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


TP309H 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


13.8 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


TP310H 




20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


TP310H 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316 


A 312 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316H 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316H 




16.7 


14.2 


12.7 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 
















TP316L 


A 312 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


15.7 


14.8 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


13.2 


12.9 


12.7 
















TP316L 




22.9 


20.7 


19.0 


17.6 


16.5 


15.6 


15.2 


14.9 


14.5 


14.2 


13.9 


13.7 


13.4 


13.2 


12.9 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316N 




22.9 


22.9 


22.0 


21.5 


21.2 


21.0 


20.5 


20.0 


19.6 


19.2 


18.8 


18.5 


18.1 


17.8 


15.8 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316N 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12,6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11,2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


TP317 


A 312 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


TP317 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12,7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


TP321 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18,3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


TP321 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


11.9 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


TP321H 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


12.3 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


TP321H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP347 


A 312 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16,8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP347 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


TP347H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16,8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 


TP347H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP348 


A 312 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP348 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


TP348H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17,8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 


TP348H 




20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 










TPXM-15 


A 312 


20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


10.6 


10.4 










TPXM-15 




28.6 


28.4 


26.9 


26.0 


25.5 


25.0 


24.6 


24.2 


23.9 


23.5 


23.3 


23.0 


22.7 


22.5 


22.2 








TPXM-19 




28.6 


28.4 


26.9 


26.0 


25.5 


25.1 


24.9 


24.7 


24.5 


24.2 


23.9 


23.6 


23.2 


22.8 


22.3 








TPXM-19 




26.9 


23.9 


21.4 


19.8 


18.6 


17.9 


17.6 


17.4 


17.3 
























26.9 


26.9 


25.5 


24.3 


23.5 


23.0 


22.8 


22.7 


22.6 

























129 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 








UNS 








Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 


Type or 


Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade Class No. 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 


Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 














Austenitic (Cont'd) 
















A 376 


TP304 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 


(10) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP304 


530400 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 


(9) (10) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP304H 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 




75 


30 


1.00 




TP304H 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 


(9) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP304N 


530451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 


8 


(10) 


80 


35 


1.00 




TP304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 


8 


(9)(10) 


80 


35 


1.00 


A 376 


TP316 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(10) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP316 


531600 


16Cr-12Nlt-2Mo 


8 


(9) (10) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP316H 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 




75 


30 


1.00 




TP316H 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(9) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP316N 


531651 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo-N 


8 


(10) 


80 


35 


1.00 




TP316N 


531651 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo-N 


8 


(9)(10) 


80 


35 


1.00 


A 376 


TP321 


532100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


8 


(10) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP321 


532100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


8 


(9)(10) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP321H 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


8 




75 


30 


1.00 




TP321H 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


8 


(9) 


75 


30 


1.00 


A 376 


TP347 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(10) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP347 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(9)(10) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP347H 


534709 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 




75 


30 


1.00 




TP347H 


534709 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(9) 


75 


30 


1.00 


A 376 


TP348 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(10) 


75 


30 


1.00 




TP348 


534800 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(9)(10) 


75 


30 


1.00 


A 430 


FP304 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 


(10) (11) 


70 


30 


1.00 




FP304 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 


(9)(10)(11) 


70 


30 


1.00 




FP304H 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 




70 


30 


1.00 




FP304H 


S30409 


18Cr-SNi 


8 


(9) 


70 


30 


1.00 




FP304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 


8 


(10) 


75 


35 


1.00 




FP304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 


8 


(9)(10) 


75 


35 


1.00 


A 430 


FP316 


531600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(loxii) 


70 


30 


1.00 




FP316 


531600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(9)(10)(11) 


70 


30 


1.00 




FP316H 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 




70 


30 


1.00 




FP316H 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(9) 


70 


30 


1.00 




FP316N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni-2/V\o-N 


8 


(10) 


75 


35 


1.00 




FP316N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Nt~2Mo-N 


8 


(9X10) 


75 


35 


1.00 


A 430 


FP321 


S32100 


ISCr-lONi-Ti 


8 


(loxii) 


70 


30 


1.00 




FP321 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ts 


8 


(9) (10) (11) 


70 


30 


1.00 




FP321H 


S32109 


ISCr-lONi-Ti 


8 




70 


30 


1.00 




FP321H 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


8 


'(9) 


70 


30 


1.00 


A 430 


FP347 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(10) (11) 


70 


30 


1.00 




FP347 


S34700 


18Cr~10Ni-Cb 


8 


(9)(10)(11) 


70 


30 


1.00 




FP347H 


S34709 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 




70 


30 


1.00 




FP347H 


S34709 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(9) 


70 


30 


1.00 


A 789 




S32550 


25.5Cr-5.5Ni-3.5Mo-2Cu 


10H 


(1X35X36) 


110 


80 


1.00 


A 790 




532550 


25.5Cr-5.5Ni-3.5Mo-2Cu 


10H 


(1X35X36) 


110 


80 


1.00 



130 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 



































Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 




































Austenitic (Cont'd) 


20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304 


A 376 


20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6 A 


TP304 




20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304H 




22.9 


19.1 


16.7 


15.1 


14.0 


13.3 


13.0 


12.8 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


11.8 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


9.8 


7.7 


6 A 


TP304N 




22.9 


22.9 


21.7 


20.3 


18.9 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.6 


16.3 


16.0 


15.6 


15.2 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304N 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11,9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316 


A 376 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19,3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15,4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12,6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316H 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316H 




22.9 


20.7 


19.0 


17.6 


16.5 


15.6 


15.2 


14.9 


14.5 


14.2 


13.9 


13.7 


13.4 


13.2 


12.9 


123 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316N 




22.9 


22.9 


22.0 


21.5 


21.2 


21.0 


20.5 


20.0 


19.6 


19.2 


18.8 


18.5 


18.1 


17.8 


15.8 


123 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316N 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


TP321 


A 376 


20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


TP321 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


11.9 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


TP321H 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


12.3 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


TP321H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP347 


A 376 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12,1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP347 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16,0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


TP347H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16,6 


16.4 


16.2 


14A 


103 


7.9 


TP347H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP348 


A 376 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16,8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


TP348 




20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


FP304 


A 430 


20.0 


18.9 


17.7 


17.1 


16.9 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6 A 


FP304 




20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


FP304H 




20.0 


18.9 


17.7 


17.1 


16.9 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


FP304H 




21.4 


19.1 


16.7 


15.1 


14.0 


13.3 


13.0 


12.8 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


11.8 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


FP304N 




21.4 


21.4 


20.4 


19.6 


18.9 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.6 


16.3 


16.0 


15.6 


15.2 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


FP304N 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9,8 


7.4 


FP316 


A 430 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


19.2 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


FP316 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


FP316H 




20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


19.2 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


FP316H 




21.4 


20.7 


19.0 


17.6 


16.5 


15.6 


15.2 


14.9 


14.5 


14.2 


13.9 


13.7 


13.4 


13.2 


12.9 


123 


9.8 


7.4 


FP316N 




21.4 


21.4 


20.6 


20.1 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


19.9 


19.6 


19.2 


18.8 


18.5 


18.1 


17.8 


15.8 


123 


9.8 


7.4 


FP316N 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


FP321 


A 430 


20.0 


19.0 


17.8 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


14.9 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


FP321 




20.0 


18,0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


11.9 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


FP321H 




20.0 


19.0 


17.8 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


123 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


FP321H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


FP347 


A 430 


20.0 


19.1 


17.6 


16.6 


16.0 


15.8 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


15.3 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


FP347 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


FP347H 




20.0 


19.1 


17.6 


16.6 


16.0 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 


FP347H 




31.4 


31.3 


29.5 


28.6 


28.2 






























A 789 


31.4 


31.3 


29.5 


28.6 


28.2 






























A 790 



131 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 

















Specified 


Specified 










UNS 








Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


p. 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 
Ferritic/Martensitic 



A 268 


TP405 


S40500 


12Cr-Al 




TP410 


S41000 


13Cr 




TP429 


S42900 


15Cr 




TP430 


S43000 


17Cr 




TPXM-27 


S44627 


26Cr-lMo 




TP446-1 


S44600 


27Cr 




TPXM-33 


S44626 


27Cr~lMo~Ti 


A 731 


TPXM-27 


S44627 


27Cr-lMo 




TPXM-33 


544626 


27Cr-lMo-Ti 


Ferritic/Austenitic 






A 789 


S31803 


S31803 


22Cr-5.5Ni-3Mo-N 


A 790 


531803 


S31803 


22Cr-5.5Ni-3Mo-N 


Centrifugally Cast Pipe 






Auste 


riitic 






A 451 


CPF8 


J92600 


18Cr-8Ni 




CPF8 


J92600 


18Cr-8Ni 




CPF8C 


J92710 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 




CPF8C 


J92710 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 




CPF8M 


J92900 


18Cr-9Ni-2Mo 




CPF8M 


J92900 


18Cr-9Ni-2Mo 


A 451 


CPH8 


J93400 


25Cr-12Ni 




CPH8 


J93400 


25Cr-12Ni 




CPH10 


J93410 


25Cr-12Ni 




CPH10 


J93410 


25Cr-12Ni 


A 451 


CPH20 


J93402 


25Cr-12Ni 




CPH20 


J93402 


25Cr-12Ni 




CPK20 


J94202 


25Cr~20Ni 




CPK20 


J94202 


25Cr-20Ni 


A 452 


TP304H 


J92590 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304H 


J92590 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP316H 


J92920 


16Cr~12Ni-2Mo 




TP316H 


J92920 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




TP347H 


J92660 


18Cr~10Ni-Cb 




TP347H 


J92660 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


Welded Pipe and Tube - 


Without Filler Metal 


Austenitic 






A 249 


TP304 


S30400 


ISCr-SNi 




TP304 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304H 


530409 


18Cr~8Ni 




TP304H 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 


A 249 


TP304L 


S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304L 


S30403 


18Q-8NJ 




TP304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 




TP304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 



7 


(3) 


6 




6 


(3) 


7 


(3) 


10! 


(D(2) 


10! 




101 


(2) 


101 


(2) 


10! 


(2) 


10H 


(D(33)(34) 


10H 


(1)(33)(34) 



(10) 
0X10) 

(9) 

(1) 

(1X9) 
(10) 
(9)(10) 



60 
60 
60 
60 
65 
70 
68 

65 
65 



90 
90 



30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


40 


1.00 


40 


1.00 


45 


1.00 


40 


1.00 


40 


1.00 


65 


1.00 


65 


1.00 



(1X8X10X26) 


70 


30 


0.85 


(1)(8)(9X10X26) 


70 


30 


0.85 


(1)(8)(10X26) 


70 


30 


0.85 


(1)(8)(9)(10X26) 


70 


30 


0.85 


(1X8X13X26) 


70 


30 


0.85 


(1) (8) (9) (13) (26) 


70 


30 


0.85 


(1X8X10X26) 


65 


28 


0.85 


(1X8X9X10X26) 


65 


28 


0.85 


(1X6X8X10X26) 


(70) 


30 


0.85 


(1) (6) (8) (9) (10) (26) 


(70) 


30 


0.85 


(1) (6) (8) (10) (26) 


(70) 


30 


0.85 


(1) (6) (8) (9) (10) (26) 


(70) 


30 


0.85 


(1)(8)(10X26) 


65 


28 


0.85 


(1)(8)(9X10)(26) 


65 


28 


0.85 


(0(8X26) 


75 


30 


0.85 


(1)(8)(9)(26) 


75 


30 


0.85 


(1X8X26) 


75 


30 


0.85 


(0(8X9X26) 


75 


30 


0.85 


(0(8X26) 


75 


30 


0.85 


(0(8X9X26) 


75 


30 


0.85 



75 


30 


0.85 


75 


30 


0.85 


75 


30 


0.85 


75 


30 


0.85 


70 


25 


0.85 


70 


25 


0.85 


80 


35 


0.85 


80 


35 


0.85 



132 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 



Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 
Ferritic/Martensitic 



17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.5 


16.3 


15.9 


15.6 


15.2 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.5 


16.3 


15.9 


15.6 


15.2 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.5 


16.3 


15.9 


15.6 


15.2 


17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.5 


16.3 


15.9 


15.6 


15.2 


18.6 


18.6 


18.3 


18.1 


18.1 


18.1 


18.1 




20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.8 


18.4 


17.9 


17.7 




19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.0 


18.8 


18.4 


18.1 





18.6 18.6 18.3 18.1 18.1 18.1 18.1 
18.6 18.6 18.4 18.2 18.0 17.6 17.3 



TP405 

TP410 

TP429 

TP430 

TPXM-27 

TP446-1 

TPXM-33 

TPXM-27 
TPXM-33 



A 268 



A 731 



Ferritic/Austenitic 



25.7 


25.7 


24.8 


23.9 


23.3 


23.1 


25.7 


25.7 


24.8 


23.9 


23.3 


23.1 



S31803 
S31803 



A 789 
A 790 



Centrifugally Cast Pipe 
Austenitic 



17.0 
17.0 
17,0 
17.0 
17.0 
17.0 



14.2 
16.1 
14.2 
16.1 
14.6 
17.0 



12.7 
15.0 
12,7 
15.0 
13.2 
16.5 



11.7 

14.5 
11.7 
14.5 
12.1 
16.3 



11.0 
14.4 
11.0 
14.4 
11.3 
15.2 



10.5 
14.1 
10.4 
14.1 
10.7 
14.4 



10.2 
13.8 
10.2 
13.8 
10.4 
14.1 



9.9 

13.4 
10.0 
13.5 
10.3 
13.8 



9.8 
13.2 

9.8 
13.2 
10.1 
13.6 



9.5 
12.9 

9.5 
12.9 
10.0 
13.5 



9.4 
12.7 

9.4 
12.6 

93 
13.3 



9.2 

12.4 
9.2 

12.4 
9.8 

13.2 



9.0 
12.2 

9.0 
12.1 

9J 
13.1 



10.4 
8.8 

11.9 
9.6 

12.6 



8.1 
8.1 
8.6 
10.3 
9.5 
9.8 



6.4 
6.4 
7.8 
7.8 
7.6 
7.6 



5.1 
5.1 
5.2 
5.2 
5.9 
5.9 



4.1 
4.1 
3.8 
3.8 
4.6 
4.6 



CPF8 

CPF8 

CPF8C 

CPF8C 

CPF8M 

CPF8M 



A 451 



15.8 13.0 12.0 

15.8 14.4 13.4 

17.0 13.9 12.8 

17.0 15.6 14.5 



11.5 
13.1 
12.3 
14.1 



11.1 
13.1 
11.9 
14.1 



10,8 
13.1 
11.5 
14.1 



10.5 
13.0 
11.3 
14.0 



10.3 
12.9 
11.0 
13.9 



10.0 
12.8 
10.7 
13.8 



9J 
12.5 
10.4 
13.5 



9.4 
12.2 

10.0 
13.1 



9.1 
11.8 

9.7 
12.7 



8.7 

11.3 
7.8 
7.8 



8.4 
9.4 
5.0 

5.0 



7.2 
7.2 
3.2 
3.2 



5.5 
5.5 
2.1 
2.1 



4.3 
4.3 
1.3 

1.3 



3.2 

3.2 

0.85 

0.85 



CPH8 
CPH8 
CPH10 
CPH10 



A 451 



17.0 13.9 12.8 

17.0 15.6 14.5 

15.8 13.0 12.0 

15.8 14.4 13.4 



12.3 
14.1 
11.5 
13.1 



11.9 
14.1 
11.1 
13.1 



11.5 

14.1 
10.8 
13.1 



11.3 
14.0 
10.5 
13.0 



11.0 
13.9 
10.3 
12.9 



10.7 
13.8 
10.0 
12.8 



10.4 

13.5 

9.7 

12.5 



10.0 

13.1 

9.4 

12.2 



9.7 
12.7 

9.1 
11.8 



9.4 
12.1 

8.7 
11.3 



9.0 
9.4 
8.4 
9.6 



7.2 
7.2 
8.1 
8.3 



5.5 
5.5 
7.2 
7.2 



4.3 
4.3 
6.2 
6.2 



3.2 
3.2 
5.1 
5.1 



CPH20 
CPH20 
CPK20 
CPK20 



A 451 



17.0 14.2 12.7 11.7 11.0 10.4 10.2 10.0 9.8 9.6 9.4 9.2 9.0 



8.6 8.3 6.6 5.2 TP304H 



A 452 



17.0 17.0 16.1 

17.0 14.7 13.2 

17.0 17.0 17.0 

17.0 15.6 14.6 

17.0 17.0 16.0 



15.5 
12.1 
16.4 
13.6 
15.1 



14.8 
11.3 
15.3 
12.8 
14.6 



14.1 
10.7 
14.5 
12.2 
14.3 



13.8 
10.5 
14.1 
11.9 
14.3 



13.5 

10.3 
13.9 
11.8 
14.3 



13.2 
10.1 
13.7 
11.6 
14.3 



12.9 
10.0 
13.5 
11.5 
14.3 



12.6 
9.9 

13.4 
11.5 
14.3 



12.4 

9.8 

13.2 

11.4 
14.2 



12.1 
9.7 
13.1 
11.4 
14.1 



11.9 
9.6 
13.0 
11.4 
14.0 



10.5 

9.5 

12.9 



8.3 

9.4 

10.5 



6.6 
8.3 
8.3 



5.2 TP304H 

6.3 TP316H 
6.3 TP316H 
. . . TP347H 
. . . TP347H 



Welded Pipe and Tube ■ 



Without Filler Metal 
Austenitic 



17.0 14.2 12.7 

17.0 17.0 16.1 

17.0 14.2 12.7 

17.0 17.0 16.1 



11.7 
15.5 
11.7 
15.5 



11.0 
14.8 
11.0 

14.8 



10.4 
14.1 
10.4 
14.1 



10.2 
13.8 
10.2 

13.8 



10.0 
13.5 
10.0 
13.5 



9.8 
13.2 

9.8 
13.2 



9.6 
12.9 

9.6 
12.9 



9.4 
12.6 

9.4 
12.6 



9.2 
12.4 

9.2 
12.4 



9.0 

12.1 

9.0 

12.1 



11.9 



11.9 



8.6 
10.5 

8.6 
10.5 



8.3 
8.3 
8.3 
8.3 



6.6 
6.6 
6.6 
6.6 



5.2 
5.2 
5.2 
5.2 



TP304 
TP304 
TP304H 
TP304H 



A 249 



14.2 12.1 10.9 

14.2 14.2 14.2 

19.4 16.2 14.2 

19.4 19.4 18.5 



9.9 
13.4 
12.8 
17.3 



9.3 
12.5 
11.9 
16.0 



11.9 
11.3 
15.2 



8.6 

11.7 
11.0 
14.9 



8.5 
11.4 
10.8 
14.6 



8.3 
11.3 
10.6 
14.4 



8.2 

11.1 
10.5 
14.1 



10.3 
13.8 



10.0 
13.6 



9.8 
13.3 



9.6 

13.0 



9.4 
10.5 



8.3 

8.3 



6.6 
6.6 



5.2 
5.2 



TP304L 
TP304L 
TP304N 
TP304N 



A 249 



133 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 

















Specified 


Specified 










UNS 








Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No. 


Motes 


ksr 


ksi 


F 



Welded Pipe and Tube ■ 
Austenitk (Cont'd) 

A 249 



■ Without Filler Metal (Cont'd) 



A 249 



A 249 



A 249 



A 249 



A 249 



A 249 



A 249 



A 312 



A 312 



A 312 



TP309H 
TP309H 

TP316 

TP316 

TP316H 

TP316H 

TP316L 
TP316L 
TP316N 

TP316N 

TP317 

TP317 

TP321 

TP321 

TP321H 

TP321H 

TP347 
TP347 
TP347H 
TP347H 

TP348 
TP348 
TP348H 
TP348H 



TP304 
TP304 
TP304H 
TP304H 

TP304L 

TP304L 
TP304N 
TP304N 



S30815 


21Cr-llNi- 


-N 


S30815 


210-11NI- 


-N 


S30909 


23Cr-12Ni 




S30909 


23Cr-12Ni 




S31600 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31609 


l6Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo 


S31603 


!6Cr-12Ni 


~2Mo 


S31603 


l6Cr-12Ni 


~2Mo 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo-N 


S31651 


16Q-12N1 


-2MQ-N 


S31700 


18Cr-13Ni 


-3Mo 


S31700 


18Cr-13Ni 


-3Mo 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


$34700 


18Cr~10Ni 


-Cb 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni 


~Cb 


S34709 


lSCr~10Ni 


-Cb 


S34709 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34800 


ISCr-lONi 


-Cb 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S31254 


20Cr-18Ni 


-6Mo 


S31254 


20Cr~18Ni 


-6Mo 


S30400 


18Cr~8Ni 




S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30409 


ISCr-SNi 




S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30451 


18Cr-8Ni~ 


N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni- 


N 


S30815 


21Cr-llNi 


-N 


S30815 


21Cr-llN 


-N 



(1) 

(1)(9) 

(9) 



(10) 
(9)(10) 

'(9) 

(1) 

(1)(9) 
(10) 
(9)(10) 

(D(10) 
(D(9)(10) 
(10) 
(9)(10) 

(9) 

(10) 
(9)(10) 

(9) 

(10) 
(9)(10) 

(9) 

(1) 
(D(9) 

(10) 
(9) (10) 

(9) 

(1) 

(D(9) 
(10) 
(9)(10) 

(1) 
(D(9) 



87 
87 

75 
75 

75 
75 
75 

75 

70 
70 
80 
80 

75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 

94 
94 

75 
75 
75 
75 

70 
70 
80 
80 

87 
87 



45 


0.85 


45 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


25 


0.85 


25 


0.85 


35 


0.85 


35 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


44 


0.85 


44 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


30 


0.85 


25 


0.85 


25 


0.85 


35 


0.85 


35 


0.85 


45 


0.85 


45 


0.85 



134 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 

Welded Pipe and Tube - Without Filler Metal (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 

A 249 
A 249 
A 249 



21.2 


21.0 


18.7 


16.9 


15.7 


15.0 


14.8 


14.6 


14.5 


14.3 


14.1 


13.9 


13.8 


12.7 


9.9 


7.7 


5.9 


4.4 




21.2 


21.0 


19.8 


19.0 


18.5 


18.2 


18.0 


17,9 


17.7 


17.5 


17.3 


17.0 


16.2 


12.7 


9.9 


7.7 


5.9 


4.4 




17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


16.5 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14.8 


14.6 


14.4 


11.7 


8.8 


63 


4.7 


3.4 


TP309H 


17.0 


14.9 


13.7 


12.8 


12.2 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.3 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


8.8 


63 


4.7 


3.4 


TP309H 


17.0 


14.7 


13.2 


12.1 


11.3 


10.7 


10.5 


10.3 


10.1 


10.0 


9.9 


9.8 


9.7 


9.6 


9.5 


9.4 


83 


63 


TP316 


17.0 


17.0 


17,0 


16.4 


15.3 


14.5 


14.1 


13.9 


13.7 


13.5 


13.4 


13.2 


13.1 


13.0 


12,9 


103 


83 


63 


TP316 


17.0 


14.7 


13.2 


12.1 


11.3 


10.7 


10.5 


10.3 


10.1 


10.0 


9.9 


9.8 


9.7 


9.6 


9.5 


9.4 


83 


6.3 


TP316H 


17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


16.4 


15.3 


14.5 


14.1 


13.9 


13.7 


13.5 


13.4 


13.2 


13.1 


13.0 


12.9 


103 


83 


6.3 


TP316H 


14.2 


12.1 


10.8 


9.9 


9.3 


8.8 


8.7 


8.5 


8.3 


8.1 


8.0 
















TP316L 


14.2 


14.2 


14.2 


13.4 


12,5 


11.9 


11.7 


11.4 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 
















TP316L 


19.4 


17.6 


16.1 


15.0 


14.0 


13.3 


12.9 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.6 


11.4 


11.2 


11.0 


103 


83 


63 


TP316N 


19.4 


19.4 


18.7 


18.2 


18.1 


17.9 


17.4 


17.0 


16.7 


16.3 


16,0 


15.7 


15.4 


15.1 


13.4 


103 


83 


63 


TP316N 


17.0 


14.7 


13.2 


12.1 


11.3 


10.7 


10.5 


10.3 


10.1 


10.0 


9.9 


9.8 


9J 


9.6 


9.5 


9.4 


83 


63 


TP317 


17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


16.4 


15.3 


14.5 


14.1 


13.9 


13.7 


13.5 


13.4 


13.2 


13.1 


13.0 


12.9 


103 


83 


6.3 


TP317 


17,0 


15.3 


14.1 


13.0 


12.2 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.7 


10.5 


10.4 


10.3 


10.2 


8.2 


5.9 


43 


3.1 


TP321 


17.0 


17.0 


16.2 


15.9 


15.9 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.4 


14,2 


14.1 


13.9 


13.8 


8.2 


5.9 


43 


3.1 


TP321 


17.0 


15.3 


14.1 


13.0 


12.2 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.7 


10.5 


10.4 


10.3 


10.2 


10.1 


7.7 


5.9 


4.6 


TP321H 


17.0 


17.0 


16.2 


15.9 


15.9 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.4 


14.2 


14.1 


13.9 


13.8 


10.5 


7.7 


5.9 


4.6 


TP321H 


17.0 


15.6 


14.6 


13.6 


12.8 


12.2 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.5 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


103 


7.8 


5.2 


3.8 


TP347 


17.0 


17.0 


16.0 


15.1 


14.6 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14,2 


14,1 


13.6 


103 


7,8 


5.2 


3.8 


TP347 


17.0 


15.6 


14.6 


13.6 


12.8 


12,2 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.5 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


113 


8.9 


6.7 


TP347H 


17.0 


17.0 


16.0 


15.1 


14.6 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.2 


14.1 


14.0 


13.7 


12.0 


8.9 


6.7 


TP347H 


17.0 


15.6 


14.6 


13.6 


12.8 


12.2 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.5 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


103 


7.8 


5.2 


3.8 


TP348 


17.0 


17.0 


16.0 


15.1 


14.6 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.2 


14.1 


13.6 


103 


7.8 


5.2 


3.8 


TP348 


17.0 


15.6 


14.6 


13.6 


12.8 


12.2 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.5 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


11.3 


8.9 


6.7 


TP348H 


17.0 


17.0 


16.0 


15.1 


14.6 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14,3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.2 


14.1 


14.0 


13.7 


12.0 


8.9 


6.7 


TP348H 


22.8 


20.3 


18.2 


16.8 


15.8 


15.2 


15.0 


14.8 


14.7 






















22,8 


22.8 


21.7 


20.7 


20.0 


19.5 


19.4 


19.3 


19.2 






















17.0 


14.2 


12.7 


11.7 


11.0 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


9.0 


8.8 


8.6 


83 


6.6 


5.2 


TP304 


17.0 


17.0 


16.1 


15.5 


14.8 


14.1 


13.8 


13.5 


13.2 


12.9 


12.6 


12.4 


12.1 


11.9 


103 


83 


6.6 


5.2 


TP304 


17.0 


14.2 


12.7 


11.7 


11.0 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


9.0 


8.8 


8.6 


83 


6.6 


5.2 


TP304H 


17.0 


17.0 


16.1 


15.5 


14.8 


14.1 


13.8 


13.5 


13.2 


12.9 


12.6 


12.4 


12.1 


11.9 


103 


83 


6.6 


5.2 


TP304H 


14.2 


12.1 


10.9 


9.9 


9.3 


8.8 


8.6 


8.5 


8.3 


8.2 


















TP304L 


14.2 


14.2 


14.2 


13.4 


12.5 


11.9 


11.7 


11.4 


11.3 


11.1 


















TP304L 


19.4 


16.2 


14.2 


12.8 


11.9 


11.3 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.5 


10.3 


10.0 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


83 


6.6 


5.2 


TP304N 


19.4 


19.4 


18.5 


17.3 


16.0 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.4 


14.1 


13.8 


13.6 


13.3 


13.0 


103 


83 


6.6 


5.2 


TP304N 


21.2 


21.0 


18.7 


16.9 


15.7 


15.0 


14.8 


14.6 


14.5 


14.3 


14.1 


13.9 


13.8 


12.7 


9.9 


7 J 


5.9 


4.4 




21.2 


21.0 


19.8 


19.0 


18.5 


18.2 


18.0 


17.9 


17.7 


17.5 


17.3 


17.0 


16.2 


12.7 


9.9 


7 J 


5.9 


4.4 





135 



A 249 



A 249 



A 249 



A 249 



A 249 



A 312 



A 312 



A 312 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 








UNS 








Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Spec. 


Type or 


Alloy 


Nominal 


p. 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade Class No. 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


f 


Welded Pipe and Tube - 


Without Filler Metal (Cont'd) 












Austenitic (Cont'd) 
















A 312 


TP309H 


530909 


23Cr-12Ni 


8 


(9) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP309H 


530909 


23Cr-12Ni 


8 




75 


30 


0.85 




TP310H 


S31009 


23Cr-20Ni 


8 


(9)' 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP310H 


S31009 


23Cr-20Ni 


8 




75 


30 


0.85 


A 312 


TP316 


531600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(10) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP316 


531600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(9)(10) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP316H 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 




75 


30 


0.85 




TP316H 


531609 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(9) 


75 


30 


0.85 


A 312 


TP316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(1) 


70 


25 


0.85 




TP316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(1X9) 


70 


25 


0.85 




TP316N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo-N 


8 


(10) 


80 


35 


0.85 




TP316N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo-N 


8 


(9)(10) 


80 


35 


0.85 


A 312 


TP317 


531700 


18Cr~13Ni-3Mo 


8 


(D(10) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP317 


531700 


18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 


8 


(D(9)(10) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP321 


532100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


8 


(10) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP321 


532100 


18Cr-10Ni-Tf 


8 


(9X10) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP321H 


532109 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


8 




75 


30 


0.85 




TP321H 


532109 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


8 


(9) 


75 


30 


0.85 


A 312 


TP347 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(10) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP347 


534700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(9X10) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP347H 


534709 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 




75 


30 


0.85 




TP347H 


S34709 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(9)' 


75 


30 


0.85 


A 312 


TP348 


534800 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(0(10) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP348 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(ooxio) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP348H 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(i) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TP348H 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


(DO) 


75 


30 


0.85 


A 312 


TPXM-15 


538100 


18Cr-18Ni-25i 


8 


(1) 


75 


30 


0.85 




TPXM-15 


S38100 


18Cr-18Ni-2Si 


8 


(0(9) 


75 


30 


0.85 






S31254 


20Cr-18Ni-6Mo 


8 


(1) 


94 


44 


0.85 






531254 


20Cr-18Ni-6Mo 


8 


(0(9) 


94 


44 


0.85 


A 409 




530815 


21Cr-llNi-N 


8 


(1) 


87 


45 


0.85 






530815 


21Cr-llNi-N 


8 


(«(» 


87 


45 


0.85 


A 789 




532550 


25.5Cr-5.5Ni~3.5Mo-2Cu 


10H 


(1X35)06) 


110 


80 


1.00 


A 790 




532550 


25.5Cr-5.5Ni-3.5Mo-2Cu 


10H 


(1X35X36) 


110 


80 


1.00 


Ferrit 


c/Martensitic 
















A 268 


TP405 


S40500 


12Cr~Al 


7 




60 


30 


0.85 




TP410 


S41000 


13Cr 


6 




60 


30 


0.85 




TP429 


S42900 


15Cr 


6 




60 


35 


0.85 




TP430 


S43000 


17Cr 


7 




60 


35 


0.85 




TP4464 


544600 


27Cr 


101 


(1) 


70 


40 


0.85 




TPXM-27 


544627 


26Cr-lMo 


101 


(0(2) 


65 


40 


0.85 




TPXM-33 


S44626 


27Cr-lMo-Ti 


101 


(2) 


68 


45 


0.85 



136 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 



Welded Pipe and Tube - Without Filler Metal (Cont'd) 

Austenitic (Cont'd) 



17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


16.5 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.3 15.1 14.8 14.6 14.4 11.7 8,8 6.5 4.7 3.4 TP309H 


A 312 


17.0 


14.9 


13.7 


12.8 


12.2 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.3 11.2 11.0 10.8 10.6 10.4 8.8 6.5 4.7 3.4 TP309H 




17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


16.9 


16.4 


15.7 


15.5 


15.2 


15.0 14.8 14.6 14.4 14.2 11.7 8.8 6.5 4.7 3.4 TP310H 




17.0 


15.0 


13.7 


12.8 


12.1 


11.7 


11.5 


11.3 


11.1 11.0 10.8 10.7 10.5 10.3 8.8 6.5 4.7 3A TP310H 




17.0 


14.7 


13.2 


12.1 


11.3 


10.7 


10.5 


10.3 


10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.4 83 63 TP316 


A 312 


17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


16.4 


15.3 


14.5 


14.1 


13.9 


13.7 13.5 13.4 13.2 13.1 13.0 12.9 10.5 8.3 6.3 TP316 




17.0 


14.7 


13.2 


12.1 


11.3 


10.7 


10.5 


10.3 


10.1 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.5 < 


?.4 83 63 TP316H 




17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


16.4 


15.3 


14.5 


14.1 


13.9 


13.7 13.5 13.4 13.2 13.1 13.0 12.9 10.5 8.3 63 TP316H 




14.2 


12.1 


10.8 


9.9 


9.3 


8.8 


8.7 


8.5 


8.3 8.1 8.0 . 










TP316L 


A 312 


14.2 


14.2 


14.2 


13.4 


12.5 


11.9 


11.7 


11.4 


11.2 11.0 10.8 










TP316L 




19.4 


17.6 


16.1 


15.0 


14.0 


13.3 


12.9 


12.6 


12.3 12.1 11.9 11.6 11.4 11.2 11.0 10.5 83 63 TP316N 




19.4 


19.4 


18.7 


18.2 


18.1 


17.9 


17.4 


17.0 


16.7 16.3 16.0 15.7 15.4 15.1 13.4 10.5 83 63 TP316N 




17,0 


14.7 


13.2 


12.1 


11.3 


10.7 


10.5 


10.3 


10.1 10.0 < 


?.9 


?.8 < 


?.7 


?.6 < 


?.5 


?.4 83 63 TP317 


A 312 


17.0 


17.0 


17.0 


16.4 


15.3 


14.5 


14.1 


13.9 


13.7 13.5 13.4 13.2 13.1 13.0 12.9 10.5 83 63 TP317 




17.0 


15.3 


14.1 


13.0 


12.2 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 10.7 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.2 


3.2 


5.9 43 3.1 TP321 




17,0 


17.0 


16.2 


15.9 


15.9 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 14.4 14.2 14.1 13.9 13.8 I 


3.2 


5.9 43 3.1 TP321 




17.0 


15.3 


14.1 


13.0 


12,2 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 10.7 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.2 10,1 


7.7 5.9 4.6 TP321H 




17.0 


17.0 


16.2 


15.9 


15.9 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 14.4 14.2 14.1 13.9 13.8 10.5 


7.7 5.9 4.6 TP321H 




17.0 


15.6 


14.6 


13.6 


12.8 


12,2 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 11.5 11.5 11.4 11.4 11.4 10.3 


7.8 5.2 3.8 TP347 


A 312 


17.0 


17.0 


16.0 


15.1 


14.6 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 14.3 14.3 14.2 14.1 13.6 103 


7.8 5.2 3.8 TP347 




17.0 


15.6 


14.6 


13.6 


12.8 


12.2 


11.9 


11.8 


11,6 11.5 11.5 11.4 11.4 11.4 11.4 11.3 8.9 6.7 TP347H 




17.0 


17.0 


16.0 


15.1 


14.6 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 14.3 14.3 14.2 14.1 14.0 13.7 12.0 8.9 6.7 TP347H 




17.0 


15.6 


14.6 


13.6 


12.8 


12.2 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 11.5 11.5 11.4 11.4 11.4 103 


7.8 5.2 3.8 TP348 


A 312 


17.0 


17.0 


16.0 


15.1 


14.6 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 14.3 14.3 14.2 14.1 13.6 10.3 


7.8 5.2 3.8 TP348 




17.0 


15.6 


14.6 


13.6 


12.8 


12.2 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 11.5 11.5 11.4 11.4 11.4 11.4 11.3 8.9 6.7 TP348H 




17.0 


17.0 


16.0 


15.1 


14.6 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 


14.3 14.3 14.3 14.2 14.1 14.0 13.7 12.0 8.9 6.7 TP348H 




17.0 


14.2 


12.7 


11.7 


11.0 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 




9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


?.2 


?.o 


3.8 




... TPXM-15 


A 312 


17.0 


17.0 


16.1 


15.5 


14.8 


14.1 


13.8 


13.5 


13.2 12.9 12.6 12.4 12.1 11.9 




TPXM-15 




22.8 


20.3 


18.2 


16.8 


15.8 


15.2 


15.0 


14.8 


14.7 


















22.8 


22.8 


21.7 


20.7 


20.0 


19.5 


19.4 


19.3 


19.2 


















21.2 


21.0 


18.7 


16.9 


15,7 


15.0 


14.8 


14.6 


14.5 14.3 14.1 13.9 13.8 12.7 


9.9 


7.7 5.9 4.4 ... 


A 409 


21.2 


21.0 


19.8 


19.0 


18.5 


18.2 


18.0 


17.9 


17.7 17.5 17.3 17.0 16.2 12.7 


?.9 


7.7 5.9 4.4 ... 




26.7 


26.6 


25.1 


24.3 


24.0 


























A 789 


26.7 


26.6 


25.1 


24.3 


24.0 


























A 790 


































Ferritic/Martensitic 


14.6 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.5 


13.2 


12.9 


















TP405 


A 268 


14.6 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.5 


13.2 


12.9 


















TP410 




14.6 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.5 


13.2 


12.9 


















TP429 




14,6 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.5 


13.2 


12.9 


















TP430 




17.0 


17.0 


16.4 


16.0 


15.6 


15.2 


15.0 


14.7 


















TP446-1 




15.8 


15.8 


15.5 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 


15.4 




















TPXM-27 




16.5 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


16.0 


15.7 


15.4 




















TPXM-33 





137 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 









UNS 






Spec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Welded Pipe and Tube - Without Filler Metal (Cont'd) 
Ferritic/Martensitic (Cont'd) 



A 731 TPXM-27 


S44627 


27Cr-lMo 


101 


(2) 


65 


40 


0.85 


TPXM-33 


S44626 


27Cr-lMo-Ti 


10! 


(2) 


65 


40 


0.85 


Ferritic/Austenitic 
















A 789 S31803 


S31803 


22Cr-5.5Ni-3Mo-N 


10H 


(1X33X34) 


90 


65 


0.85 


A 790 S31803 


531803 


22Cr-5.5Ni-3Mo-N 


10H 


(1X33X34) 


90 


65 


0.85 



Welded Pipe - Filler Metal Added 
Austenitic 



A 358 



304 
304 
304 
304 



A 358 304L 
304L 
304L 

304L 

A 358 304N 
304N 
304N 
304N 

A 358 



A 358 



A 358 



A 358 



A 358 



309 
309 
309 
309 

310 
310 
310 
310 

310 
310 
310 
310 

316 
316 
316 
316 



1 & 3 

2 

1 & 3 

2 

1 & 3 

2 

1 & 3 

2 

1 & 3 
2 

1 & 3 

2 

1 & 3 
2 

1 & 3 
2 

1 & 3 
2 

1 & 3 
2 

1 & 3 

2 

1 & 3 

2 

1 & 3 
2 

1 & 3 
2 

1 & 3 
2 

1 & 3 
2 



S30400 
S30400 
S30400 
S30400 

S30403 
S30403 
S30403 
S30403 

S30451 
S30451 
S30451 
S30451 

S30815 
S30815 
S30815 
S30815 

S30900 
S30900 
S30900 
S30900 

S31000 
S31000 
S31000 
S31000 

$31000 
S31000 
S31000 
S31000 

S31600 
S31600 
S31600 
S31600 



18Cr-8Ni 
18Cr-8Ni 
18Cr-8Ni 
18Cr-8Ni 

18Cr-8Ni 
18Cr-8Ni 
18Cr-8Ni 
18Cr-8Ni 

18Cr-8!Mi-N 
18Cr-8Ni-N 
18Cr-8Ni-N 
18Cr-8Ni-N 

21Cr-llNi-N 
21Cr-llNi-N 
21Cr-llNi-N 
21Cr-llNi-N 

23Cr-12Ni 

23Cr-12Ni 
23Cr-12Ni 

23Cr-12Ni 

25Cr-20Ni 
25Cr-20Ni 
25Cr-20Ni 
25Cr-20Ni 

25Cr-20Ni 
25Cr-20Ni 
25Cr-20Ni 
25O-20N1 

16Cr-12Ni~2Mo 
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 



(1)(10)(11) 


75 


30 


1.00 


(D(10)(ll) 


75 


30 


0.90 


(DOXioXii) 


75 


30 


1.00 


(1X9X10XH) 


75 


30 


0.90 


(i) 


70 


25 


1.00 


(i) 


70 


25 


0.90 


(D(9) 


70 


25 


1.00 


(1)(9) 


70 


25 


0.90 


(1)(10) 


80 


35 


1.00 


(1)(10) 


80 


35 


0.90 


(1)(9)(10) 


80 


35 


1.00 


(1)(9)(10) 


80 


35 


0.90 


(1) 


87 


45 


1.00 


(1) 


87 


45 


0.90 


(1X9) 


87 


45 


1.00 


(1X9) 


87 


45 


0.90 


(i)(io) 


75 


30 


1.00 


(D(10) 


75 


30 


0,90 


(1)(9)(10) 


75 


30 


1.00 


(1)(9)(10) 


75 


30 


0.90 


(1)(10)(14) 


75 


30 


1.00 


(1)(10)(14) 


75 


30 


0.90 


(1X9X10X14) 


75 


30 


1.00 


(1X9)(10)(14) 


75 


30 


0.90 


(1X10X15) 


75 


30 


1.00 


(1X10X15) 


75 


30 


0.90 


(1)0X10X15) 


75 


30 


1.00 


(1X9X10X15) 


75 


30 


0.90 


(D(ioXii) 


75 


30 


1.00 


(1)(10)(11) 


75 


30 


0.90 


(1) (9) (10) (11) 


75 


30 


1.00 


(1)(9)(10)(11) 


75 


30 


0.90 



138 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



AS/VSE B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 l s 050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 

Welded Pipe and Tube - Without Filler Metal (Cont'd) 
Ferritic/Martensitic (Cont'd) 

15.4 15.4 ... TPXM-27 A 731 

15.0 14.7 , TPXM-33 

Ferritic/Austemtic 

19.6 S31803 A 789 

19.6 S31803 A 790 



15.8 


15.8 


15.5 


15.4 


15.4 


15.8 


15.8 


15.7 


15.4 


153 


21.9 


21.9 


21.1 


20.3 


19.8 


21.9 


21.9 


21.1 


20.3 


19.8 



































Welded Pipe - 


- Filler Metal Added 






































i 


ftustenitsc 


20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304 


A 358 


18.0 


15.0 


13.5 


12.4 


11.6 


11.1 


10.8 


10.6 


10.3 


10,1 


9.9 


9.7 


9.5 


9.3 


9.1 


8.8 


7.0 


5.5 


304 




20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304 




16.2 


16.2 


15.3 


14.8 


14.1 


13.4 


13.1 


12.8 


12.6 


12.3 


12.0 


11.8 


11.6 


11.3 


10.0 


7.9 


6.3 


4.9 


304 




16.7 


14.3 


12.8 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.7 


















304L 


A 358 


15.0 


12.8 


11.5 


10.5 


9.8 


9.3 


9.1 


9.0 


8.8 


8.7 


















304L 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


15.8 


14.7 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.0 


















304L 




15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


14.2 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.7 


















304L 




22.9 


19.1 


16.7 


15.1 


14.0 


13.3 


13.0 


12.8 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


11.8 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304N 


A 358 


20.6 


17.2 


15.0 


13.5 


12.6 


11.9 


11.7 


11.5 


11.3 


11.1 


10.9 


10.6 


10.4 


10.2 


9.9 


8.8 


7.0 


5.5 


304N 




22.9 


22.9 


21.7 


20.3 


18.9 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.6 


16.3 


16.0 


15.6 


15.2 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304N 




20.6 


20.6 


19.6 


18.3 


17.0 


16.1 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.7 


14.4 


14.0 


13.7 


11.2 


8.8 


7.0 


5.5 


304N 




24.9 


24.7 


22.0 


19.9 


18.5 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


17.0 


16.8 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 




A 358 


22.4 


22.2 


21.0 


20.2 


19.6 


19.3 


19.1 


18.9 


18,7 


18.5 


18.3 


18.0 


17.2 


13.4 


10.4 


8.1 


6.2 


4.7 






24.9 


24.7 


22.0 


19.9 


18.5 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


17.0 


16.8 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 






22.4 


22.2 


21.0 


20.2 


19.6 


19.3 


19.1 


18.9 


18.7 


18.5 


18.3 


18.0 


17.2 


13.4 


10.4 


8.1 


6.2 


4.7 






20.0 


17.5 


16.1 


15.1 


14.4 


13.9 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


309 


A 358 


18.0 


15.8 


14.5 


13.6 


13.0 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.3 


8.9 


6.4 


4.5 


3.2 


2.3 


309 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.5 


18.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.2 


15.9 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


309 




18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.5 


16.9 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


14.3 


8.9 


6.4 


4.5 


3.2 


2.3 


309 




20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


310 


A 358 


18.0 


15.9 


14.5 


13.6 


12.9 


12,4 


12.1 


12.0 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.3 


11.1 


8.9 


6.4 


4.5 


3.2 


2.3 


310 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


15.9 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


310 




18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.9 


17.4 


16.7 


16.4 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.2 


14.3 


8.9 


6.4 


4.5 


3.2 


2.3 


310 




20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


310 


A 358 


18.0 


15.9 


14.5 


13.6 


12.9 


12.4 


12.1 


12.0 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.3 


11.1 


8.9 


6 A 


4.5 


3,2 


2.3 


310 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


15.9 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


310 




18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.9 


17.4 


16.7 


16.4 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.2 


14.3 


8.9 


6.4 


4.5 


3.2 


2.3 


310 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


316 


A 358 


18.0 


15.5 


14.0 


12.9 


12.0 


11.3 


11.1 


10.9 


10.7 


10.6 


10.5 


10.4 


10.3 


10.2 


10.1 


9.9 


8.8 


6.7 


316 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


316 




18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.4 


16.2 


15.3 


15.0 


14.7 


14.5 


14.3 


14.1 


14.0 


13.9 


13.8 


13.6 


11.2 


8.8 


6.7 


316 





139 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 









UNS 






Spec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Welded Pipe - Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 



A 358 


316L 


1 & 3 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




316L 


2 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




316L 


1 & 3 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




316L 


2 


S31603 


l6Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


A 358 


316N 


1 & 3 


S31651 


16Cr-12Nt-2Mo-N 




316N 


2 


S31651 


l6Cr-12Ni-2Mo-N 




316N 


1 & 3 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo-N 




316N 


2 


S31651 


16Cr~12Ni-2Mo-N 


A 358 


321 


1 & 3 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 




321. 


2 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 




321 


1 & 3 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 




321 


2 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


A 358 


347 


i a 3 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 




347 


2 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 




347 


1 & 3 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 




347 


2 


S34700 


ISCr-lONi-Cb 


A 358 


348 


1 & 3 


S34800 


18Cr-~10Ni-Cb 




348 


2 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 




348 


1 S 3 


$34800 


!8Cr-10Ni-Cb 




348 


2 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


A 358 




1 & 3 


S31254 


20Cr-18Ni-6Mo 






2 


S31254 


20Cr-18Ni~6Mo 






1 & 3 


S31254 


20Cr-18Ni-6Mo 






2 


S31254 


20Cr-18Ni~6Mo 


A 409 


TP304 




S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304 




S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304 




$30400 


ISCr-SNi 




TP304 




S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304 




S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304 




S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


A 409 


TP304L 




S30403 


ISCr-SNi 




TP304L 




S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304L 




S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304L 




S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304L 




$30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




TP304L 




$30403 


18Cr-8Ni 


A 409 






$30815 
S30815 
S30815 
530815 
S30815 
S30815 


21Cr-llNi-N 
21Cr-llNi-N 
21Cr-llNi-N 
21Cr-llNi-N 
21Cr-llNi-N 
21Cr-llNi-N 



(1) 
(1) 

(D(9) 

(D(9) 

(D(10) 
(1)(10) 
(1)(9)(10) 
(D(9)(10) 

(1)(10)(11) 

(i)(io)(n) 

(1)(9)(10)(11) 
(1)(9)(10)(11) 

(1)(10)(11) 

(D(io)(ii) 

(1)(9)(10)(11) 

(i)(9)(ioXii) 
(i)(io)(ii) 

(1)(10)(11) 
(1)(9)(10)(11) 

(1)(9)(10)(11) 

(1) 
(1) 

(D(9) 
(1)(9) 

(D(10)(29) 

(1X10X30) 

(1X10X31) 

(1X9X10X29) 

(1X9X10X30) 

(1) (9) (10) (31) 

(D(29) 

(D(30) 

(D(31) 

(1)(9)(29) 

(D(9)(30) 

(1X9X31) 

(D(29) 
(D(30) 
(D(31) 
(1)(9)(29) 

(D(9)(30) 
(D(9)(31) 



70 
70 
70 
70 

80 
80 
80 
80 

75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 

94 
94 
94 
94 

75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 

70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 

87 
87 
87 
87 
87 
87 



25 


1.00 


25 


0.90 


25 


1.00 


25 


0.90 


35 


1.00 


35 


0.90 


35 


1.00 


35 


0.90 


30 


1.00 


30 


0.90 


30 


1.00 


30 


0.90 


30 


1.00 


30 


0.90 


30 


1.00 


30 


0.90 


30 


1.00 


30 


0.90 


30 


1.00 


30 


0.90 


44 


1.00 


44 


0.90 


44 


1.00 


44 


0.90 


30 


1.00 


30 


0.90 


30 


0.80 


30 


1.00 


30 


0.90 


30 


0.80 


25 


1.00 


25 


0.90 


25 


0.80 


25 


1.00 


25 


0.90 


25 


0.80 


45 


1.00 


45 


0.90 


45 


0.80 


45 


1.00 


45 


0.90 


45 


0.80 



140 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Afletal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 

































Welded Pipe - 


Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 




































Austenitic (Cont'd) 


16.7 


14.2 


12.7 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 
















316L 


A 358 


15.0 


12.8 


11.4 


10.5 


9.8 


9.4 


9.2 


9.0 


8.8 


8.6 


8.4 
















316L 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


15.7 


14.8 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


13.2 


12.9 


12.7 
















316L 




15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


14.2 


13.3 


12.6 


12.4 


12.1 


11.9 


11.6 


11.4 
















316L 




22.9 


20.7 


19.0 


17.6 


16.5 


15.6 


15.2 


14.9 


14.5 


14.2 


13.9 


13.7 


13.4 


13.2 


12.9 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


316N 


A 358 


20.6 


18.6 


17.1 


15.8 


14.8 


14.0 


13.7 


13.4 


13.1 


12.8 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.6 


ll.l 


8.8 


6.7 


316N 




22.9 


22.9 


22.0 


21.5 


21.2 


21.0 


20.5 


20.0 


19.6 


19.2 


18,8 


18.5 


18.1 


17.8 


15.8 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


316N 




20.6 


20.6 


19.8 


19.3 


19.1 


18.9 


18.5 


18.0 


17.7 


17.3 


16.9 


16.6 


16.3 


16.0 


14.2 


11. 1 


8.8 


6.7 


316N 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


143 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12,6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


321 


A 358 


18.0 


16.2 


14.9 


13.8 


12.9 


12.2 


11.9 


11.7 


11.5 


11.3 


11.2 


11.0 


10.9 


10.8 


8.6 


6.2 


4.5 


3.2 


321 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


321 




18.0 


18.0 


17.2 


16.8 


16.8 


16.5 


16.1 


15.8 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14.9 


14.7 


14.6 


8.6 


6.2 


4.5 


3.2 


321 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


347 


A 358 


18.0 


16.6 


15.4 


14.4 


13.5 


12.9 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12,2 


12.1 


12.1 


12.1 


12.1 


10.9 


8.2 


5.5 


4.0 


347 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


347 




18.0 


18.0 


16.9 


16.0 


15.4 


15,2 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.0 


14.9 


14.4 


10.9 


8.2 


5.5 


4.0 


347 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


348 


A 358 


18.0 


16.6 


15.4 


14.4 


13.5 


12.9 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.2 


12.1 


12.1 


12.1 


12.1 


10.9 


8.2 


5.5 


4.0 


348 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16,8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


348 




18.0 


18.0 


16.9 


16.0 


15.4 


15.2 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.1 


15.0 


14.9 


14.4 


10.9 


8.2 


5.5 


4.0 


348 




26.9 


23.9 


21.4 


19.8 


18.6 


17.9 


17.6 


17.4 


17.3 






















A 358 


24.2 


21.5 


19.3 


17.8 


16.8 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 
























26.9 


26.9 


25.5 


24.3 


23.5 


23.0 


22.8 


22.7 


22,6 
























24.2 


24.2 


23.0 


21.9 


21.1 


20.7 


20.5 


20.4 


20.4 
























20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304 


A 409 


18.0 


15.0 


13.5 


12.4 


11.6 


11.1 


10.8 


10.6 


10.3 


10.1 


9.9 


9.7 


9.5 


9.3 


9.1 


8.8 


7.0 


5.5 


TP304 




16.0 


13.3 


12.0 


11.0 


10.4 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


9.0 


8.8 


8.6 


8.5 


8.3 


8.1 


7.8 


6.2 


4.9 


TP304 




20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


TP304 




18.0 


18.0 


17.0 


16.5 


15.7 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


13.9 


13.7 


13.4 


13.1 


12.8 


12.6 


11.2 


8.8 


7.0 


5.5 


TP304 




16.0 


16.0 


15.1 


14.6 


14.0 


13.3 


13.0 


12.7 


12.4 


12.1 


11.9 


11.7 


11.4 


11.2 


9.9 


7.8 


6.2 


4.9 


TP304 




16.7 


14.3 


12.8 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9,7 


















TP304L 


A 409 


15.0 


12.8 


11.5 


10.5 


9.8 


9.3 


9.1 


9.0 


8.8 


8,7 


















TP304L 




13.3 


11.4 


10.2 


9.4 


8.7 


8.3 


8.1 


8.0 


7.9 


7.7 


















TP304L 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


15.8 


14.7 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.0 


















TP304L 




15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


14.2 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.7 


















TP304L 




13.3 


13.3 


13.3 


12.6 


11.8 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


















TP304L 




24.9 


24.7 


22.0 


19.9 


18.5 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


17.0 


16.8 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 




A 409 


22.4 


22.2 


19.8 


17.9 


16.7 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14,9 


14.8 


14.6 


13.4 


10.4 


8.1 


6.2 


4.7 






19.9 


19.8 


17.6 


15.9 


14.8 


14.2 


13.9 


13.8 


13.6 


13.4 


13.3 


13.1 


13.0 


11.9 


9.3 


7.2 


5.5 


4.2 






24.9 


24.7 


23.3 


22.4 


21.8 


21.4 


21.2 


21.0 


20.8 


20.6 


20.3 


20.0 


19.1 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 






22.4 


22.2 


21.0 


20.2 


19.6 


19.3 


19.1 


18.9 


18.7 


18.5 


18.3 


18.0 


17.2 


13.4 


10.4 


8.1 


6.2 


4.7 






19.9 


19.8 


18.6 


17.9 


17.4 


17,1 


17.0 


16.8 


16.6 


16.5 


16.2 


16.0 


15.3 


11.9 


9.3 


7.2 


5.5 


4.2 







141 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 









UNS 






Spec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Welded Pipe - Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 



A 409 


TP316 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni~2Mo 




TP316 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni~2Mo 




TP316 


S31600 


16Cr~12Ni~2Mo 




TP316 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




TP316 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




TP316 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


A 409 


TP316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




TP316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




TP316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




TP316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




TP316L 


$31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




TP316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


Ferritic/Austenitic 






A 928 


531803 1 


&3 531803 


22Cr-5.5Ni-3Mo-N 




S31803 2 


531803 


22Cr-5.5Ni-3Mo-N 


Plate, Sheet, and Strip 






Austenitic 






A 240 


304 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




304 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




304L 


$30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




304L 


S30403 


lSCr-SNi 




304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 




304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 


A 240 




S30815 


21Cr-llNi-N 






S30815 


21Cr~llNi-N 


A 240 


309H 


S30909 


23Cr-12Ni 




309H 


S30909 


23Cr-12Ni 




309S 


$30908 


23Cr~12Ni 




309S 


S30908 


23Cr-12Ni 


A 240 


310H 


S31009 


25Cr-20Ni 




310H 


S31009 


25Cr~20Ni 




310S 


S31008 


25Cr-20Ni 




310S 


S31008 


25Cr-20Ni 




310S 


531008 


25Cr-20Ni 




310S 


$31008 


25Cr-20Ni 


A 240 


316 


531600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




316 


S31600 


16Cr~12Ni-2Mo 




316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




316N 


$31651 


16Cr-12Ni~2Mo-N 




316N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni~2Mo-N 



(1)(10)(29) 

(1)(10)(30) 

(1)(10)(31) 

(1)(9)(10)(29) 

(1)(9)(10)(30) 

(1)(9)(10)(31) 

(1)(29) 

(1)00) 

(D(31) 

(1)(9)(29) 

(1)(9)(30) 

(D(9)(31) 



10H (1) (33)(34) 

10H (1)(33)(34) 



(10X11) 

(9) (10) (11) 
(1) 

(1)0) 

(D(io) 
(i)(9)(io) 

(i) 

(1X9) 

(9X11X27) 

(1D(27) 

(0(10) 

(0(9) (10) 

(9) 

(10)(11)(14) 
(9)(10)(11X14) 

(10) (11) (15) 
(9)(10)(10(15) 

(10) (11) 

(9) (10) (11) 

(0 

(0(9) 

(10) 

(9)(10) 



75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 

70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 



90 
90 



75 
75 
70 
70 
80 
80 

87 
87 

75 
75 

75 
75 

75 

75 
75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
70 
70 
80 
80 



30 


1.00 


30 


0.90 


30 


0.80 


30 


1.00 


30 


0.90 


30 


0.80 


25 


1.00 


25 


0.90 


25 


0.80 


25 


1.00 


25 


0.90 


25 


0.80 


65 


1.00 


65 


0.90 



30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


45 


1.00 


45 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 



142 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 

































Welded Pipe - 


Filler Metal Added (Cont'd) 




































Austenitic 


[Cont'd) 


20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


123 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


113 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316 


A 409 


18.0 


15.5 


14.0 


12.9 


12.0 


113 


11.1 


10.9 


10.7 


10.6 


10.5 


10.4 


103 


10.2 


10.1 


9.9 


8.8 


6.7 


TP316 




16.0 


13.8 


12.5 


11.4 


10.6 


10.1 


9.9 


9.7 


9.5 


9.4 


93 


9.2 


9.1 


9.1 


9.0 


8.8 


7.8 


5.9 


TP316 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


163 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


153 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


TP316 




18.0 


18.0 


18.0 


17.4 


16.2 


153 


15.0 


14.7 


14.5 


143 


14.1 


14.0 


13.9 


13.8 


13.6 


11.2 


8.8 


6.7 


TP316 




16.0 


16.0 


16.0 


15.4 


14.4 


13.6 


133 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.6 


12.5 


12.3 


12.2 


12.1 


9.9 


7.8 


5.9 


TP316 




16.7 


14.2 


12.7 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 
















TP316L 


A 409 


15.0 


12.8 


11.4 


10.5 


9.8 


9.4 


9.2 


9.0 


8.8 


8.6 


8.4 
















TP316L 




133 


11.4 


10.2 


9.3 


8.7 


83 


8.1 


8.0 


7.8 


7.7 


7.5 
















TP316L 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


15.7 


14.8 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


13.2 


12.9 


12.7 
















TP316L 




15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


14.2 


13.3 


12.6 


12.4 


12.1 


11.9 


11.6 


11.4 
















TP316L 




13.3 


13.3 


13.3 


12.6 


11.8 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


103 


10.1 
















TP316L 








































Ferritic/Austenitic 


25.7 


25.7 


24.8 


23.9 


233 


23.1 


























S31803 


A 928 


23.1 


23.1 


22.3 


21.5 


21.0 


20.8 


























S31803 






































Plate, Sheet, 


and Strip 






































Austenitic 


20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


123 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304 


A 240 


20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


143 


14.0 


12.4 


9,8 


7.7 


6.1 


304 




16.7 


14.3 


12.8 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.7 


















304L 




16.7 


16,7 


16.7 


15.8 


14.7 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


133 


13.0 


















304L 




22.9 


19.1 


16.7 


15.1 


14.0 


13.3 


13.0 


12.8 


12.5 


123 


12.1 


11.8 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304N 




22.9 


22.9 


21.7 


20.3 


18.9 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.6 


163 


16.0 


15.6 


15.2 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304N 




24.9 


24.7 


22.0 


19.9 


18.5 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


17.0 


16.8 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 




A 240 


24.9 


24.7 


23.3 


22.4 


21.8 


21.4 


21.2 


21.0 


20,8 


20.6 


203 


20.0 


19.1 


14.9 


11,6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 






20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.5 


18.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


13.8 


103 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


309H 


A 240 


20.0 


17.5 


16.1 


15.1 


14.4 


13.9 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


123 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


309H 




20.0 


17.5 


16.1 


15.1 


14.4 


13.9 


13.7 


13.5 


133 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


309S 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.5 


18.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.2 


15.9 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


309S 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


13.8 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


310H 


A 240 


20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


143 


13.7 


13.5 


133 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


123 


12.1 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


310H 




20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


143 


13.7 


13.5 


133 


13,1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


123 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


310S 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


193 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


15.9 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


310S 




20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


143 


13.7 


13.5 


133 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


310S 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


193 


18.5 


18.2 


17,9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


15.9 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


310S 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


123 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


113 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


316 


A 240 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


163 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


153 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


316 




16.7 


14.2 


12.7 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


9.0 


8.8 


8.6 


8,4 


8.3 


6.4 


316L 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


15.7 


14.8 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


13.2 


12.9 


12.7 


12.4 


12.1 


11.8 


10.8 


10.2 


8.8 


6.4 


316L 




22.9 


20.7 


19.0 


17.6 


16.5 


15.6 


15.2 


14.9 


14.5 


14.2 


13.9 


13.7 


13.4 


13.2 


12.9 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


316N 




22.9 


22.9 


22.0 


21.5 


21.2 


21.0 


20.5 


20.0 


19.6 


19.2 


18.8 


18.5 


18.1 


17.8 


15.8 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


316N 





143 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 

















Specified 


Specified 










UNS 








Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Spec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


p. 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Plate, Sheet, and Strip (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 



A 240 



A 240 



A 240 



317 

317 

317L 

317L 

321 

321 

347 
347 
348 
348 

XM-15 
XM-15 



Ferritic/Martensitic 



A 240 



A 240 



405 
410 
4105 
429 

430 

XM-27 
XM-33 



S31700 
S31700 
531703 
531703 
532100 
S32100 


18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 

18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 

18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 

18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 

18Cr-10Ni-Ti 

18O-10Ni-Ti 


8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 


534700 
534700 
S34800 
534800 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 
18Cr-10Ni-Cb 
18Cr-10Ni-Cb 
18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 
8 
8 
8 


S38100 
538100 
531254 
S31254 
532550 


18Cr-8Ni-2Si 

18Cr-8Ni-2Si 

20Cr-18Ni-6Mo 

20Cr-18Ni-6Mo 

25.5Cr-5.5Ni-3.5Mo-2Cu 


8 
8 
8 
8 

10H 


540500 
S41000 
S41008 
S42900 


12Cr-lAl 
13Cr 
13Cr 
15Cr 


7 
6 
7 
6 


S43000 
S44627 
S44626 


17Cr 

26Cr-lMo 

27Cr-lMo-Ti 


7 

101 
101 



(D(io) (ii) 

(1) (9) (10) (11) 
(1) 

(D(9) 
(10) (11) 

(9) (10) (11) 

(10) (11) 
(9) (10) (11) 

Ci)(io)(n) 

(1)(9)(10)(11) 

(1) 

(D(9) 
(0 

(0(9) 
(1)05) (36) 



(3) 
(1) 
(1) 
(0(3) 

(0(3) 
(0(3) 
(2) 



75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 

75 

75 
75 
94 
94 
110 



60 
65 
60 
65 

65 
65 
68 



30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


44 


1.00 


44 


1.00 


80 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


40 


1.00 


45 


1.00 



Ferritic/Austenitic 
A 240 S31803 



531803 22Cr-5.5Ni-3Mo-N 



10H 



(0(33)04) 



90 



65 



1.00 



Forgings 
Austenitic 



A 182 



A 182 



A 182 



A 182 



F44 
F44 

F304 
F304 
F304 
F304 

F304H 
F304H 
F304H 
F304H 

F304L 
F304L 
F304N 
F304N 



S31254 


20Cr-18Ni-6Mo 


S31254 


20Cr-18Ni-6Mo 


530400 


18Cr-8Ni 


530400 


18Cr-8Ni 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


S30400 


ISCr-SNi 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 


S30409 


ISCr-SNi 


S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 


S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 



(0 

(0(9) 

(10)(12) 

(9) (10) (12) 

(10) 

(9)(10) 

(12) 
(9) (12) 

(9) 

(0 

(0(9) 
(10) 
(9X10) 



94 
94 

70 
70 
75 

75 

70 
70 
75 
75 

65 
65 
80 
80 



44 


1.00 


44 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 



144 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 



































Plate, 


Sheet 


, and Strip 


(Cont'd) 




































Austenitic (Cont'd) 


20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


317 


A 240 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


317 




20.0 


17.0 


15.2 


14.0 


13.1 


12.5 


12.2 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.3 
















317L 




20.0 


20.0 


19.6 


18.9 


17.7 


16.9 


16.5 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 
















317L 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


321 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


321 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12 J 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


347 


A 240 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


347 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


348 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16,8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


348 




20,0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 










XM-15 


A 240 


20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15,2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 










XM-15 




26.9 


23.9 


21.4 


19.8 


18.6 


17.9 


17.6 


17.4 


17.3 
























26.9 


26.9 


25.5 


24.3 


23.5 


23.0 


22.8 


22.7 


22.6 
























31.4 


31.3 


29.5 


28.6 


28.2 


































































Ferritic/Martensitic 


16.7 


15.3 


14.8 


14.5 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.5 






















405 


A 240 


18.6 


18.4 


17.8 


17.4 


17.2 


16.8 


16.6 


16.2 


15.7 


15.1 


14.4 


12.3 


8.8 


6.4 


4.4 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


410 




17.1 


17.1 


16.8 


16.5 


16.3 


15.9 


15.6 


15.2 


14.7 


14.1 


13.4 


123 


8.8 


6.4 


4.4 


2.9 


1.8 


1.0 


410S 




18,6 


18.4 


17.8 


17.4 


17.2 


16.8 


16.6 


16.2 


15.7 


15.1 


14.4 


12.0 


9.2 


6.5 


43 


3.2 


2.4 


1.8 


429 




18.6 


18.4 


17.8 


17.4 


17.2 


16.8 


16.6 


16.2 


15.7 


15.1 


14.4 


12.0 


9.2 


63 


43 


3.2 


2.4 


1.8 


430 


A 240 


18.6 


18.6 


18.3 


18.1 


18.1 


18.1 


18.1 
























XM-27 




19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.0 


18,8 


18.4 


18.1 
























XM-33 





25.7 25.7 24.8 23.9 23.3 23.1 



Ferritic/Austenitic 

S31803 A 240 



26.9 
26.9 



23.9 
26.9 



21.4 
25.5 



19.8 
24.3 



18.6 
23.5 



17.9 
23.0 



17.6 
22.8 



17.4 
22.7 



17.3 
22.6 



F44 
F44 



Forgings 
Austenitic 

A 182 



20.0 16.7 15.0 

20.0 20.0 18.9 

20.0 16.7 15.0 

20.0 20.0 18.9 



13.8 
18.3 
13.8 
18.3 



12.9 
17.5 
12.9 
17.5 



12.3 
16,6 
12.3 
16.6 



12.0 
16.2 
12.0 
16.2 



11.7 
15.8 
11.7 
15.8 



11.5 
15.5 

11.5 
15.5 



11.2 
15.2 
11.2 

15.2 



11.0 
14.9 
11.0 
14.9 



10.8 
14.6 
10.8 
14.6 



10.6 
14.3 
10.6 
14.3 



10.4 10.1 

14.0 12.4 

10.4 10.1 

14.0 12.4 



7.7 
7.7 
7.7 
7.7 



6.1 F304 

6.1 F304 

6.1 F304 

6.1 F304 



A 182 



20.0 16.7 15.0 

20.0 18.9 17.7 

20.0 16.7 15.0 

20.0 20.0 18.9 



13.8 
17.1 
13.8 
18.3 



12.9 
16.9 
12.9 
17.5 



12.3 
16.6 
12.3 
16.6 



12.0 
16.2 
12.0 
16.2 



11.7 
15.8 
11.7 
15.8 



11.5 
15.5 
11.5 
15.5 



11.2 
15.2 
11.2 

15.2 



11.0 
14.9 
11.0 
14.9 



10.8 
14.6 
10.8 
14.6 



10.6 
14.3 
10.6 
14.3 



10.4 10,1 

14.0 12.4 

10.4 10.1 

14.0 12.4 



7.7 
7.7 
7.7 
7.7 



6.1 F304H 

6.1 F304H 

6.1 F304H 

6.1 F304H 



A 182 



16.7 14.3 12.8 

16.7 16.7 16.2 

22.9 19.1 16.7 

22.9 22.9 21.7 



11.7 
15.6 
15.1 
20.3 



10.9 
14.7 
14.0 
18.9 



10.4 
14.0 
13.3 
17.9 



10.2 
13.7 
13.0 
17.5 



10.0 
13.5 
12.8 
17.2 



9.8 
13.3 
12.5 
16.9 



9.7 
13.0 
12.3 
16.6 



12.1 
16.3 



11.8 
16.0 



11.6 
15.6 



11.3 
15.2 



11.0 
12.4 



7.7 
7.7 



. . . F304L 

. . . F304L 

6.1 F304N 

6.1 F304N 



A 182 



145 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 

















Specified 


Specified 










UNS 








Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No, 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Forgings (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 

A 182 



A 182 



A 182 



A 182 



A 182 



A 182 



A 182 



A 182 



A 182 



A 182 



F310 
F310 
F310 
F310 

F316 
F316 

F316 
F316 

F316H 

F316H 
F316H 
F316H 

F316L 
F316L 
F316N 
F316N 

F321 
F321 
F321 
F321 

F321H 
F321H 
F321H 
F321H 

F347 
F347 
F347 
F347 

F347H 
F347H 
F347H 
F347H 

F348 
F348 
F348 
F348 



S30815 


21Cr-llNi- 


-N 


S30815 


21Cr-llNi- 


-N 


S31000 


25Cr-20Ni 




S31000 


25Cr-20Ni 




S31000 


25Cr-20Ni 




S31000 


25Cr-20Ni 




S31600 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31600 


16Cr~12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2Mo 


$31651 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2MO-N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni- 


-2IVSO-N 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni 


~Ti 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S321O0 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni 


-T! 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34709 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34709 


ISCr-lONi 


-Cb 


S34709 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34709 


ISCr-lONi 


-Cb 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


534800 


ISCr-lONi 


-Cb 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 



(1) 

(1)(9) 

(D(10)(14) 
(1)(9)(10)(14) 
(1)(10)(15) 
(1)(9)(10)(15) 

(10) (12) 
(9)(10)(12) 
(10) 
(9X10) 

(12) 
(9X12) 

(9) 

(1X37) 
(1X9X37) 
(10) 
(9X10) 

(12) 
(9) (12) 
(10) 
(9X10) 

(12) 
(9X12) 

(9) 

(12) 
(9)(12) 
(10) 
(9X10) 

(12) 
(9) (12) 

(9) 

(12) 
(9X12) 
(10) 
(9X10) 



87 
87 

75 
75 
75 
75 

70 
70 
75 

75 

70 

70 

75 
75 

70 
70 
80 
80 

70 
70 
75 
75 

70 
70 
75 
75 

70 
70 
75 
75 

70 
70 
75 
75 

70 

70 

75 
75 



45 


1.00 


45 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 



146 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 







































Forgings (Cont'd) 




































Austemtic (Cont'd) 


24.9 


24.7 


22.0 


19.9 


18.5 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


17.0 


16.8 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 




A 182 


24.9 


24.7 


23.3 


22.4 


21.8 


21.4 


21.2 


21.0 


20.8 


20.6 


20.3 


20.0 


19.1 


14,9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 






20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


F310 


A 182 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


15.9 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


F310 




20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


F310 




20,0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17,4 


17.2 


16.9 


15.9 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


F310 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


F316 


A 182 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


19.2 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


F316 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7 A 


F316 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12 A 


9.8 


7 A 


F316 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7 A 


F316H 


A 182 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


19.2 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7 A 


F316H 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7A 


F316H 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7 A 


F316H 




16.7 


14.1 


12.7 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


8.9 


8.8 


8.0 


7.9 


6.5 


6.4 


F316L 


A 182 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


15.6 


14.8 


14.0 


13.8 


13,5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.4 


12.0 


11.9 


10.8 


10.2 


8.8 


6.4 


F316L 




22.9 


20.7 


19.0 


17.6 


16.5 


15.6 


15.2 


14.9 


14.5 


14.2 


13.9 


13.7 


13.4 


13.2 


12.9 


123 


9.8 


7.4 


F316N 




22.9 


22.9 


22.0 


21.5 


21.2 


21.0 


20.5 


20.0 


19,6 


19.2 


18.8 


18.5 


18.1 


17.8 


15.8 


123 


9.8 


7.4 


F316N 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


F321 


A 182 


20.0 


19.0 


17.8 


17.5 


17.5 


17,5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


F321 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


F321 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


F321 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


11.9 


9.1 


6.9 


5 A 


F321H 


A 182 


20.0 


19.0 


17.8 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


123 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


F321H 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


11.9 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


F321H 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


123 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


F321H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


F347 


A 182 


20.0 


19.1 


17.6 


16.6 


16.0 


15.8 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


15.3 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


F347 




20.0 


18.4 


17,1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


F347 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


F347 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


F347H 


A 182 


20.0 


19.1 


17.6 


16.6 


16.0 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 


F347H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


F347H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 


F347H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


F348 


A 182 


20.0 


19.1 


17.6 


16.6 


16.0 


15.8 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


15.3 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


F348 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


F348 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


F348 





147 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 

















Specified 


Specified 










UNS 








Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Spec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Forgings (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 

A 182 F348H 
F348H 
F348H 
F348H 

Ferritic/Martensitic 

A 182 FXM-27Cb 

A 336 FXM-27Cb 

Ferritic/Austenitic 

A 182 F51 

Fittings (Seamless and Welded) 
Austenitic 



S34809 


18Cr-10Ni- 


-Cb 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni- 


-Cb 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni- 


-Cb 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S44627 


27Cr-lMo 




S44627 


27Cr-lMo 





S31803 22Cr-5.5Ni-3Mo-N 



(12) 
(9) (12) 

(9) 



101 (2) 

101 (2) 

10H (1)(33)(34) 



A 403 


WP304 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




WP304 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




WP304H 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 




WP304H 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 


A 403 


WP304L 


S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




WP304L 


S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 




WP304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 




WP304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 


A 403 


WP309 


S3O900 


23Cr-12Ni 




WP309 


S30900 


23Cr-12Ni 




WP310 


S31000 


23Cr-20Ni 




WP310 


S31000 


23Cr-20Ni 




WP310 


S31000 


23Cr~20Ni 




WP310 


S31000 


23Cr-20Ni 


A 403 


WP316 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




WP316 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




WP316H 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 




WP316H 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


A 403 


WP316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2IVlo 




WP316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2fVio 




WP316N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni-2MG-N 




WP316N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo-N 


A 403 


WP317 


S31700 


18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 




WP317 


S31700 


18Cr-13Ni-3Mo 




WP321 


S32100 


ISCr-lONi-Ti 




WP321 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 




WP321H 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 




WP321H 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni~Ti 



70 


30 


1.00 


70 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


60 


35 


1.00 


60 


35 


1.00 



90 



(1)(4)(7)(10)(11) 


75 


(D(4)(7)(9)(10)(ll) 


75 


(1)(4)(7)(11) 


75 


(1)(4)(7)(9)(11) 


75 


(1)(7)(11) 


70 


(D(7)(9)(ll) 


70 


(D(4)(7)(10) 


80 


(1)(4)(7)(9)(10) 


80 


(1) (7) (10) (11) 


75 


(1)(7)(9)(10)(11) 


75 


(1)(7)(10)(11)(14) 


75 


(1)(7)(9)(10)(11)(14) 


75 


(1)(7)(10)(11)(15) 


75 


(1)(7)(9)(10)(11)(15) 


75 


(4)(7)(10)(11) 


75 


(4)(7)(9)(10)(11) 


75 


(4) (7) (11) 


75 


(4) (7) (9) (11) 


75 


(1)(7)(U) 


70 


(1)(7)(9)(11) 


70 


(D(7)(10) 


80 


(1)(7)(9)(10) 


80 


(1)(7)(10)(11) 


75 


(D(7)(9)(10)(ll) 


75 


(4) (7) (10) (11) 


75 


(4) (7) (9) (10) (11) 


75 


(4) (7) (11) 


75 


(4) (7) (9) (11) 


75 



65 



1.00 



30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1,00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 



148 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec, 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 

Forgings (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 



20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 F348H A 182 


20.0 


19.1 


17.6 


16.6 


16.0 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 F348H 


20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 F348H 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 F348H 

Ferritk/Martensitic 


17.1 


17.1 


16.6 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 


16.1 






















. . . FXM-27CD A 182 



17.1 17.1 16.6 16.1 16.1 16.1 16.1 FXM-27C6 A 336 



25.7 


25.7 


24.8 


23.9 


23.3 


23.1 
























i 


: erritic/Aus1 
F51 


:enitic 

A 182 


































Fittin 


igs (Seamless and Welded) 






































Austenitic 


20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6 A 


WP304 


A 403 


20,0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14,3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


WP304 




20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6 A 


WP304H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14,0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6 A 


WP304H 




16.7 


14.3 


12.8 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.7 


















WP304L 


A 403 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


15.8 


14.7 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.0 


















WP304L 




22.9 


19.1 


16.7 


15.1 


14.0 


13.3 


13.0 


12.8 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


11.8 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


9.8 


7.7 


6 A 


WP304N 




22.9 


22.9 


21.7 


20.3 


18.9 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.6 


16.3 


16.0 


15.6 


15.2 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


WP304N 




20.0 


17.5 


16.1 


15.1 


14.4 


13.9 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


9.9 


7 A 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


WP309 


A 403 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.5 


18.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.2 


15.9 


9,9 


7 A 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


WP309 




20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


9.9 


7 A 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


WP310 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


15.9 


9.9 


7.1 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


WP310 




20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


9.9 


7 A 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


WP310 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


15.9 


93 


7 A 


5.0 


3.6 


2.5 


WP310 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


WP316 


A 403 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


WP316 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


WP316H 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


WP316H 




16.7 


14.1 


12.7 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


8.9 


8.8 


8.0 


7.9 


6.5 


6.4 


WP316L 


A 403 


16.7 


16.7 


16.0 


15.6 


14.8 


14.0 


13.8 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.4 


12.0 


11.9 


10.8 


10.2 


8.8 


6.4 


WP316L 




22.9 


20.7 


19.0 


17.6 


16.5 


15.6 


15.2 


14.9 


14.5 


14.2 


13.9 


13.7 


13.4 


13.2 


12.9 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


WP316N 




22.9 


22.9 


22.0 


21.5 


21.2 


21.0 


20.5 


20.0 


19.6 


19.2 


18.8 


18.5 


18.1 


17.8 


15.8 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


WP316N 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11.9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


WP317 


A 403 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


WP317 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


WP321 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


WP321 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


11.9 


9 A 


6.9 


5.4 


WP321H 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


123 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


WP321H 





149 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 









UNS 






>pec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Fittings (Seamless and Welded) (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 



A 403 WP347 
WP347 
WP347H 
WP347H 

A 403 WP348 
WP348 
WP348H 
WP348H 

Ferritic/Austenitic 

A 815 S31803 

Castings 
Austenitic 



A 351 



A 351 



A 351 



CF3 

CF3 

CF3A 

CF3A 

CF3M 

CF3M 

CF8 

CF8 

CF8C 

CF8C 

CF8M 

CF8M 

CHS 

CH8 

CH20 

CH20 

CK20 

CK20 



S34700 
S34700 
S34709 
S34709 

S34800 
S34800 
S34809 
S34809 



18Cr-10Ni-Cb 
18Cr-10Ni™Cb 
18Cr-10Ni-Cb 
18Cr-10Ni-Cb 

18Cr-10Ni-Cb 
18Cr-10Ni-Cb 
18Cr-10Ni-Cb 
18Cr-10Ni-Cb 



S31803 22Cr~5.5Ni-3Mo-N 



(4)(7)(10)(11) 
(4)(7)(9)(10)(11) 
(4) (7) (11) 
(4) (7) (9) (11) 

(4) (7)(10) (11) 
(4)(7)(9)(10)(11) 
(4) (7) (11) 
(4) (7) (9) (11) 



10H (1)(33)(34) 



J92500 


18Cr-8Ni 




J92500 


18Cr-8Ni 




J92500 


18Cr-8Ni 




J92500 


18Cr-8Ni 




J92800 


18Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo 


J92800 


18Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo 


J92600 


18Cr-8Ni 




J92600 


18Cr-8Ni 




J92710 


18Q-10NI 


-Cb 


J92710 


18Cr-10Ni 


~Cb 


J92900 


16Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo 


J92900 


16Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo 


J93400 


25Cr-12Ni 




J93400 


25Cr-12Ni 




J93402 


25Cr-12Ni 




J93402 


25Cr-12Ni 




J94202 


25Cr-20Ni 




J94202 


25Cr-20Ni 





75 
75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 



90 



30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 



65 



1.00 



(1)(5)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(1)(5)(9)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(D(5)(26) 


77.5 


35 


0.80 


(1)(5)(9)(26) 


77.5 


35 


0.80 


(1)(5)(13)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(1) (5) (9) (13) (26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(5)(10)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(5)(9)(10)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(1)(5)(10)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(D(5)(9)(10)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(5)(13)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(5)(9)(13)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(1)(5)(10)(26) 


65 


28 


0.80 


(1)(5)(9)(10)(26) 


65 


28 


0.80 


(1)(5)(10)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(1)(5)(9)(10)(26) 


70 


30 


0.80 


(1)(5)(10)(26) 


65 


28 


0.80 


(1)(5)(9)(10)(26) 


65 


28 


0.80 



Ferritic/Martensitic 
A 217 CA15 

Bolts, Nuts, and Studs 
Austenitic 



A 193 



A 193 



B8C 
B8M 
B8T 



B8 



J91150 13Cr-V 2 Mo 



S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




S34700 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Cb 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni 


-2Mo 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni 


-Ti 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 




S30400 


18Cr-8Nt 





(D(3) (5) 



90 



65 



(10) (11) (16) 


75 


30 


(10)(11)(16) 


75 


30 


(10)(11)(16) 


75 


30 


(10X11X16) 


75 


30 


(16)(18)(20) 


125 


100 


(16)(18)(21) 


115 


80 


(16)(18)(22) 


105 


65 


(16)(18)(23) 


100 


50 



0.80 



150 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 



Fittings (Seamless and Welded) (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 



20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12A 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


WP347 


A 403 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12A 


9.1 


6 A 


4.4 


WP347 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


WP347H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 


WP347H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


WP348 


A 403 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


WP348 




20,0 


18.4 


17,1 


16,0 


15,0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


WP348H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16,6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.1 


10.5 


7.9 


WP348H 








































"erritic/Austenitic 


25.7 


25.7 


24.8 


23.9 


23.3 


23.1 


























S31803 


A 815 
Castings 






































Austenitic 


16.0 


133 


12.0 


11.0 


10.4 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


9.0 


















CF3 


A 351 


16.0 


15.2 


14.1 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.0 


12.7 


12.4 


12.1 


















CF3 




17.7 


15.6 


14.0 


12.9 


12.1 


11.5 


11.2 


10.9 






















CF3A 




17.7 


16.8 


15.6 


15.1 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


14.8 






















CF3A 




16.0 


13.8 


12.4 


11.4 


10.6 


10.1 


9.8 


9.7 


9.5 


9.4 


9.3 
















CF3M 




16.0 


16.0 


15.5 


15.4 


14.3 


13.6 


13.3 


13.0 


12.8 


12.7 


12.5 
















CF3M 




16.0 


13.3 


12.0 


11.0 


10.4 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


9.0 


8.8 


8.6 


8.5 


8.3 


7.6 


6.0 


4.8 


3.8 


CF8 


A 351 


16.0 


15.2 


14.1 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.0 


12.7 


12.4 


12.1 


11.9 


11.7 


11.4 


9.8 


7.6 


6.0 


4.8 


3.8 


CF8 




16.0 


13.3 


12.0 


11.0 


10.4 


9.8 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


9.0 


8.8 


8.6 


8.5 


8.3 


8.1 


7.3 


4.9 


3.6 


CF8C 




16.0 


15.2 


14.1 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.0 


12.7 


12.4 


12.1 


11.9 


11.7 


11.4 


11.2 


9.7 


7.3 


4.9 


3.6 


CF8C 




16.0 


13.8 


12.4 


11.4 


10.6 


10.1 


9.8 


9.7 


9.5 


9.4 


9.3 


9.2 


9.1 


9.1 


9.0 


7.1 


5.5 


4.3 


CF8M 




16.0 


16.0 


15.5 


15.4 


14.3 


13.6 


13.3 


13.0 


12.8 


12.7 


12.5 


12.4 


12.3 


11.9 


9.2 


7.1 


5.5 


4.3 


CF8M 




14.9 


12.2 


11.3 


10.8 


10.5 


10.1 


9.9 


9.7 


9.4 


9.1 


8.8 


8.5 


8.2 


7.9 


6.8 


5.2 


4.0 


3.0 


CHS 


A 351 


14.9 


13.6 


12.7 


12.3 


12.3 


12.3 


12.3 


12.2 


12.0 


11.8 


11.5 


11.1 


10.6 


8.9 


6.8 


5.2 


4.0 


3.0 


CH8 




16.0 


13.1 


12.1 


11.6 


11.2 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


9.5 


9.1 


8.8 


8.5 


6.8 


5.2 


4.0 


3.0 


CH20 




16.0 


14,6 


13.6 


13.3 


13.2 


13.2 


13.2 


13.1 


13.0 


12.7 


12.4 


11.9 


11.4 


8.9 


6.8 


5.2 


4.0 


3.0 


CH20 




14.9 


12.2 


11.3 


10.8 


10.5 


10.1 


9.9 


9.7 


9.4 


9.1 


8.8 


8.5 


8.2 


7.9 


7.6 


6.8 


5.8 


4.8 


CK20 




14.9 


13.6 


12.7 


12.3 


12.3 


12.3 


12.3 


12.2 


12.0 


11.8 


11.5 


11.1 


10.6 


9.0 


7.8 


6.8 


5.8 


4.8 


CK20 






































Ferritic/Martensitic 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.6 


20.1 


12.0 


7.4 


4.7 


3.0 


1.9 


1.2 


0.8 


CA15 


A 217 




































Bolts, Nuts, and Studs 






































Austenitic 


18.8 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.1 


12.0 


11.8 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6 A 


B8 


A 193 


18.8 


17.9 


16.4 


15.5 


15.0 


14.3 


14.1 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


12.1 


9.1 


6.1 


4.4 


B8C 




18.8 


17.7 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11,9 


11.7 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.0 


9.8 


7.4 


B8M 




18.8 


17.8 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.3 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


B8T 




25.0 




































B8 


A 193 


20.0 




































B8 




18.8 




































B8 




18.8 




































B8 





151 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 








UNS 






Minimum 


Minimum E 


Spec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal P- 


Tensile, 


Yield, or 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition No. Notes 


ksi 


ksi F 


Bolts, Nuts, and Studs (Cont'd) 












Austenitic (Cont'd) 














A 193 


B8C 


2 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


(16) (18) (20) 


125 


100 




B8C 


2 


S34700 


18Cr-~10Ni~~Cb 


(16)(18)(21) 


115 


80 




B8C 


2 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


(16)(18)(22) 


105 


65 




B8C 


2 


S34700 


18Cr~10Ni-Cb 


(16)(18)(23) 


100 


50 


A 193 


B8M 


2 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni~2Mo 


(16)(18)(20) 


110 


80 




B8M 


2 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


(16)(18)(21) 


100 


80 




B8M 


2 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


(16)(18)(22) 


95 


75 




B8M 


2 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


(16)(18)(23) 


90 


65 


A 193 


B8T 


2 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


(16)(18)(20) 


125 


100 




B8T 


2 


$32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


(16)(18)(21) 


115 


80 




B8T 


2 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


(16) (18) (2 2) 


105 


65 




B8T 


2 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


(16) (18) (2 3) 


100 


50 


A 194 


8 




S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


(17) 








8C 




S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


(17) 






A 194 


8M 




S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-Mo 


(17) 








8T 




S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


(17) 








8F 






18Cr-8Ni-Fm 


(17) 






A 320 


B8 


1 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


(16) (18) 


75 


30 




B8 


1 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


(16)(28) 


75 


30 




B8 


2 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


(16)(18)(23) 


100 


50 




B8 


2 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


(16)(18)(22) 


105 


65 




B8 


2 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


(16)(18)(21) 


115 


80 




B8 


2 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


(16) (18) (20) 


125 


100 


A 320 


B8C 


1 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


(16) 


75 


30 




B8C 


1 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni~Cb 


(16)(28) 


75 


30 




B8C 


2 


S34700 


18Cr-10Nt-Cb 


(16)(18)(23) 


100 


50 




B8C 


2 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


(16)(18)(22) 


105 


65 




B8C 


2 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


(16)(18)(21) 


115 


80 




B8C 


2 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


(16) (18) (20) 


125 


100 


A 320 


B8M 


1 


531600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


(16) 


75 


30 




B8M 


1 


S3160O 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


(16)(28) 


75 


30 




B8M 


2 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


(16)(18)(23) 


90 


50 




B8M 


2 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


(16)(18)(22) 


95 


65 




B8M 


2 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


(16)(18)(21) 


100 


80 




B8M 


2 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ns-2Mo 


(16)(18)(20) 


110 


95 


A 320 


B8T 


1 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


(16) 


75 


30 




B8T 


1 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


(16)(28) 


75 


30 




B8T 


2 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


(16)(18)(23) 


100 


50 




B8T 


2 


S32100 


ISCr-lONi-Ti 


(16)(18)(22) 


105 


65 




B8T 


2 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


(16)(18)(21) 


115 


80 




B8T 


2 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


(16)(18)(20) 


125 


100 



152 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 



















Bolts, Nuts, and Studs (Cont'd) 


















Austenitic (Cont'd) 


25.0 ... 
















B8C 


A 193 


20.0 . . . 
















B8C 




18.8 ... 
















B8C 




18.8 ... 
















B8C 




22.0 22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


22.0 


B8M 


A 193 


20.0 20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 ... . 


BSM 




18.8 17.7 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


B8M 




18.8 17.7 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.5 


12.5 


12.5 


B8M 




25.0 ... 
















B8T 


A 193 


20.0 . . . 
















B8T 




18.8 ... 
















B8T 




18.8 ... 
















B8T 

8 

8C 

8M 

8T 

8F 


A 194 
A 194 


18.8 ... 
















B8 


A 320 


18.8 16.7 


15.0 


13.8 












B8 




18.8 ... 
















B8 




18.8 ... 
















B8 




20.0 . . . 
















B8 




25.0 ... 
















B8 




18.8 . . . 
















B8C 


A 320 


18.8 18.4 


17.1 


16.0 












B8C 




18.8 ... 
















B8C 




18.8 ... 
















. B8C 




20.0 . . . 
















B8C 




25.0 . . . 
















B8C 




18.8 . . . 
















B8M 


A 320 


18.8 17.7 


15.6 


14.3 












BSM 




18.8 ... 
















BSM 




18.8 ... 
















B8M 




20.0 . . . 
















B8M 




22.0 ... 
















BSM 




18.8 . . . 
















B8T 


A 320 


18.8 17.8 


16.5 


15.3 












B8T 




18.8 . . . 
















B8T 




18.8 ... 
















B8T 




20.0 . . . 
















... B8T 




25.0 ... 
















... B8T 





153 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



(07) 



Table A»3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 









UNS 






>pec. 


Type or 




Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 


No. 


Grade 


Class 


No. 


Composition 


No 



Notes 



Specified Specified 

Minimum Minimum £ 

Tensile, Yield, or 

ksi ksi F 



Bolts, Nuts, and Studs (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 



A 453 
A 479 



660 

309H 
309H 
310H 

310H 



A 564 630 



A & B 



H1100 



S66286 15Cr-25Ni-Mo-Ti-V-B 



S30909 
S30909 
S31009 
S31009 



23Cr-12Ni 
23Cr-12Ni 
25Cr-20Ni 
25Cr-20Ni 



S17400 17Cr-4Ni-3.5Cu-0.04P 



(16) 

(9) 

(9) 

(16X24) 



130 



140 



85 



75 


30 


75 


30 


75 


30 


75 


30 



115 



Ferritic/Martensitic 










A 193 


B6 (410) S41000 


13Cr 




(16) (19) 


A 194 


6 


S41000 


13Cr 




(17) 


Bar 












Austenitic 










A 479 


304 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 


(10) 




304 


S30400 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 


(9) (10) 




304H 


S30409 


18Cr~8Ni 


8 






304H 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 


(9) 


A 479 


304L 


S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 


(25) 




304L 


S30403 


18Cr-8Ni 


8 


(9) (2 5) 




304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 


8 


(10) 




304N 


S30451 


18Cr-8Ni-N 


8 


(9X10) 


A 479 




S30815 


21Cr-llNi-N 


8 


(1) 






S30815 


21Cr-llNi-N 


8 


(1X9) 


A 479 


310S 


S31008 


25Cr~-20Ni 


8 


(10) (11) (15) 




310S 


S31008 


25Cr-20Ni 


8 


(10)(11)(14) 




310S 


S31008 


25Cr-20Ni 


8 


(9) (10) (11) 


A 479 


316 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(10) 




316 


S31600 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(9X10) 




316H 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni~2Mo 


8 






316H 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(9)' 


A 479 


316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(U(25)(38) 




316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(1)(9)(2 5X38) 




316N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(10) 




316N 


S31651 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


8 


(9)(10) 


A 479 


321 


S32100 


lSCr-lONi-Ti 


8 


(10) 




321 


S32100 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


8 


(9)(10) 




321H 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


8 






321H 


S32109 


ISCr-lONi-Ti 


8 


(9) 






S32550 


25.5Cr-5.5Ni-3.5Mo~2Cu 


10H 


(1X35X36) 



110 



75 
75 
75 
75 

70 
70 
80 
80 

87 
87 

75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 

70 
70 
80 
80 

75 
75 

75 

75 

110 



85 



30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


45 


1.00 


45 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


30 


1.00 


80 


1.00 



154 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) (ofl 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 

Bolts, Nuts, and Studs (Cont'd) 
Austenitic (Cont'd) 

21.3 660 A 453 

A 479 



20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.4 


18.8 


18.5 


18.2 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


13.8 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


309H 


20.0 


17.5 


16.1 


15.1 


14.4 


13.9 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


309H 


20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


310H 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


13.8 


10.3 


7.6 


5.5 


4.0 


310H 


28.0 




































630 



A 564 
Ferritic/Martensitic 



21.3 


19.5 


18.9 


18.5 


18.3 


17.9 


17.6 


17.2 


16.7 


16.1 


15.3 


12.3 














B6 
6 


A 193 
A 194 

Bar 
Austenitic 


20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11,2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304 


A 479 


20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304 




20.0 


16.7 


15.0 


13.8 


12.9 


12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.4 


10.1 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.9 


18.3 


17.5 


16.6 


16.2 


15.8 


15.5 


15.2 


14.9 


14.6 


14.3 


14.0 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304H 




16.7 


14.3 


12.8 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9.7 


















304L 


A 479 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


15.8 


14.7 


14.0 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.0 


















304L 




22.9 


19.1 


16.7 


15.1 


14.0 


13.3 


13.0 


12.8 


12.5 


12.3 


12.1 


11.8 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304N 




22.9 


22.9 


21.7 


20,3 


18.9 


17,9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.6 


16.3 


16.0 


15.6 


15.2 


12.4 


9.8 


7.7 


6.1 


304N 




24.9 


24.7 


22.0 


19.9 


18.5 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


17.0 


16.8 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 




A 479 


24.9 


24.7 


23.3 


22.4 


21.8 


21.4 


21.2 


21.0 


20.8 


20.6 


20.3 


20.0 


19.1 


14.9 


11.6 


9.0 


6.9 


5.2 






20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.3 


9.9 










310$ 


A 479 


20.0 


17.6 


16.1 


15.1 


14.3 


13.7 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12,7 


12.5 


12.3 


9.9 










310S 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


19.3 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.2 


16.9 


15.9 


9.9 










310S 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11,9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


316 


A 479 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


316 




20.0 


17.3 


15.6 


14.3 


13.3 


12.6 


12.3 


12.1 


11,9 


11.8 


11.6 


11.5 


11.4 


11.3 


11.2 


11.1 


9.8 


7.4 


316H 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.3 


18.0 


17.0 


16.6 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.6 


15.4 


15.3 


15.1 


12.4 


9.8 


7.4 


316H 




16.7 


14.1 


12.7 


11.7 


10.9 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.8 


9,6 


9.4 


9.2 


8.9 


8.8 


8.0 


7.9 


6.5 


6.4 


316L 


A 479 


16.7 


16.7 


16.0 


15.6 


14.8 


14.0 


13.8 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.4 


12.0 


11.9 


10.8 


10.2 


8.8 


6.4 


316L 




22.9 


20.7 


19.0 


17.6 


16.5 


15.6 


15.2 


14.9 


14.5 


14.2 


13.9 


13.7 


13.4 


13.2 


12.9 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


316N 




22.9 


22.9 


22.0 


21.5 


21.2 


21.0 


20.5 


20.0 


19,6 


19.2 


18.8 


18.5 


18.1 


17.8 


15.8 


12.3 


9.8 


7.4 


316N 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


321 


A 479 


20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17. S 


17.2 


16,9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


14.9 


9.6 


6.9 


5.0 


3.6 


321 




20.0 


18.0 


16.5 


15.3 


14.3 


13.5 


13.2 


13.0 


12.7 


12.6 


12.4 


12.3 


12.1 


12.0 


11.9 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


321H 




20.0 


20.0 


19.1 


18.7 


18.7 


18.3 


17.9 


17.5 


17.2 


16.9 


16.7 


16.5 


16.4 


16.2 


12.3 


9.1 


6.9 


5.4 


321H 




31.4 


31.3 


29.5 


28.6 


28.2 

































155 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



(07) 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 







UNS 






Spec. 


Type or 


Alloy 


Nominal 


P- 


No. 


Grade Class No. 


Composition 


No. 


Bar (Cont'd) 








Austenitic (Cont'd) 








A 479 


347 


534700 


18Cr~10Ni-Cb 


8 




347 


S34700 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 




347H 


534709 


18Cr~10Ni~Cb 


8 




347H 


S34709 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


A 479 


348 


534800 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 




348 


S34800 


18Cr-10Ni~Cb 


8 




348H 


S34809 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 




348H 


534809 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


8 


Ferrittc/Martensitic 








A 479 


XM-27 


544627 


27Cr-lMo 


101 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



(10) 
(9) (10) 

(9) 

(10) 
(9)(10) 

(9) 



(2) 



75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 


75 


30 


1.00 



65 



40 



1.00 



Ferritic/Austenltic 
A 479 S31803 



531803 22Cr-5.5Ni-3M0-N 



10H (1)(33)(34) 



90 



65 



1.00 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The tabulated specifications are ANSI/ASTM or ASTM. For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related specifica- 
tions in Section !! of the ASME Code. 

(b) The stress values in this Table may be interpolated to determine values for intermediate temperatures. 

(c) The P-Numbers indicated in this Table are identical to those adopted by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Qualification of 
welding procedures, welders, and welding operators is required and shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec- 
tion IX, except as modified by para. 127.5. 

(d) Tensile strengths and allowable stresses shown in "ksi" are "thousands of pounds per square inch." 

(e) The materials listed in this Table shall not be used at design temperatures above those for which allowable stress values are given 
herein or in Table A-8. 

(f) The tabulated stress values are 5 x E (weld joint efficiency factor) or S x F (material quality factor), as applicable. Weld joint effi- 
ciency factors are shown in Table 102.4.3. 

(g) Pressure-temperature ratings of piping components, as published in standards referenced in this Code, may be used for components 
meeting the requirements of those standards. The allowable stress values given in this Table are for use in designing piping compo- 
nents which are not manufactured in accordance with referenced standards. 

(h) The tabulated stress values that are shown in italics are at temperatures in the range where creep and stress rupture strength govern 

the selection of stresses. 
NOTES: 

(1) THIS MATERIAL IS NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR USE ON BOILER EXTERNAL PIPING - SEE FIGS. 100.1.2(A) AND (B). 

(2) Use of this material at temperatures above 650°F is not approved because of the possibility of temper embrittlement. 

(3) This steel may be expected to develop embrittlement at room temperature after service at temperatures above 700°F. Consequently, 
its use at higher temperatures is not recommended unless due caution is observed. 

(4) For fittings made from A 182 forgings over 5 in. in thickness, the allowable stress values tabulated shall be reduced by the ratio of 
70 divided by 75. 

(5) The material quality factors and allowable stress values for these materials may be increased in accordance with para. 102.4.6. 

(6) Tensile strengths in parentheses are expected minimum values. 

(7) See MSS SP-43 for requirements for lightweight stainless steel fittings. MSS SP-43 Schedule 5S fittings shall not be used for design 
temperatures above 400°F. MSS SP-43 Schedule 10S fittings shall not be used for design temperatures above 750°F. 

(8) The material quality factor for centrifugally cast pipe (0.85) is based on all surfaces being machined after heat treatment. The surface 
finish, after machining, shall be 250 jxin. arithmetic average deviation or smoother. 



156 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) G>7) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 Type 

to or Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 Grade No. 









































Bar (Cont'd) 




































Austenitic (Cont'd) 


20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12 A 


9 A 


6 A 


4.4 


347 


A 479 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12.1 


9 A 


6 A 


4.4 


347 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


347H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14A 


10.5 


7.9 


347H 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


12 A 


9 A 


6.1 


4.4 


348 


A 479 


20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.2 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.0 


12 A 


9 A 


6.1 


4.4 


348 




20.0 


18.4 


17.1 


16.0 


15.0 


14.3 


14.0 


13.8 


13.7 


13.6 


13.5 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.4 


13.3 


10.5 


7.9 


348H 




20.0 


20.0 


18.8 


17.8 


17.1 


16.9 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


14A 


10.5 


7S 


348H 





Ferritic/Martensttic 

18.6 18.6 18.3 18.1 18.1 18.1 18.1 TPXM-27 A 479 

Ferritic/Austenstic 

25.7 25.7 24.8 23.9 23.3 23.1 S31803 A 479 

NOTES (Cont'd): 

(9) Due to relatively low yield strength of these materials, these higher allowable stress values were established at temperatures where 
the short time tensile properties govern to permit the use of these alloys where slightly greater deformation is acceptable. These 
stress values exceed 67% but do not exceed 90% of the yield strength at temperature. Use of these stress values may result in 
dimensional changes due to permanent strain. These values should not be used for the flanges of gasketed joints or other applica- 
tions where slight amounts of distortion can cause leakage or malfunction. 

(10) The allowable stress values tabulated for temperatures over 1,000°F apply only if the carbon content of the material is 0.04% or 
higher. 

(11) The allowable stress values tabulated for temperatures over 1,000°F apply only if the material is heat treated by heating to a mini- 
mum temperature of 1,900°F and quenching in water or rapidly cooling by other means. 

(12) These allowable stress values apply to forgings over 5 in. in thickness. 

(13) The allowable stress values tabulated for temperatures over 800°F apply only if the carbon content of the material is 0.04% or 
higher. 

(14) These allowable stress values shall be used only when the grain size of the material is ASTM No. 6 or coarser. 

(15) These allowable stress values shall be used when the grain size of the material is finer than ASTM No. 6 or when the grain size has 
not been determined. 

(16) These stress values are established from a consideration of strength only and will be satisfactory for average service. For bolted 
joints, where freedom from leakage over a long period of time without retightening is required, lower stress values may be necessary 
as determined from the relative flexibility of the flange and bolts and corresponding relaxation properties. 

(17) This is a product specification. Allowable stress values are not necessary. Limitations on metal temperature for materials covered by 
this specification for use under B31.1 are: 

Grade 6 and 8F -20°F to 800°F 

Grades 8, 8C, 8M, and 8T -20°F to 1,200°F 

(18) The hardness of this material, under the thread roots, shall not exceed Rockwell C35. The hardness shall be measured on a flat area, 
at least J / 8 in. across, prepared by removing thread. No more material than necessary shall be removed to prepare the flat area. Hard- 
ness measurements shall be made at the same frequency as tensile test. 

(19) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials 4 in. in diameter and smaller. 

(20) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials % in. in diameter and smaller. 

(21) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials larger than % in. but not larger than 1 in. in diameter. 

(22) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials larger than 1 in. but not larger than I 1 /, in. in diameter. 

(23) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials larger than 1% in. but not larger than lV 2 in. in diameter. 

(24) These allowable stress values apply to bolting materials 8 in. in diameter and smaller. 



157 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-3 Stainless Steels (Cont'd) 

NOTES (Cont'd): 

(25) Use of external pressure charts for material in the form of barstock is permitted for stiffening rings only. 

(26) At the ferrite levels tabulated below, these materials will have significant reductions in Charpy V-notch toughness values at room 
temperature and below following service exposure at the indicated temperatures. This reduction indicates the potential for brittle 
fracture with high rate loading in the presence of sharp notches or cracks. 

Ferrite Content Service Temperature 



5% and less 


l,100°Fand above 


10% 


900°F and above 


15% 


800°F and above 


20% 


700°F and above 


25%-30% 


600°F and above 


35%-40% 


500°F and above 



(27) The stress values at 1,050°F and above shall be used only when the grain size is ASTM No. 6 or coarser. 

(28) These allowable stress values apply to material that has been carbide solution treated. 

(29) These allowable stress values apply for single or double butt welded pipe with radiography per para. 136.4.5. 

(30) These allowable stress values apply for double butt welded pipe. 

(31) These allowable stress values apply for single butt welded pipe. 

(32) DELETED 

(33) The use of this material is limited to 600°F. This material may be expected to exhibit embrittlement at room temperature after 
service. 

(34) Any heat treatment applied to this material shall be performed at 1,870°F to 2,010°F, followed by a rapid cool. For A 182, A 240, 
and A 479 material, this is more restrictive than the material specification and shall be met. 

(35) Openings > 4 in. shall conform to para. 127.4.8, except that full-penetration welds shall be used and separate reinforcing pads shall 
not be used. 

(36) This steel may be expected to develop embrittlement after exposure to temperatures above 500°F for prolonged times. See ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II, Part D, Appendix A, A-340 and A-360. 

(37) These allowable stress values apply only to forgings 5 in. in thickness and under. 

(38) The stress values at temperatures above 1,000°F apply only if Supplementary Requirement 51 has been specified. 



158 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-4 begins on the next page. 



159 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



(07) 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys 





UNS 








Spec. 


Alloy 


Temper or 


Nominal 


P- 


No. 


No. 


Condition 


Composition 


No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 



B 161 


N02200 


Annealed 


Ni 








41 


(D(5) 


55 


15 


1.00 




N02200 


Annealed 


Ni 








41 


(1X6) 


55 


12 


1.00 




N02200 


Str. rel. 


Ni 








41 


(1) 


65 


40 


1.00 


B 161 


N02201 


Annealed 


Ni-Low C 








41 


(D(5) 


50 


12 


1,00 




N02201 


Annealed 


Ni-Low C 








41 


CD (6) 


50 


10 


1.00 




N02201 


Str. ret. 


Ni-Low C 








41 


CD 


60 


30 


1.00 


B 163 


N08800 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








45 


(D(7) 


75 


30 


1.00 




N08800 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








45 


(D(2)(7) 


75 


30 


1,00 




N08810 


Annealed 


NI-Cr-Fe 








45 


CD 


65 


25 


1.00 




N08810 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








45 


(1)(2) 


65 


25 


1.00 


B 165 


N04400 


Annealed 


Ni-Cu 








42 


(DC5) 


70 


28 


1.00 




N04400 


Annealed 


Ni-Cu 








42 


(D(6) 


70 


25 


1.00 




N04400 


Str. rel. 


Ni-Cu 








42 


CD (2) (3) 


85 


35 


1.00 


B 167 


N06600 


H.F./ann. 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








43 


(DCs) 


80 


30 


1,00 




N06600 


H.F./ann. 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








43 


(D(2)(5) 


75 


30 


1.00 




N06600 


H.F./ann. 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








43 


(1)(6) 


75 


25 


1.00 




N06600 


H.F./ann. 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








43 


(D(2)(6) 


80 


25 


1.00 


B 167 


N06600 


C.D./ann. 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








43 


(1)(5) 


80 


35 


1.00 




N06600 


C.D./ann. 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








43 


(D(2)(5) 


80 


35 


1.00 




N06600 


C.D./ann. 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








43 


(D(6) 


80 


30 


1.00 




N06600 


C.D./ann. 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








43 


(D(2)(6) 


80 


30 


1.00 


B 167 


N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni-22Cr-13Co- 


-9Mo 


43 


(W) 


95 


35 


1.00 




N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni-~22Cr-13Co- 


■9Mo 


43 


(D(2)(7) 


95 


35 


1.00 


B 407 


N08800 


C.D./ann, 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








45 


(7) 


75 


30 


1.00 




N08800 


C.D./ann. 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








45 


(2)(7) 


75 


30 


1.00 




N08810 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








45 


(7) 


65 


25 


1.00 




N08810 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 








45 


(2) (7) 


65 


25 


1.00 


B 423 


N08825 


C.W./ann. 


Ni-Fe-Cr- 


Mo- 


-Cu 




45 


(W) 


85 


35 


1.00 




N08825 


C.W./ann. 


Ni-Fe-Cr- 


■Mo- 


-Cu 




45 


(1)(2)(7) 


85 


35 


1.00 


B 444 


N06625 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Cr-Mo 


-Cb 






43 


(D(U)(18) 


100 


40 


1.00 




N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo 


-Cb 






43 


(D(2)(14) 


120 


60 


1.00 


B 622 


N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr 


-Low C 




44 


(1)(12) 


100 


45 


1.00 




N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr 


-Low C 




44 


(D(2)(12) 


100 


45 


1.00 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C— Ni- 


-Mo- 


-Cr 




43 


(«(12) 


100 


41 


1.00 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni- 


-Mo- 


-Cr 




43 


(D(2)(12) 


100 


41 


1.00 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni~Fe-Cr- 


-Co- 


Mo- 


-W 


45 


CD 


100 


45 


1.00 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr- 


-Co- 


Mo- 


-W 


45 


(DC2) 


100 


45 


1.00 


B 677 


N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr- 


-Mo- 


-Cu- 


-Low C 


45 


CD 


87 


43 


1.00 




N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr- 


-Mo- 


-Cu- 


-Low C 


45 


(1)(2) 


87 


43 


1.00 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr- 


-Mo- 


-Cu- 


-N-Low C 


45 


(1)(19)(20) 


94 


43 


1.00 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr- 


-Mo- 


-Cu- 


-N~Low C 


45 


(D(2)(19)(20) 


94 


43 


1.00 


B 690 


N08367 


Annealed 


Mi-Fe-Cr- 


-Mo 






45 


(0(8) 


104 


46 


1.00 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr- 


-Mo 






45 


(D(2)(8) 


104 


46 


1.00 



160 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys (07) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 UNS 

to Alloy Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 No. No. 





































Seamless Pipe and Tube 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


























N02200 


B 161 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


























N02200 




18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


18.3 


17.7 


























N02200 




8.0 


7.7 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


7.4 


7.4 


7.2 


5.8 


4.5 


3.7 


3.0 


2 A 


2.0 


1.5 


1.2 


N02201 


B 161 


6.7 


6.4 


6.3 


6.2 


6.2 


6.2 


6.2 


6.2 


6.1 


6.0 


5.8 


4.5 


3.7 


3.0 


2.4 


2.0 


1.5 


1.2 


N02201 




17.1 


17.1 


17.0 


17.0 


16.8 


16.3 


























N02201 




20.0 


18.5 


17.8 


17.2 


16.8 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14.9 


14.7 


14.5 


13.0 


9.8 


6.6 


N08800 


B 163 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


17.0 


13.0 


9.8 


6.6 


N08800 




16.7 


15.4 


14.4 


13.6 


12.9 


12,2 


11.9 


11.6 


11.4 


11.1 


10.9 


10.7 


10.5 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.3 


7.4 


N08810 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.1 


15.7 


15.3 


15.0 


14.7 


14.5 


14.2 


14.0 


13.8 


11.6 


9.3 


7.4 


N08810 




18.7 


16.4 


15.2 


14.7 


14.7 


14.7 


14.7 


14.6 


14.5 


14.3 


11.0 


8.0 














N04400 


B 165 


16.7 


14.6 


13.6 


13.2 


13.1 


13.1 


13.1 


13.0 


12.9 


12.7 


11.0 


8.0 














N04400 




24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 


24.3 




























N04400 




20.0 


19.1 


18.3 


17.5 


16.8 


16.2 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.2 


15.1 


14.9 


10.6 


7.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.2 


2.0 


N06600 


B 167 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


16.0 


10.6 


7.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.2 


2.0 


N06600 




16.7 


15.9 


15.2 


14.6 


14.0 


13.5 


13.3 


13.1 


12.9 


12.7 


12.5 


12.4 


10.6 


7.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.2 


2.0 


N06600 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.0 


10.6 


7.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.2 


2.0 


N06600 




22.9 


21.3 


20.8 


20.5 


20.2 


19.9 


19.8 


19.6 


19.4 


19.1 


18.7 


16.0 


10.6 


7.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.2 


2.0 


N06600 


B 167 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.4 


16.0 


10.6 


7.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.2 


2.0 


N06600 




20.0 


19.1 


18.3 


17.5 


16.8 


16.2 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.2 


15.1 


14.9 


10.6 


7.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.2 


2.0 


N06600 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20,0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


16.0 


10.6 


7.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.2 


2.0 


N06600 




23.3 


20.8 


19.2 


18.1 


17.2 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


16.0 


15.9 


15.8 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


15.4 


15.4 


15.3 


15.3 


N06617 


B 167 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


22.5 


22.1 


21.9 


21.7 


21.5 


21.3 


21.2 


21.0 


20.9 


20.9 


20.8 


20.7 


18.1 


N06617 




20.0 


18.5 


17.8 


17.2 


16.8 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14.9 


14.7 


14.5 


13.0 


9.8 


6.6 


N08800 


B 407 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19,9 


17.0 


13.0 


9.8 


6.6 


N08800 




16.7 


15.4 


14.4 


13.6 


12.9 


12.2 


11.9 


11.6 


11.4 


11.1 


10.9 


10.7 


10.5 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.3 


7.4 


N08810 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.5 


16.1 


15.7 


15.3 


15.0 


14,7 


14.5 


14.2 


14.0 


13.8 


11.6 


9.3 


7.4 


N08810 




23.3 


21.4 


20.3 


19.4 


18.5 


17.8 


17.5 


17.3 


17.2 


17.0 


















N08825 


B 423 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.0 


















N08825 




26.7 


24.9 


23.6 


22.6 


21.8 


21.1 


20.8 


20.6 


20.3 


20.1 


20.0 


19.8 


19.7 


19.5 


19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.3 


N06625 


B 444 


34.3 


34.3 


34.3 


33.6 


32.9 


32.4 


32.1 


31.8 


31.5 


31,2 


30.9 


30.6 


30.3 


29.9 


29.5 


29.0 


21.0 


13.2 


N06625 




28.6 


26.7 


24.6 


22.9 


21.5 


20.4 


20.0 


19.6 


19.3 


19.0 


















N06022 


B 622 


28.6 


28.6 


28.2 


27.2 


26.5 


26.0 


25.8 


25.6 


25.4 


25.3 


















N06022 




27.3 


24.9 


23.0 


21.3 


19.9 


18.8 


18.2 


17.8 


17.4 


17.1 


16.9 


16.7 


16.6 


16.5 










N10276 




27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


26.9 


25.2 


24.6 


24.0 


23.5 


23.1 


22.8 


22.6 


22.4 


22.3 










N10276 




28.6 


25.6 


23.1 


21.3 


20.1 


19.3 


18.9 


18.7 


18.4 


18.2 


18.0 


17.8 


17.6 


17.5 


17.3 


17.1 


16.9 


13.6 


R30556 




28.6 


28.6 


28.0 


27.1 


26.4 


26.0 


25.6 


25.2 


24.9 


24.6 


24.3 


24.1 


23.8 


23.6 


23.3 


21.2 


17.0 


13.6 


R30556 




24.9 


23.2 


21.3 


19.8 


18.3 


17.3 


17.0 


16.9 


16.9 


16.9 


















N08925 


B 677 


24.9 


24.9 


23.9 


23.0 


22.1 


21.4 


21.1 


20.8 


20.4 


20.1 


















N08925 




26.9 


24.1 


21.5 


19.7 


18.7 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.4 




















N08926 




26.9 


26.9 


26.2 


24.8 


23.7 


22.8 


22.4 


22.0 


21.6 




















N08926 




28.6 


26.2 


23.8 


21.9 


20.5 


19.4 


19.0 


18.6 


18.3 


18.0 


















N08367 


B 690 


28.6 


28.6 


27.0 


25.8 


25.0 


24.5 


24.3 


24.1 


24.0 


23.8 


















N08367 





161 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



(07) 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 






UNS 










Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 


Alloy 


Temper or 


Nominal 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


No. 


Condition 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 


Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 














B 729 


N08020 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


(1) 


80 


35 


1.00 




N08020 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


(D(2) 


80 


35 


1.00 


Welded Pipe and Tube 
















B 464 


N08020 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


CD 


80 


35 


0.85 




N08020 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


(0(2) 


80 


35 


0.85 


B 468 


N08020 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-~Cb 


45 


CD 


80 


35 


0.85 




N08020 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


(1)(2) 


80 


35 


0.85 


B 546 


N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni~22Cr-13Co-9MG 


43 


(0(7) 


95 


35 


0.85 




N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni-22Cr-13Co-9Mo 


43 


(1)(2)(7) 


95 


35 


0.85 


B 619 


N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 


44 


(D(12) 


100 


45 


0.85 




N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 


44 


(DC2X12) 


100 


45 


0.85 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 


43 


(D(12) 


100 


41 


0.85 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 


43 


(1)(2)(12) 


100 


41 


0.85 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-W 


45 


CD 


100 


45 


0.85 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-W 


45 


(1)(2) 


100 


45 


0.85 


B 626 


N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 


44 


(0(12) 


100 


45 


0.85 




N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 


44 


(1)(2)(12) 


100 


45 


0.85 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 


43 


(1)02) 


100 


41 


0.85 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 


43 


(1)(2)(12) 


100 


41 


0.85 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-W 


45 


(D 


100 


45 


0.85 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-W 


45 


(D(2) 


100 


45 


0.85 


B 673 


N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Low C 


45 


(i) 


87 


43 


0.85 




N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Low C 


45 


(D(2) 


87 


43 


0.85 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N-Low C 


45 


(1)(19)(20) 


94 


43 


0.85 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo~Cu-N-Low C 


45 


(1)(2)(19)(20) 


94 


43 


0.85 


B 674 


N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo~Cu-Low C 


45 


(D 


87 


43 


0.85 




N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Low C 


45 


(1)(2) 


87 


43 


0.85 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni~Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N~Low C 


45 


(1)(19)(20) 


94 


43 


0.85 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N-Low C 


45 


(1)(2)(19)(20) 


94 


43 


0.85 


B 675 


N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(D(8) 


104 


46 


0.85 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(D(2)(8) 


104 


46 


0.85 


B 676 


N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(D(8) 


104 


46 


0.85 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


CDC2)(8) 


104 


46 


0.85 


B 704 


N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 


43 


(0(u) 


120 


60 


0.85 


B 705 


N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 


43 


(O(U) 


120 


60 


0.85 


B 804 


N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(0(8) 


95 


45 


0.85 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(0(2)(8) 


95 


45 


0.85 



162 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of AS'ME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys (Cont'd) 



(07) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 UNS 

to Alloy Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 No. No. 



22.9 20.6 19.7 18.9 18.2 
22.9 22.9 22.6 22.2 22.1 



17.7 
22.1 



17.5 17.4 17.2 16.8 
22.0 21.9 21.8 21.8 



Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 

N08020 B 729 

N08020 



19.4 17.5 16.7 16.1 15.5 15.0 14.9 14.8 14.6 14.3 
19.4 19.4 19.2 18.8 18.8 18.8 18.7 18.6 18.5 18.5 



.4 17.5 16.7 


16.1 


15.5 


15.0 14.9 


14.8 14.6 14.3 


.4 19.4 19.2 


18.8 


18.8 


18.8 18.7 


18.6 18.5 18.5 



19.8 17.7 16.3 15.4 14.6 14.1 13.9 13.8 13.6 13.5 13 
19.8 19.8 19.8 19.8 19.8 19.1 18.8 18.6 18.4 18.3 18 



14 
19 
15, 
20 



24.3 


22.7 


20.9 


19.4 


18.3 


17.4 


17.0 


16.7 


16.4 


16.2 


24.3 


22.7 


20.9 


19.4 


18.3 


17.4 


17.0 


16.7 


16,4 


16.2 


23.2 


21.2 


19.6 


18.1 


16.9 


16,0 


15.5 


15.1 


14.8 


14.5 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


22.9 


21.4 


20.9 


20.4 


20.0 


19.6 


24.3 


21.8 


19.6 


18.1 


17.1 


16.4 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


24.3 


24.3 


23.8 


23.0 


22.5 


22.1 


21.7 


21.4 


21.1 


20.9 


24.3 


24.3 


23.9 


23.1 


22.6 


22.1 


21.9 


21.8 


21.6 


21.5 


24.3 


24.3 


23.9 


23.1 


22.6 


22.1 


21.9 


21.8 


21.6 


21.5 


23.2 


21.2 


19.6 


18.1 


16.9 


16.0 


15.5 


15.1 


14.8 


14.5 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


22.9 


21.4 


20.9 


20.4 


20.0 


19.6 


24.3 


21.8 


19.6 


18.1 


17.1 


16.4 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


24.3 


24.3 


23.8 


23.0 


22.5 


22.1 


21.7 


21.4 


21.1 


20.9 


21.1 


19.7 


18.1 


16.8 


15.6 


14.7 


14.4 


14.4 


14.4 


14.4 


21.1 


21.1 


20.4 


19.5 


18.8 


18.2 


17.9 


17.7 


17.4 


17.0 


22.9 


20.5 


18.3 


16.7 


15.9 


15.3 


15.0 


14.9 


14.8 




22.9 


22.9 


22.3 


21.1 


20.1 


19.4 


19.0 


18.7 


18.4 





14, 
19 

15, 



21.1 19.7 18.1 16.8 15.6 14.7 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.4 

21.1 21.1 20.4 19.5 18.8 18.2 17.9 17.7 17.4 17.0 

22.9 20.5 18.3 16.7 15.9 15.3 15.0 14.9 14.8 ... 

22.9 22.9 22.3 21.1 20.1 19.4 19.0 18.7 18.4 ... 

24.3 22.2 20.2 18.7 17.4 16.5 16.1 15.8 15.5 15.3 

24.3 24.3 23.0 22.0 21.3 20.8 20.7 20.5 20.4 20.2 

24.3 22.2 20.2 18.7 17.4 16.5 16.1 15.8 15.5 15.3 

24.3 24.3 23.0 22.0 21.3 20.8 20.7 20.5 20.4 20.2 

29.1 29.1 29.1 28.5 28.0 27.5 27.3 27.0 26.8 26.5 26 

29.1 29.1 29.1 28.5 28.0 27.5 27.3 27.0 26.8 26.5 26 

23.1 22.2 20.2 18.7 17.4 16.5 16.1 15.8 15.5 15.3 . 

23.1 23.1 21.8 20.9 20.2 19.8 19.6 19.5 19.4 19.2 . 



4 13 
1 18 



4 14 

4 19 

3 15 

7 20, 



4 14, 

4 19, 

3 15, 

7 20, 



3 26 
3 26 



3 13.3 
17.9 



13.2 
17.8 



2 14.1 14.0 

2 19.0 19.0 

2 15.0 14.8 

5 20.2 20.0 



13 
17 



2 14.1 14.0 

2 19.0 19.0 

2 15.0 14.8 14 

5 20.2 20.0 19 



25.7 25.4 25 
25.7 25.4 25 



14 

18, 



Welded Pipe and Tube 

N08020 B 464 
N08020 



N08020 B 468 
N08020 



13.0 13 
17.6 15 



14.4 11 
14.4 11 



14.4 11 
14.4 11 



17.9 11 
17.9 11 



N06617 B 546 

4 N06617 

. N06022 B 619 

. N06022 

. N10276 

. N10276 

6 R30556 

6 R30556 



. N06022 B 626 

. N06022 

. N10276 

, N10276 

6 R30556 

6 R30556 

N08925 B 673 
N08925 
N08926 
N08926 

N08925 B 674 
N08925 
N08926 
N08926 

N08367 B 675 
N08367 

N08367 B 676 
N08367 

2 N06625 B 704 

2 N06625 B 705 

. N0S367 B 804 
. N08367 



163 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



(07) 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys (Cont'd) 

















Specified 


Specified 






UNS 












Minimum 


Minimum 


f 


Spec. 


Alloy 


Temper or 


Nomina 




P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


No. 


Condition 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 


Plate, Sheet, and Strip 


















B 168 


N06600 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




43 


(1) 


80 


35 


1.00 




N06600 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




43 


(1X2) 


80 


35 


1.00 




N06600 


Hot rolled 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




43 


CD (4) 


85 


35 


1.00 




N06600 


Hot rolled 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




43 


CD (2) (4) 


85 


35 


1.00 


B 168 


N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni-22Cr-13Co- 


9Mo 


43 


CD (7) 


95 


35 


1.00 




N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni-22Cr-13Co- 


9Mo 


43 


(1)(2)(7) 


95 


35 


1.00 


B 409 


N08800 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




45 


W(7) 


75 


30 


1.00 




N08800 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




45 


(2)(4)(7) 


75 


30 


1.00 




N08810 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




45 


(4)(7) 


65 


25 


1.00 




N08810 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




45 


(2)(4)(7) 


65 


25 


1.00 


B 424 


N08825 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu 




45 


0X7) 


85 


35 


1.00 




N08825 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu 




45 


(D(2)(7) 


85 


35 


1.00 


B 435 


R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo- 


-W 


45 


(1) 


100 


45 


1.00 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo- 


-W 


45 


(1)(2) 


100 


45 


1.00 


B 443 


N06625 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 




43 


(1X14X18) 


100 


40 


1.00 




N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 




43 


(1X14) 


110 


55 


1.00 




N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 




43 


(1)(14)(15) 


120 


60 


1.00 


B 463 


N08020 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu- 


-Cb 


45 


(1) 


80 


35 


1.00 




N08020 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu- 


-Cb 


45 


(1X12) 


80 


35 


1.00 


B 575 


N06022 


SoL ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 




44 


UX12) 


100 


45 


1.00 




N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 




44 


(1)(2)(12) 


100 


45 


1.00 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 




43 


(1)(12) 


100 


41 


1.00 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 




43 


(1)(2)(12) 


100 


41 


1.00 


B 625 


N08925 


Annealed 


Ni~Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu- 


-Low C 


45 


(1) 


87 


43 


1.00 




N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu- 


-Low C 


45 


(D(2) 


87 


43 


1.00 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu- 


-N-Low C 


45 


(1X19X20) 


94 


43 


1.00 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu~ 


-N-Low C 


45 


(1)(2)(19)(20) 


94 


43 


1.00 


B 688 


N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 




45 


m7)(9) 


104 


46 


1.00 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 




45 


(D(2)(7)(9) 


104 


46 


1.00 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 




45 


(1)(7)(10) 


100 


45 


1.00 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 




45 


(1)(2)(7)(10) 


100 


45 


1.00 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 




45 


(1)(7)(11) 


95 


45 


1.00 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 




45 


(1)(2)(7)(U) 


95 


45 


1.00 


Bars, Rods, Shapes, and Forgings 
















B 166 


N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni-22Cr-13Co- 


-9Mo 


43 


(l){7) 


95 


35 


1.00 




N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni-22Cr-13Co- 


-9Mo 


43 


(1)(2)(7) 


95 


35 


1.00 


B 408 


N08800 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




45 


(7) 


75 


30 


1.00 




N08800 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




45 


(2)(7) 


75 


30 


1.00 




N08810 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




45 


(7) 


65 


25 


1.00 




N08810 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 




45 


(2)(7) 


65 


25 


1.00 


B 425 


N08825 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu 




45 


(D(7) 


85 


35 


1.00 




N08825 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu 




45 


(D(2)(7) 


85 


35 


1.00 



164 



Copyright © 2007 by the American. Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys (Cont'd) 



(07) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 UNS 

to Alloy Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 No. No. 



Plate, Sheet, and Strip 



22.9 


21.3 


20.8 


20.5 


20.2 


19.9 


19.8 


19.6 


19.4 


19.1 


18.7 


16.0 


10.6 


7.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.2 


2.0 


N06600 


B 168 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.4 


16.0 


10.6 


7.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.2 


2.0 


N06600 




23.3 


22.1 


21.5 


21.3 


21.3 


21.2 


21.1 


21.0 


20.8 


20.5 


20.1 


19.7 


19.3 


14.5 


103 


7.2 


5.8 


5.5 


N06600 




23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


14.5 


103 


7.2 


5.8 


5.5 


N06600 




23.3 


20.8 


19.2 


18.1 


17.2 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


16.0 


15.9 


15.8 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


15.4 


15.4 


15.3 


15.3 


N06617 


B 168 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


22.5 


22.1 


21.9 


21.7 


21.5 


21.3 


21.2 


21.0 


20.9 


20.9 


20.8 


20.7 


18.1 


N06617 




20.0 


18.5 


17.8 


17.2 


16.8 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14.9 


14.7 


14.5 


13.0 


9.8 


6.6 


N08800 


B 409 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20,0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


17.0 


13.0 


9.8 


6.6 


N08800 




16.7 


15.4 


14.4 


13.6 


12.9 


12.2 


11.9 


11.6 


11.4 


11.1 


10.9 


10.7 


10.5 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


93 


7.4 


N08810 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.5 


16.1 


15.7 


15.3 


15.0 


14.7 


14.5 


14.2 


14.0 


13.8 


11.6 


93 


7.4 


N08810 




23.3 


21.4 


20.3 


19.4 


18.5 


17.8 


17.5 


17.3 


17.2 


17.0 


















N08825 


B 424 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.0 


















N08825 




28.6 


25.6 


23.1 


21.3 


20.1 


19.3 


18.9 


18.7 


18.4 


18.2 


18.0 


17.8 


17.6 


17.5 


17.3 


17.1 


16.9 


13.6 


R30556 


B 435 


28.6 


28.6 


28.0 


27.1 


26.4 


26.0 


25.6 


25.2 


24.9 


24.6 


24.3 


24.1 


23.8 


23.6 


23.3 


21.2 


17.0 


13.6 


R30556 




26.7 


24.9 


23.6 


22.6 


21.8 


21.1 


20.8 


20.6 


20.3 


20.1 


20,0 


19.8 


19.7 


19.5 


19.4 


19.4 


19.3 


19.3 


N06625 


B 443 


31.4 


31.4 


31.4 


30.8 


30.2 


29.7 


29.4 


29.1 


28.9 


28.6 


28.3 


28.0 


27.7 


27.4 


27.0 


26.6 


21.0 


13.2 


N06625 




34.3 


34.3 


34.3 


33.6 


32.9 


32.4 


32.1 


31.8 


31.5 


31.2 


30.9 


30.6 


30.3 


29.9 


29.5 


29.0 


21.0 


13.2 


N06625 




22.9 


20.6 


19.7 


18.9 


18.2 


17.7 


17.5 


17.4 


17.2 


16.8 


















N08020 


B 463 


22.9 


22.9 


22.9 


22.6 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


21,8 


















N08020 




28.6 


28.6 


28.2 


27.2 


26.5 


26.0 


25.8 


25.6 


25.4 


25.3 


















N06022 


B 575 


28.6 


28,6 


28.2 


27.2 


26.5 


26.0 


25.8 


25.6 


25.4 


25.3 


















N06022 




27.3 


24.9 


23.0 


21.3 


19.9 


18.8 


18.2 


17.8 


17.4 


17.1 


16.8 


16.7 


16.5 


16.5 










N10276 




27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


26.9 


25.2 


24.6 


24.0 


23.5 


23.1 


22.8 


22.6 


22.4 


22.3 










N10276 




24.9 


23.2 


21.3 


19.8 


18.3 


17.3 


17.0 


16.9 


16.9 


16.9 


















N08925 


B 625 


24.9 


24.9 


23.9 


23.0 


22.1 


21.4 


21.1 


20.8 


20.4 


20.1 


















N08925 




26.9 


24.1 


21.5 


19.7 


18.7 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.4 




















N08926 




26.9 


26.9 


26.2 


24.8 


23.7 


22.8 


22.4 


22.0 


21.6 




















N08926 




29.7 


26.7 


24.3 


22.4 


21.0 


19.9 


19.4 


19.0 


18.7 


18.4 


















N08367 


B 688 


29.7 


29.7 


28.1 


26.9 


26.0 


25.5 


25.3 


25.1 


24.9 


24.8 


















N08367 




28.6 


26.2 


23.8 


21.9 


20.5 


19.4 


19.0 


18.6 


18.3 


18.0 


















N08367 




28.6 


28.6 


27.0 


25.8 


25.0 


24.5 


24.3 


24.1 


24.0 


23.8 


















N08367 




27.1 


26.2 


23.8 


21,9 


20.5 


19.4 


19.0 


18.6 


18.3 


18.0 


















N08367 




27.1 


27.1 


25.7 


24.6 


23.8 


23.3 


23.1 


22.9 


22.8 


22.6 


















N08367 




































Bars, Rods, Shapes, and Forgings 


23.3 


20.8 


19.2 


18.1 


17.2 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


16.0 


15.9 


15.8 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


15.4 


15.4 


153 


15.3 


N06617 


B 166 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


22.5 


22.1 


21.9 


21.7 


21.5 


21.3 


21.2 


21.0 


20.9 


20.9 


20.8 


20.7 


18.1 


N06617 




20.0 


18.5 


17.8 


17.2 


16.8 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14.9 


14.7 


14.5 


13.0 


9.8 


6.6 


N08800 


B 408 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


17.0 


13.0 


9.8 


6.6 


N08800 




16.7 


15.4 


14.4 


13.6 


12.9 


12.2 


11.9 


11.6 


11.4 


11.1 


10.9 


10.7 


10.5 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


93 


7.4 


N08810 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.5 


16.1 


15.7 


15.3 


15.0 


14.7 


14.5 


14.2 


14.0 


13.8 


11.6 


93 


7.4 


N08810 




23.3 


21.4 


20.3 


19.4 


18.5 


17.8 


17.5 


17.3 


17.2 


17.0 


















N08825 


B 425 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.2 


23.0 


















N08825 





165 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



(07) 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 






UNS 










Minimum 


Minimum 


f 


Spec. 


Alloy 


Temper or 


Nominal 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


No, 


Condition 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 


Bars, Rods 


, Shapes, and Forgings (Cont'd) 












B 446 


N06625 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 


43 


(1)(14H18) 


100 


40 


1.00 




N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 


43 


(1)(2)(U)(16) 


110 


50 


1.00 




N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 


43 


(1)(2)(14)(15)(17) 


120 


60 


1.00 


B 462 


N08020 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


(1) 


80 


35 


1.00 




N08020 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


CD (2) 


80 


35 


1.00 


B 473 


N08020 


Annealed 


Cr-Ni-Fe-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


(1) 


80 


35 


1.00 




N08020 


Annealed 


Cr-Ni-Fe-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


(D(2) 


80 


35 


1.00 


B 564 


N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni-22Cr-13Co-9Mo 


43 


(D(7) 


95 


35 


1.00 




N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni-22Cr-13Co-9Mo 


43 


(1)(2)(7) 


95 


35 


1.00 




N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 


43 


(1)(2)(14)(16) 


110 


50 


1.00 




N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 


43 


(1)(2)(14)(15)(17) 


120 


60 


1.00 


B 564 


N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(D(8) 


95 


45 


1.00 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


CD (2) (8) 


95 


45 


1.00 




N08800 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 


45 


CD 


75 


30 


1.00 




N08800 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 


45 


CDC2) 


75 


30 


1.00 




N08810 


Annealed 


Ni~Cr-Fe 


45 


CD 


65 


25 


1.00 




N08810 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Fe 


45 


(1)(2) 


65 


25 


1.00 


B 572 


R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-W 


45 


CD 


100 


45 


1.00 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-W 


45 


(0(2) 


100 


45 


1.00 


B 574 


N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 


44 


(0(12) 


100 


45 


1.00 




N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 


44 


(0(2)(12) 


100 


45 


1,00 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 


43 


(0(12) 


100 


41 


1.00 




N10276 


Sol ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 


43 


(0(2X12) 


100 


41 


1.00 


B 649 


N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Low q 


45 


(0 


87 


43 


1.00 




N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Low C 


45 


(0(2) 


87 


43 


1.00 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N-Low C 




(0 


94 


43 


1.00 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N-Low C 




(0(2) 


94 


43 


1.00 


B 691 


N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(0(8) 


95 


45 


1.00 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(0(2) (8) 


95 


45 


1.00 


Seamless Fittings 
















B 366 


N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 


44 


(0(12) 


100 


45 


1.00 




N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 


44 


(0(2)(12) 


100 


45 


1.00 




N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 


43 


(0(14) 


110 


50 


1.00 


B 366 


N0802O 


Annealed 


Cr-Ni-Fe-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


(0 


80 


35 






N08020 


Annealed 


Cr-Ni-Fe-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


(0(2) 


80 


35 






N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(0(8) 


95 


45 


1.00 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(0(2) (8) 


95 


45 


1.00 


B 366 


N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N-Low C 


45 


(0 


94 


43 


1.00 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N-Low C 


45 


(0(2) 


94 


43 


1.00 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 


43 


(0(12) 


100 


41 


1.00 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 


43 


(0(2) (12) 


100 


41 


1.00 



166 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys (Cont'd) 



(07) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 UNS 

to Alloy Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 No. No. 



26.7 24.9 23.6 
31.4 31.4 31.4 
34.3 34.3 34.3 



22.6 
30.8 
33.6 



21.8 
30.2 
32.9 



21.1 
29.7 
32.4 



20.8 
29.4 
32.1 



20.6 
29.1 

31.8 



20.3 
28.9 
31.5 



20.1 
28.6 
31.2 



20.0 
28.3 
30.9 



19.8 
28.0 
30.6 



19.7 
27.7 
30.3 



19.5 
27.4 
29.9 



19.4 
27.0 
29.5 



Bars, Rods, Shapes, and Forgings (Cont'd) 

B 446 



19.4 
26.6 
29.0 



19.3 
21.0 
21.0 



19.3 
13.2 
13.2 



N06625 
N06625 
N06625 



22.9 
22.9 



20.6 
22.9 



19.7 
22.6 



18.9 
22.2 



18.2 
22.1 



17.7 

22.1 



17.5 
22.0 



17.4 
21.9 



17.2 
21.8 



16.8 
21.8 



N08020 
N08020 



B 462 



22.9 20.6 19.7 18.9 18.2 17.7 17.5 17.4 17.2 16.8 
22.9 22.9 22.6 22.2 22.1 22.1 22.0 21.9 21.8 21.8 



N08020 B 473 
N08020 



23.3 


20.8 


19.2 


18.1 


17.2 


16.6 


16.4 


16.2 


16.0 


15.9 


15.8 


15.7 


15.6 


15.5 


15.4 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


23.3 


22.5 


22.1 


21.9 


21.7 


21.5 


21.3 


21.2 


21.0 


20.9 


20.9 


31.4 


31.4 


31.4 


30.8 


30.2 


29.7 


29.4 


29.1 


28.9 


28.6 


28.3 


28.0 


27.7 


27.4 


27.0 


34.3 


34.3 


34.3 


33.6 


32.9 


32.4 


32.1 


31.8 


31.5 


31.2 


30.9 


30.6 


30.3 


29.9 


29.5 



15.4 15.3 15.3 N06617 

20.8 20.7 18.1 N06617 

26.6 21.0 13.2 N06625 

29.0 21.0 13.2 N06625 



B 564 



27.1 


26.2 


23.8 


21,9 


20.5 


19.4 


19.0 


18.6 


18.3 


18.0 


















N08367 


B 564 


27.1 


27.1 


25.7 


24.6 


23.8 


23.3 


23.1 


22.9 


22.8 


22.6 


















N08367 




20.0 


18.5 


17.8 


17.2 


16.8 


16.3 


16.1 


15.9 


15,7 


15.5 


15.3 


15.1 


14.9 


14.7 


14.5 


13.0 


9.8 


6.6 


N08800 




20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


20.0 


19.9 


17.0 


13.0 


9.8 


6.6 


N08800 




16.7 


15.4 


14.4 


13.6 


12.9 


12.2 


11.9 


11.6 


11.4 


11.1 


10.9 


10.7 


10.5 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.3 


7.4 


N08810 




16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.7 


16.5 


16.1 


15.7 


15.3 


15.0 


14.7 


14.5 


14.2 


14.0 


13.8 


11.6 


9.3 


7.4 


N08810 




28.6 


25.6 


23.1 


21.3 


20.1 


19.3 


18.9 


18.7 


18.4 


18.2 


18.0 


17.8 


17.6 


17.5 


17.3 


17.1 


16.9 


13.6 


R30556 


B 572 


28.6 


28.6 


28.0 


27.1 


26.4 


26.0 


25.6 


25.2 


24.9 


24.6 


24.3 


24.1 


23.8 


23.6 


23.3 


21.2 


17.0 


13.6 


R30556 




28.6 


22.9 


22.9 


22.6 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


21.8 


















N06022 


B 574 


28.6 


28.6 


28.2 


27.2 


26.5 


26.0 


25.8 


25.6 


25.4 


25.3 


















N06022 




27.3 


24.9 


23.0 


21.3 


19.9 


18.8 


18.2 


17.8 


17.4 


17.1 


16.9 


16.7 


16.6 


16.5 










N10276 




27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


26.9 


25.2 


24,6 


24.0 


23.5 


23.1 


22.8 


22.6 


22.4 


22.3 










N10276 




24.9 


23.2 


21.3 


19.8 


18.3 


17.3 


17.0 


16.9 


16.9 


16.9 


















N08925 


B 649 


24.9 


24.9 


23.9 


23.0 


22.1 


21.4 


21.1 


20.8 


20.4 


20.1 


















N08925 




26.9 


24.1 


21.5 


19.7 


18.7 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.4 




















N08926 




26.9 


26.9 


26.2 


24.8 


23.7 


22.8 


22.4 


22.0 


21.6 




















N08926 




27.1 


26.2 


23.8 


21.9 


20.5 


19.4 


19.0 


18.6 


18.3 


18.0 


















N08367 


B 691 


27.1 


27.1 


25.7 


24.6 


23.8 


23.3 


23.1 


22.9 


22.8 


22.6 


















N08367 








































Seamless Fittings 


28.6 


22.9 


22.9 


22.6 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


21.8 


















N06022 


B 366 


28.6 


28.6 


28.2 


27.2 


26.5 


26.0 


25.8 


25.6 


25.4 


25.3 


















N06022 




26.7 


26.7 


26.5 


25.8 


25.0 


24.3 


24.1 


23.7 


23.5 


23.3 


23.0 


22.9 


22.8 


22.6 


22.5 


22.4 


17.9 


11.2 


N06625 




22.9 


20.6 


19.7 


18.9 


18.2 


17.7 


17.5 


17.4 


17.2 


16.8 


















N08020 


B 366 


22.9 


22.9 


22.6 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


21.8 


21.8 


















N08020 




27.1 


26.2 


23.8 


21.9 


20.5 


19.4 


19.0 


18.6 


18.3 


18.0 


















N08367 




27.1 


27.1 


25.7 


24.6 


23.8 


23.3 


23.1 


22.9 


22.8 


22.6 


















N08367 




26.9 


24.1 


21.5 


19.7 


18.7 


18.0 


17.7 


17.5 


17.4 




















N08926 


B366 


26.9 


26.9 


26.2 


24.8 


23.7 


22.8 


22.4 


22.0 


21.6 




















N08926 




27.3 


24.9 


23.0 


21.3 


19.9 


18.8 


18.2 


17.8 


17.4 


17.1 


16.9 


16.7 


16.6 


16.5 










N10276 




27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


27.3 


26.9 


25.2 


24.6 


24.0 


23.5 


23.1 


22,8 


22.6 


22.4 


22.3 










N10276 





167 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



(07) 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys (Cont'd) 





UNS 








Spec. 


Alloy 


Temper or 


Nominal 


P- 


No. 


No. 


Condition 


Composition 


No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Seamless Fittings (Cont'd) 



B 366 


R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo~W 


45 


CD 


100 


45 


1.00 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-W 


45 


(1)(2) 


100 


45 


1.00 


B 462 


N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(1)(8) 


95 


45 


1.00 




N08367 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo 


45 


(D(2)(8) 


95 


45 


1.00 


Welded Fittings 
















B 366 


N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 


44 


(D(12) 


100 


45 


0.85 




N06022 


Sol. ann. 


Ni-Mo-Cr-Low C 


44 


(1)(2)(12) 


100 


45 


0.85 




N06625 


Annealed 


Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb 


43 


(D(14) 


110 


50 


0.85 




N08020 


Annealed 


Cr-Ni-Fe-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


(1) 


80 


35 


0.85 




N08020 


Annealed 


Cr-Ni-Fe-Mo-Cu-Cb 


45 


CD (2) 


80 


35 


0.85 


B 366 


N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Low C 


45 


(1) 


87 


43 


0.85 




N08925 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-Low C 


45 


(1)(2) 


87 


43 


0.85 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N-Low C 


45 


(1)(19)(20) 


94 


43 


0.85 




N08926 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N-Low C 


45 


(1)(2)(19)(20) 


94 


43 


0.85 


B 366 


N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni— Mo-Cr 


43 


(1)02) 


100 


41 


0.85 




N10276 


Sol. ann. 


Low C-Ni-Mo-Cr 


43 


CD (2) (12) 


100 


41 


0.85 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-W 


45 


CD(12) 


100 


45 


0.85 




R30556 


Annealed 


Ni-Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-W 


45 


(1)(2)(12) 


100 


45 


0.85 



168 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys (Cont'd) 



(07) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 UNS 

to Alloy Spec. 

100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1,000 1,050 1,100 1,150 1,200 No. No. 



28.6 25.6 23.1 21.3 20.1 19.3 18.9 18.7 18.4 18.2 18.0 17.8 17.6 
28.6 28.6 28.0 27.1 26.4 26.0 25.6 25.2 24.9 24.6 24.3 24.1 23.8 



17.5 
23.6 



17.3 
23.3 



17.1 
21.2 



16.9 
17.0 



Seamless Fittings (Cont'd) 
B 366 



13.6 
13.6 



R30556 
R30556 



27.1 


26.2 


23.8 


21.9 


20.5 


19.4 


19.0 


18.6 


18.3 


18.0 . 


27.1 


27.1 


25.7 


24.6 


23.8 


23.3 


23.1 


22.9 


22.8 


22.6 . 


24.3 


22.7 


20.9 


19.4 


18.3 


17.4 


17.0 


16.7 


16.4 


16.2 . 


24.3 


24.3 


23.9 


23.1 


22.6 


22.1 


21.9 


21.8 


21.6 


21.5 . 


31.4 


31.4 


31.2 


30.3 


29.4 


28.6 


28.3 


27.9 


27.6 


27.4 27 


22.9 


20,6 


19.7 


18.9 


18.2 


17.7 


17.5 


17.4 


17.2 


16.8 . 


22.9 


22.9 


22.6 


22.2 


22.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.9 


21.8 


21.8 . 



23.2 


21.2 


19.6 


18.1 


16.9 


16.0 


15.5 


15.1 


14.8 


14.5 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


23.2 


22.9 


21.4 


20.9 


20.4 


20.0 


19.6 


24.3 


21.8 


19.6 


18.1 


17.1 


16.4 


16.1 


15.9 


15.7 


15.5 


24.3 


24.3 


23.8 


23.0 


22.5 


22.1 


21.7 


21.4 


21.1 


20.9 



1 26.9 26.8 26 



21.1 19.7 18.1 16.8 15.6 14.7 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.4 

21.1 21.1 20.4 19.5 18.8 18.2 17.9 17.7 17.4 17.0 

22.9 20.5 18.3 16.7 15.9 15.3 15.0 14.9 14.8 ... 

22.9 22.9 22.3 21.1 20.1 19.4 19.0 18.7 18.4 ... 



14.4 
19.4 
15.3 
20.7 



14.2 14.1 14 

19.2 19.0 19 

15.2 15.0 14 

20.5 20.2 20 



26 



26.4 



21 



14.5 
18.0 



14, 
14 



13, 



N08367 B 462 
N08367 

Welded Fittings 

N06022 B 366 

N06022 

N06625 

N08020 

N08020 



N08925 
N08925 
N08926 
N08926 

N10276 
N10276 
6 R30556 
.6 R30556 



B 366 



B 366 



169 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-4 Nickel and High Nickel Alloys (Cont'd) 

GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The tabulated specifications are ANSI/ASTM or ASTM. For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related 
specifications in Section li of the ASME Code. 

(b) The stress values in this Table may be interpolated to determine values for intermediate temperatures. 

(c) The P-Numbers indicated in this Table are identical to those adopted by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Qualification of 
welding procedures, welders, and welding operators is required and shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 
Section IX, except as modified by para. 127.5. 

(d) Tensile strengths and allowable stresses shown in "ksi" are "thousands of pounds per square inch." 

(e) The materials listed in this table shall not be used at design temperatures above those for which allowable stress values are given 
herein or in Table A-S. 

(f) The tabulated stress values are S x E (weld joint efficiency factor) or S x F (material quality factor), as applicable. Weld joint 
efficiency factors are shown in Table 102,4.3. 

(g) Pressure-temperature ratings of piping components, as published in standards referenced in this Code, may be used for components 
meeting the requirements of those standards. The allowable stress values given in this Table are for use in designing piping 
components which are not manufactured in accordance with referenced standards. 

(h) The y coefficient = 0.4 except where Note (7) applies [see Table 104.1.2(A)]. 

(i) The tabulated stress values that are shown in italics are at temperatures in the range where creep and stress rupture strength govern 

the selection of stresses. 
NOTES: 

(1) THIS MATERIAL IS NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR USE ON BOILER EXTERNAL PIPING - SEE FIGS. 100.1.2(A) AND (B). 

(2) Due to the relatively low yield strengths of these materials, these higher allowable stress values were established at temperatures 
where the short time tensile properties govern to permit the use of these alloys where slightly greater deformation is acceptable. 
These stress values exceed 67% but do not exceed 90% of the yield strength at temperature. Use of these values may result in 
dimensional changes due to permanent strain. These values should not be used for flanges of gasketed joints or other applications 
where slight amounts of distortion can cause leakage or malfunction. 

(3) The maximum temperature is limited to 500°F because harder temper adversely affects design stress in the creep rupture 
temperature range. 

(4) These values may be used for plate material only. 

(5) These values apply to sizes NPS 5 and smaller. 

(6) These values apply to sizes larger than NPS 5. 

(7) See Table 104.1.2(A) for y coefficient value. 

(8) Heat treatment after forming or welding is neither required nor prohibited. However, if heat treatment is applied, the solution 
annealing treatment shall consist of heating to a minimum temperature of 2,025°F and then quenching in water or rapidly cooling by 
other means. 

(9) These values apply to thickness less than V 16 in. 

(10) These values apply to thickness from 3 / 16 in. up to and including % in. 

(11) These values apply to thickness more than % in. 

(12) All filler metal, including consumable insert material, shall comply with the requirements of Section IX of the ASME Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Code. 

(13) DELETED 

(14) This alloy is subject to severe loss of impact strength at room temperature after exposure in the range of 1,000°F to 1,400°F. 

(15) The minimum tensile strength of reduced tension specimens in accordance with QW-462.1 of Section IX shall not be less than 
110,000 psi. 

(16) These values apply to material with a thickness of greater than 4 in. prior to machining or fabricating. 

(17) These values apply to material with a maximum thickness of 4 in. prior to machining or fabricating. 

(18) For service at 1,200°F or higher, the deposited weld metal shall be of the same nominal chemistry as the base metal. 

(19) Heat treatment after fabrication and forming is neither required nor prohibited. If heat treatment is performed, the material shall be 
heated for a sufficient time in the range of 2,010°F to 2,100°F followed by quenching in water or rapidly cooled by another means. 

(20) Welding electrodes or filler metal used for welding UNS N08926 shall conform to SFA-5.11 ENiCrMo-3 or ENiCrMo-4, or SFA-5.14 
ERNiCrMo-3 or ERNiCrMo-4. 



170 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



AS/VIE B31.1-2007 



Table A-5 begins on the next page. 



171 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-5 Cast Iron 



Spec. No. 



Class 



Notes 



Specified 

Minimum 

Tensile, ksi 



Specified 
Minimum 
Yield, ksi 



E 
or 
F 



Gray Cast Iron 






A 48 


20 


(D(2)(3)(4) 




25 


(D(2)(3)(4) 




30 


(D(2)(3)(4) 




35 


(D(2)(3)(4) 




40 


(D(2)(3)(4) 




45 


(D(2)(3)(4) 




50 


(1)(2)(3)(4) 




55 


(D(2)(3)(4) 




60 


(D(2)(3)(4) 


A 126 


A 


(3) (4) (7) 




B 


(3)(4)(7) 




C 


(3)(4)(7) 


A 278 


20 


(2)(4)(5) 




25 


(2) (4) (5) 




30 


(2) (4) (5) 




35 


(2) (4) (5) 




40 


(2)(4)(5) 




45 


(2) (4) (5) 




50 


(2) (4) (5) 




55 


(2) (4) (5) 




60 


(2) (4) (5) 


Ductile Cast Iron 






A 395 


60-40-18 


(6)(8) 




65-45-15 


(6) (8) 


A 536 


60-42-10 


(DCS) 




70-50-05 


(D(8) 



20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 

21 
31 

41 

20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 



60 
65 

60 
70 



40 

45 

42 
50 



0.80 
0.80 

0.80 
0.80 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The tabulated specifications are ANSI/ASTM or ASTM. For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related specifica- 
tions in Section II of the ASME Code. 

(b) The stress values in this Table may be interpolated to determine values for intermediate temperatures. 

(c) Cast iron components shall not be welded during fabrication or assembly as part of the piping system. 

(d) Tensile strengths and allowable stresses shown in "ksi" are "thousands of pounds per square inch." 

(e) The materials listed in this Table shall not be used at design temperatures above those for which allowable stress values are given. 

(f) The tabulated stress values for ductile cast iron materials are S x F (material quality factor). Material quality factors are not applicable 
to other types of cast iron. 

(g) Pressure-temperature ratings of piping components, as published in standards referenced in this Code, may be used for components 
meeting the requirements of those standards. The allowable stress values given in this Table are for use in designing piping compo- 
nents which are not manufactured in accordance with referenced standards. 

(h) The y coefficient equals 0.4 [see Table 104.1.2(A)], 



172 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-5 Cast Iron 



Maximum 


Allowable Stress Values in Tension, 


ksi, for Metal Temperature 


:, °F, Not Exceeding 






-20 to 






-20 to 




400 


450 500 


600 65C 


650 


Class 


Spec. No. 












Gray Cast iron 


2.0 










20 


A 48 


2.5 










25 




3.0 










30 




3.5 










35 




4.0 










40 




4.5 










45 




5.0 










50 




5.5 










55 




6.0 










60 




2.1 










A 


A 126 


3.1 










8 




4.1 










C 




2.0 


2.0 








20 


A 278 


2.5 


2.5 








25 




3.0 


3.0 








30 




3.5 


3.5 






4.0 
4.5 
5.0 
5.5 
6.0 


35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 














Ductile Cast iron 








9.6 


60-40-18 


A 395 


10.4 


10.4 






65-4545 










4.8 


60-42-10 


A 536 








5.6 


70-50-05 





SEE FIGS. 100.1.2(A) AND (B). 



NOTES: 

(1) THIS MATERIAL IS NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR BOILER EXTERNAL PIPING 

(2) Material quality factors are not applicable to these materials. 

(3) For saturated steam at 250 psi (406°F), the stress values given at 400°F may be used. 

(4) For limitations on the use of this material, see para. 124.4. 

(5) This material shall not be used where the design pressure exceeds 250 psig [1 725 kPa (gage)] or where the design temperature 
exceeds 450°F (230°C). 

(6) This material shall not be used for boiler external piping where the design pressure exceeds 350 psig [2 415 kPa (gage)] or where the 
design temperature exceeds 450°F (230°C). 

(7) Piping components conforming to either ASME B16.1 or ASME B16.4 may be used for boiler external piping, subject to all the require- 
ments of the particular standard. 

(8) For limitations on the use of this material, see para. 124.6. 



173 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-6 Copper and Copper Alloys 









Size or 




Spec. 




Temper or 


Thickness, 


P- 


No, 


UNS Alloy No. 


Condition 


in. 


No. 



Notes 



Specified 






Minimum 


Specified 


E 


Tensile, 


Minimum 


or 


ksi 


Yield, ksi 


F 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 



B 42 


C10200, C12000, 


C12200 


Annealed 




31 


(2) 


30 


9 


1.00 




C10200, C12000, 


C12200 


Drawn 


% to 2 


31 


(2) (4) 


45 


40 


1.00 




C10200, C12000, 


C12200 


Drawn 


2V2 to 12 


31 


(2) (4) 


36 


30 


1.00 


B43 


C23000 




Annealed 




31 


(2) 


40 


12 


1.00 




C23000 




Drawn 




31 


(2)(4) 


44 


18 


1.00 


B 68 


C10200, C12000, 


C12200 


Annealed 




31 


(1) 


30 


9 


1.00 


B 75 


C10200, C12000 




Annealed 




31 


(2) 


30 


9 


1.00 




C10200, C12000 




Light drawn 




31 


(2)(4) 


36 


30 


1.00 




C10200, C12000 




Hard drawn 




31 


(2) (4) 


45 


40 


1.00 


B 75 


C12200 




Annealed 




31 


(2) 


30 


9 


1.00 




C12200 




Light drawn 




31 


(2) (4) 


36 


30 


1.00 




C12200 




Hard drawn 




31 


(2) (4) 


45 


40 


1.00 


B 88 


C10200, C12000, 


C12200 


Annealed 




31 


(1) 


30 


9 


1.00 




C10200, C12000, 


C12200 


Drawn 




31 


(DM 


36 


30 


1.00 


B 111 


C10200, C12000 




Light drawn 




31 


(D(3) 


36 


30 


1.00 




C10200, C12000 




Hard drawn 




31 


(0(3) 


45 


40 


1.00 




C12200, C14200 




Light drawn 




31 


(1X3) 


36 


30 


1.00 




C12200, C14200 




Hard drawn 




31 


(DO) 


45 


40 


1.00 


B 111 


C23000 




Annealed 




32 


(1) 


40 


12 


1.00 




C28000 




Annealed 




32 


(2) 


50 


20 


1.00 




C44300, C44400, 


C44500 


Annealed 




32 


(2) 


45 


15 


1.00 




C60800 




Annealed 




35 


(1) 


50 


19 


1.00 


B 111 


C68700 




Annealed 




32 


(1) 


50 


18 


1.00 




C70400 




Annealed 




34 


(1) 


38 


12 


1.00 




C70400 




Light drawn 




34 


(D(4) 


40 


30 


1.00 


B 111 


C70600 




Annealed 




34 


(2) 


40 


15 


1.00 




C71000 




Annealed 




34 


(2) 


45 


16 


1.00 




C71500 




Annealed 




34 


(2) 


52 


18 


1.00 


B 280 


C12200 




Annealed 




31 


(1) 


30 


9 


1.00 




C12200 




Drawn 




31 


(1X4) 


36 


30 


1.00 


B 302 


C12000, C12200 




Drawn 




32 


(1X3) 


36 


30 


1.00 


B 315 


C61300, C61400 




Annealed 




35 


(1) 


65 


28 


1.00 


B 466 


C70600 




Annealed 




34 


(1) 


38 


13 


1.00 




C71500 




Annealed 




34 


(1) 


50 


18 


1.00 


Welded 


Pipe and Tube 


















B 467 


C70600 




Annealed 


4V 2 & under 


34 


(1) 


40 


15 


0.85 




C70600 




Annealed 


Over 4V2 


34 


(1) 


38 


13 


0.85 




C71500 




Annealed 


4 a / 2 81 under 


34 


(1) 


50 


20 


0.85 




C71500 




Annealed 


Over 4% 


34 


(1) 


45 


15 


0.85 


B 608 


C61300, C61400 




Annealed 




35 


(0(6) 


70 


30 


0.80 



174 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-6 Copper and Copper Alloys 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 

to Spec. 

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 UNS Alloy No. No. 



6.0 


5.1 


4.9 


4.8 


4.7 


4.0 


3.0 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.5 


11.8 


4.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


13.3 


10.0 


9.7 


9.4 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.0 


5.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.0 


5.0 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 

C10200, C12000, C12200 B 42 

4.3 C10200, C12000, C12200 

C10200, C12000, C12200 



2.0 
2.0 



C23000 

C23000 



43 



6.0 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.0 



C10200, C12000, C12200 B 68 



6.0 


5.1 


4.9 


4.8 


4.7 


4.0 


3.0 










. . . C10200, 


C12000 




B 75 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.0 


9.7 


9.4 










. . . C10200, 


C12000 






12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.5 


11.8 


4.3 










. . . C10200, 


C12000 






6.0 


5.1 


4.9 


4.8 


4.7 


4.0 


3.0 










... C12200 






B 75 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.0 


9.7 


9A 










. . . C12200 








12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.5 


11.8 


4.3 










... C12200 








6.0 


5.1 


4.9 


4.8 


4.7 


4.0 


3.0 










. . . C10200, 


C12000, 


C12200 


B 88 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.0 


9.7 


9.4 










. . . C10200, 


C12000, 


C12200 




10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.0 


9.7 


9.4 










. . . C10200, 


C12000 




B 111 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.5 


11.8 


4.3 










. . , C10200, 


C12000 






10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.0 


9.7 


9A 










... C12200, 


C14200 






12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.9 


12.5 


11.8 


4.3 










... C12200, 


C14200 






8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.0 


5.0 


2.0 








. . . C23000 






B 111 


13.3 


13.3 


13.3 


13.3 


13,3 


10.8 


5.3 










. . . C28000 








10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


9.8 


3.5 


2.0 








. . . C44300, 


C44400, 


C44500 




12.7 


12.2 


12.2 


12.2 


12.0 


11.7 


6.0 


4.0 


2.0 






. . . C60800 








12.0 


11.9 


11.8 


11.7 


11.7 


6.5 


33 


1.8 








. . . C68700 






B 111 


8.0 


8.0 




















. . . C70400 








10.0 


10.0 




















. . . C70400 








10.0 


9.7 


9.5 


9.3 


9,0 


8.8 


8.7 


8.5 


8.0 


7.0 


6.0 


. . . C70600 






B 111 


10.7 


10.6 


10.5 


10.4 


10,2 


10.1 


9.9 


9.6 


93 


8.9 


8.4 7.7 7.0 ... 


. . . C71000 








12.0 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


10.8 


10.5 


10.3 


10.1 


9.9 


9.8 


9.6 9.5 9.4 ... 


... C71500 








6.0 


5.1 


4.8 


4.8 


4.7 


4.0 


3.0 










... C12200 






B 280 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.0 


9.7 


9.4 










. . . C12200 








10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.3 


10.0 


9.7 


9.4 










. . . C12000, 


C12200 




B 302 


18.6 


18.6 


18.5 


18.3 


18.2 


18.1 


17.9 


17.5 


17.0 






... C61300, 


C61400 




B 315 


8.7 


8.4 


8.2 


8.0 


7.8 


7.7 


7.5 


7.4 


7.3 


7.0 


6.0 


. . . C70600 






B 466 


12.0 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


10.8 


10.5 


10.3 


10.1 


9.9 


9.8 


9.6 


... C71500 
































Welded Pipe and Tube 


8.5 


8.3 


8.1 


7.9 


7.7 


7.5 


7.4 


7.2 


6.3 


5.7 


4.3 ... ... ... 


. . . C70600 






B 467 


7.4 


7.2 


7.0 


6.8 


6.7 


6.5 


6.4 


6.3 


6.2 


5,7 


4.3 ... ... ... 


. . . C70600 








11.3 


10.9 


10.7 


10.4 


10.2 


10.0 


9.7 


9.6 


9.4 


9.2 


9.1 


... C71500 








8.5 


8.2 


8.0 


7.8 


7.6 


7.5 


73 


7.2 


7.0 


6.9 


6.8 ... 


... C71500 








17.0 


16.9 


16.8 


16.7 


16.6 


16.5 


16.3 


16.1 


15.5 






... C61300, 


C61400 




B 608 



175 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



(07) 



Table A-6 Copper and Copper Alloys (Cont'd) 



Spec. 
No. 



UNS Alloy No. 



Temper or 
Condition 



Size or 
Thickness, 



P- 
No. 



Notes 



Specified 






Minimum 


Specified 


£ 


Tensile, 


Minimum 


or 


ksi 


Yield, ksi 


F 



Plate 

B 402 



C70600 
C71500 
C71500 



Rod and Bar 

B 151 C71500 

Die Forgings (Hot Pressed) 



B 283 



C37700 
C37700 



Castings 

B 61 C92200 



Annealed 


2 1 /? & under 


34 


(1) 


40 


15 


1.00 


Annealed 


2V 2 & under 


34 


(1) 


50 


20 


1.00 


Annealed 


Over 2V2 to 5 


34 


(1) 


45 


18 


1.00 


Annealed 


Over 1 


34 


(1) 


45 


18 


1.00 


As forged 


1V2 & under 




(DO) 


50 


18 


1.00 


As forged 


Over 1V2 




(0(3) 


46 


15 


1.00 



As cast 



34 



16 



0.80 



B 62 C83600 

B 148 C95200 
C95400 

B 584 C92200 
C93700 
C97600 

Bolts, Nuts, and Studs 



As cast 



30 



14 



0.80 



B 150 



C61400 
C61400 
C61400 
C61400 



As cast 




As cast 




As cast 




As cast 




As cast 




HR50 


V2 81 under 


HR50 


Over V 2 to 1 


HR50 


Over 1 to 2 


HR50 


Over 2 to 3 



35 


(1) 


65 


25 


0.80 


35 


(0(5) 


75 


30 


0.80 






34 


16 


0.80 




(3) 


30 


12 


0.80 




(3) 


40 


17 


0.80 




(0(3) 


80 


50 


1.00 




(0(3) 


75 


35 


1.00 




(0(3) 


70 


32 


1.00 




(0(3) 


70 


30 


1.00 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The tabulated specifications are ANSI/ASTM or ASTM. For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related specifica- 
tions in Section 11 of the ASME Code. 

(b) The stress values in this Table may be interpolated to determine values for intermediate temperatures. 

(c) The P-Numbers listed in this Table are identical to those adopted by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Qualification of weld- 
ing procedures, welders, and welding operators is required and shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 
IX, except as modified by para. 127,5. 

(d) Tensile strengths and allowable stresses shown in "ksi" are "thousands of pounds per square inch." 

(e) The materials listed in this Table shall not be used at design temperatures above those for which allowable stress values are given. 
However, for saturated steam at 250 psi (406°F), the allowable stress values given for 400°F may be used. 

(f) The tabulated stress values are 5 x E (weld joint efficiency factor) or S x F (material quality factor), as applicable. Weld joint effi- 
ciency factors are shown in Table 102.4.3. 

(g) Pressure-temperature ratings of piping components, as published in standards referenced in this Code, may be used for components 
meeting the requirements of those standards. The allowable stress values given in this Table are for use in designing piping compo- 
nents that are not manufactured in accordance with referenced standards, 

(h) For limitations on the use of copper and copper alloys for flammable liquids and gases, refer to paras. 122.7, 122.8, and 124.7. 
(i) The y coefficient equals 0.4 [see Table 104.1.2(A)]. 

(j) The tabulated stress values that are shown in italics are at temperatures in the range where creep and stress rupture strength govern 
the selection of stresses. 



176 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-6 Copper and Copper Alloys 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

»20 

to Spec. 

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 UNS Alloy No. No. 



(07) 



7.8 
6.9 
6.0 



93 


9.0 


8.8 


8.7 


8.5 


8.0 


7.0 


6.0 






12.3 


12.0 


11.7 


11.5 


11.2 


11.0 


10.8 


10.7 


10.6 


10.4 


11.0 


10.8 


10.5 


10.3 


10.1 


9.9 


9.8 


9.6 


9.5 


9.4 



10.0 9.7 9.5 
13.3 12.9 12.6 
12.0 11.6 11.3 



12.0 11.6 11.3 11.0 10.8 10.5 10.3 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.6 



9.7 9.1 



12.0 11.3 10.8 
10.0 9.4 9.0 



7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 6.6 6.2 5.4 4.0 

6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.6 6.5 5.5 5.4 



13.4 12.6 12.2 11.8 11.6 11.4 11.4 11.4 113 
16.0 15.2 15.0 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8 12.8 11.1 



7.8 
6.9 
5.8 



7.8 
5.8 
5.6 



17.5 17.5 17.5 

17.5 17.5 17.5 

17.5 17.5 17.5 

17.5 17.5 17.5 



7.8 
5.4 
5.5 



17.5 
17.5 
17.5 
17.5 



7.8 

5.3 
5.4 



17.5 
17.5 
17.5 
17.5 



7.8 
5.2 



6.6 

5.1 



6.2 5.8 



5.0 



17.5 
17.5 
17.5 
17.5 



17.2 16.6 16.1 

17.2 16.6 16.1 

17.2 16.6 16.1 

17.2 16.6 16.1 





Plate 


C70600 


B 402 


C71500 




C71500 






Rod and Bar 


C71500 


B 151 


Die Forgings (Hot Pressed) 


C37700 


B 283 


C37700 






Castings 


C92200 


B 61 


C83600 


B 62 


C95200 


B 148 


C95400 




C92200 


B 584 


C93700 




C97600 




Bolts, 


Nuts, and Studs 


C61400 


B 150 


C61400 




C61400 




C61400 





NOTES: 

(1) THIS MATERIAL IS NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR USE ON BOILER EXTERNAL PIPING - SEE FIGS. 100.1.2(A) and (B). 
(07) (2) This material may be used for Boiler External Piping provided that the nominal size does not exceed 3 in. and the design temperature 
does not exceed 406°F. This material shall not be used for bSowoff or blowdown piping except as permitted in para. 122.1.4. Where 
threaded brass or copper pipe is used for feedwater piping, it shall have a wall thickness not less than that required for schedule 80 
steel pipe of the same nominal size. 

(3) Welding or brazing of this material is not permitted. 

(4) When this material is used for welded or brazed construction, the allowable stress values used shall not exceed those given for the 
same material in the annealed condition. 

(5) Castings that are welded or repair welded shall be heat treated at l,150 o F-l,200°F, followed by moving-air cooling. The required time 
at temperature is based on the cross-section thicknesses as follows: 

(a) l l / 2 hr for the first inch or fraction thereof 

(b) l / 2 br for each additional inch or fraction thereof 

(6) Welds must be made by an electric fusion welding process involving the addition of filler metal. 



177 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-7 Aluminurri and Aluminum Alloys 















Specified 


Specified 










Size or 






Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 






Thickness, 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


UNS Alloy No. 


Temper 


in. 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Drawn Seamless Tube 

B 210 



B 210 



B 241 



B 241 



B 241 



B 241 



B 234 



B 234 



B 547 



B 547 



A93003 





A93003 


H14 


Alclad A93003 





Alclad A93003 


H14 


A95050 





Alclad A95050 





A96061 


T4 


A96061 


T6 


A96061 


T4, T6 welded 


3 ipe and Seamless Extruded Tube 


A93003 





A93003 


H18 


A93003 


H112 


Alclad A93003 





Alclad A93003 


H112 


A95083 





A95083 


H112 


A95454 





A95454 


H112 


A96061 


T4 


A96061 


T6 


A96061 


T6 


A96061 


T4, T6 welded 


A96063 


T6 


A96063 


T5, T6 welded 


mless Condenser 


and Heat Exchan 


A93003 


H14 


Alclad A93003 


H14 


A95454 


H34 


A96061 


T4 


A96061 


T6 


A96061 


T4, T6 welded 


i Round Tube 




A93003 





A93003 





A93003 


H112 


A93003 


H112 


Alclad A93003 





Alclad A93003 





Alclad A93003 


H112 


Alclad A93003 


H112 



0.010 to 0.500 


21 


(1) 


0.010 to 0.500 


21 


(DO) 


0.010 to 0.500 


21 


(DM 


0.010 to 0.500 


21 


(D(3)(4) 


0.018 to 0.500 


21 


(1) 


0.018 to 0.500 


21 


(1)03X23) 


0.025 to 0.500 


23 


(D(6) 


0.025 to 0.500 


23 


(D(6) 


0.025 to 0.500 


23 


(D(7) 


All 


21 


(1) 


Less than 1.000 


21 


(D(3) 


Note (20) 


21 


(1)(3)(20) 


All 


21 


(1X4) 


All 


21 


UX3X4) 


All 


25 


(1X8) 


All 


25 


(1X8) 


Up thru 5.000 


22 


(1) 


Up thru 5.000 


22 


(1) 


Ail 


23 


(1X6X9) 


Under 1 in. dia. 


23 


(1X2X5) 


All 


23 


(1X6) (9) 


All 


23 


(1)(7)(9) 


Note (10) 


23 


(1)(6)(10) 


Note (10) 


23 


(1X7X10) 


0,010 to 0.200 


21 


(0(2) 


0.010 to 0.200 


21 


(0(2X4) 


0.010 to 0.200 


22 


(0(2) 


0.025 to 0.200 


23 


(0(6) 


0.025 to 0.200 


23 


(0(6) 


0.025 to 0.200 


23 


(0(7) 


0.125 to 0.500 


21 


(0(15) 


0.125 to 0.500 


21 


(0(16) 


0.250 to 0.400 


21 


(0(14X15) 


0.250 to 0.400 


21 


(0(14X16) 


0.125 to 0.499 


21 


(0(4X15) 


0.125 to 0.499 


21 


(0(4) (16) 


0.250 to 0.499 


21 


(1)(4)(14)(15) 


0.250 to 0.499 


21 


(0(4X14X16) 



14 
20 
13 
19 

18 
17 
30 
42 
24 



14 
27 

14 
13 
13 

39 
39 
31 
31 

26 

42 
38 
24 
30 

17 



20 
19 
39 

30 
42 

24 



14 
14 
17 

17 

13 
13 
16 
16 



5 


1.00 


17 


1.00 


4.5 


1.00 


16 


1.00 


6 


1.00 




1.00 


16 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


10 


1.00 


5 


1.00 


24 


1.00 


5 


1.00 


4.5 


1.00 


4.5 


1.00 


16 


1.00 


16 


1.00 


12 


1.00 


12 


1.00 


16 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


10 


1.00 


25 


1.00 


10 


1.00 


17 


1.00 


16 


1.00 


29 


1.00 


16 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


10 


1.00 


5 


1.00 


5 


0.85 


10 


1.00 


10 


0.85 


4.5 


1.00 


4.5 


0.85 


9 


1.00 


9 


0,85 



178 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-7 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 



Maximum 


Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, 


for Metal Temperature, 


°F, Not 


Exceeding 






-20 
















to 
















Spec. 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


350 


400 


UNS Alloy No. 


No. 
















Drawn Seamless Tube 


3.4 


3.4 


3.4 


3.0 


2.4 


1.8 


1A 


A93003 


B 210 


5.7 


5.7 


5.7 


4.9 


4.3 


3.0 


23 


A930O3 




3.0 


3.0 


3.0 


2.7 


2.2 


1.6 


1.3 


Alclad A93003 




5.4 


5.4 


5.4 


4.4 


3.9 


2.7 


2.1 


Alclad A93003 




4.0 


4.0 


4.0 


4.0 


4.0 


2.8 


1.4 


A95050 


B 210 


3.3 


3.3 


3.3 


3.3 


3.3 


2.8 


1A 


Alclad A95050 




8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


7.4 


6.9 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 




12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


9.9 


8 A 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 




6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.7 


63 


4.6 


3.5 


A96061 
















Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube 


3.4 


3.4 


3.4 


3.0 


2A 


1.8 


1A 


A93003 


B 241 


7.8 


7.8 


7.7 


63 


5.4 


3.5 


2.5 


A93003 




3.4 


3.4 


3.4 


3.0 


2.4 


1.8 


1A 


A930O3 


B 241 


3.0 


3.0 


3.0 


2.7 


2.2 


1.6 


1.2 


Alclad A93003 




3.0 


3.0 


3.0 


2.7 


2.2 


1.6 


1.2 


Alclad A93003 




10.7 


10.7 












A95083 


B 241 


10.7 


10.7 












A95083 




8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 




8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 




7.4 


7.4 


7.4 


6A 


6.0 


5.8 


4.5 


A96061 


B 241 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


9.9 


8 A 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 




10.9 


10.9 


10.9 


9.1 


7.9 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 




6S 


6.9 


6.9 


6.7 


6.3 


4.6 


3.5 


A96061 




8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


6.6 


3 A 


2.0 


A96063 




4.3 


4.3 


4.3 


4.2 


3.9 


3.0 


2.0 


A96063 
















Drawn Seamless Condenser and Heat Exchanger Tube 


5.7 


5.7 


5.7 


4.9 


4.3 


3.0 


2 A 


A93003 


B 234 


5.4 


5.4 


5.4 


4.4 


3.9 


2.7 


2.1 


Alclad A93003 




11.1 


11.1 


11.1 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 




8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


7A 


6.9 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 


B 234 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


9.9 


8 A 


63 


4.5 


A96061 




6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.7 


6.3 


4.6 


3.5 


A96061 


















Arc -Welded Round Tube 


3.4 


3.4 


3.4 


3.0 


2 A 


1.8 


1.4 


A93003 


B 547 


2.9 


2.9 


2.9 


2.6 


2.0 


1.5 


1.2 


A93003 




4.9 


4.9 


4.9 


4.0 


3.6 


3.0 


2.4 


A93003 




4.2 


4.2 


4.2 


3 A 


3.1 


2.6 


2.0 


A93003 




3.0 


3.0 


3.0 


2.7 


2.2 


1.6 


1.3 


Alclad A93003 


B 547 


2.6 


2.6 


2.6 


2.3 


1.9 


1.4 


1.1 


Alclad A93003 




4.6 


4.6 


4.6 


2.7 


2.2 


1.6 


13 


Alclad A93003 




3.9 


3.9 


3.9 


2.3 


1.9 


1.4 


1.1 


Alctad A93003 





179 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-7 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 










Size or 






Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Spec. 






Thickness, 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


UNS Alloy No. 


Temper 


in. 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 


Arc-Welded Round Tube (Cont'd) 














B 547 


A95083 





0.125 to 0.500 


25 


(1X8X15) 


40 


18 


1.00 




A95083 





0.125 to 0.500 


25 


(1X8X16) 


40 


18 


0.85 


B 547 


A95454 





0.125 to 0.500 


22 


(1X15) 


31 


12 


1.00 




A95454 





0.125 to 0.500 


22 


(1X16) 


31 


12 


0.85 




A95454 


H112 


0.250 to 0.499 


22 


(0(14X15) 


32 


18 


1.00 




A95454 


H112 


0.250 to 0.499 


22 


(0(14X16) 


32 


18 


0.85 


B 547 


A96061 


T4 


0.125 to 0.249 


23 


(0(7) (15) (17) 


30 


16 


1.00 




A96061 


T4 


0.125 to 0.249 


23 


(0(7) (16) (17) 


30 


16 


0.85 




A96061 


T451 


0.250 to 0.500 


23 


(0(7) (15) (17) 


30 


16 


1.00 




A96061 


T451 


0.250 to 0.500 


23 


(0(7) (16) (17) 


30 


16 


0.85 


B 547 


A96061 


T6 


0.125 to 0.249 


23 


(0(7) (15) (17) 


42 


35 


1.00 




A96061 


T6 


0.125 to 0.249 


23 


(0(7) (16) (17) 


42 


35 


0.85 




A96061 


T651 


0.250 to 0.500 


23 


(1)(7)(15)(17) 


42 


35 


1.00 




A96061 


T651 


0.250 to 0.500 


23 


(0(7) (16) (17) 


42 


35 


0.85 


Sheet and Plate 
















B 209 


A93003 





0.051 to 3.000 


21 


(0 


14 


5 


1.00 




A93003 


H112 


0.250 to 0.499 


21 


(0(3) 


17 


10 


1.00 




A93003 


H112 


0.500 to 2.000 


21 


(0(3) 


15 


6 


1.00 


B 209 


Alclad A93003 





0.051 to 0.499 


21 


(0(4) 


13 


4.5 


1.00 




Alciad A93003 





0.500 to 3.000 


21 


(0(18) 


14 


5 


1.00 




Alclad A93003 


H112 


0.250 to 0.499 


21 


(0(3X4) 


16 


9 


1.00 




Alclad A93003 


H112 


0.500 to 2.000 


21 


(0(3X19) 


15 


6 


1.00 


B 209 


A95083 





0.051 to 1.500 


25 


(0(8) 


40 


18 


1.00 




A95454 





0.051 to 3.000 


22 


(0 


31 


12 


1.00 




A95454 


H112 


0.250 to 0.499 


22 


(0(3) 


32 


18 


1.00 




A95454 


H112 


0.500 to 3.000 


22 


(0(3) 


31 


12 


1.00 


B 209 


A96061 


T4 


0.051 to 0.249 


23 


(0(6X9) 


30 


16 


1.00 




A96061 


T451 


0.250 to 3.000 


23 


(0(6X9) 


30 


16 


1.00 




A96061 


T4 welded 


0.051 to 0.249 


23 


(0(7) (9) 


24 


10 


1.00 




A96061 


T451 welded 


0.250 to 3.000 


23 


(0(7)0) 


24 


10 


1.00 


B 209 


A96061 


T6 


0.051 to 0.249 


23 


(0(6) (9) 


42 


35 


1.00 




A96061 


T651 


0.250 to 4.000 


23 


(0(6) (9) 


42 


35 


1.00 




A96061 


T651 


4.001 to 6.000 


23 


(0(6)0) 


40 


35 


1.00 




A96061 


T6 welded 


0.051 to 0.249 


23 


(0(7X9) 


24 


10 


1.00 




A96061 


T651 welded 


0.250 to 6.000 


23 


(0(7)0) 


24 


10 


1.00 


Die and Hand Forgings 
















B 247 


A93003 


H112 


Up thru 4.000 


21 


(0(10 


14 


5 


1.00 




A93003 


H112 welded 


Up thru 4.000 


21 


(0(7X11) 


14 


5 


1.00 



180 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A- 7 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 

to Spec. 

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 UNS Alloy No. No. 

Arc-Welded Round Tube (Cont'd) 



11.4 


11.4 












A95083 


B 547 


9.7 


9.7 












A95083 




8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 


B 547 


6.8 


6.8 


6.8 


6.4 


4.7 


3.5 


2.6 


A95454 




9.1 


9.1 


9.1 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 




7.8 


7.8 


7.8 


6.4 


4 J 


3.5 


2.6 


A95454 




8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


1A 


6.9 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 


B 547 


7.3 


7.3 


7.3 


63 


5.9 


5.4 


3.8 


A96061 




8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


7A 


6.9 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 




7.3 


7.3 


7.3 


6.3 


5.9 


5.4 


3.8 


A96061 




12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


9.9 


8.4 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 


B 547 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


8.4 


7.1 


5.4 


3.8 


A96061 




12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


9.9 


8.4 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 




10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


8.4 


7.1 


5.4 


3.8 


A96061 


Sheet and Plate 


3.4 


3.4 


3.4 


3.0 


2.4 


1.8 


1.4 


A93003 


B 209 


4.9 


4.9 


4.9 


4.0 


3.6 


3.0 


2.4 


A93003 




4.3 


4.3 


4.3 


3.2 


2.4 


1.8 


1.4 


A930O3 




3.0 


3.0 


3.0 


2.7 


2.2 


1.6 


1.3 


Alclad A93003 


B 209 


3.3 


3.3 


3.3 


2.7 


2.2 


1.6 


1.3 


Alclad A93003 




4.6 


4.6 


4.6 


2.7 


2.2 


1.6 


1.3 


Alclad A93003 




4.0 


4.0 


4.0 


2.7 


2.2 


1.6 


1.3 


Alclad A93003 




11.4 


11.4 












A95083 


B 209 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 




9.1 


9.1 


9.1 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 




8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 




8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


7.4 


6.9 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 


B 209 


8.6 


8.6 


8.6 


7.4 


6.9 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 




6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.7 


6.3 


4.6 


3.5 


A96061 




6,9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.7 


6.3 


4.6 


3.5 


A96061 




12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


9.9 


8.4 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 


B 209 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


9.9 


8.4 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 




11.4 


11.4 


11.4 


9.6 


8.2 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 




6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.7 


6.3 


4.6 


3.5 


A96061 




6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.7 


6.3 


4.6 


3.5 


A96061 


















Die and Hand Forgings 


3.4 


3.4 


3.4 


3.0 


2.4 


1.8 


1.4 


A930O3 


B 247 


3.4 


3.4 


3.4 


3.0 


2.4 


1.8 


1.4 


A93003 





181 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A- 7 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 










Size or 






Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 






Thickness, 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


UNS Alloy No. 


Temper 


in. 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Die and Hand Forgings (Cont'd) 

B 247 A95083 
A95083 

A95083 

B 247 A96061 
A96061 
A96061 
A96061 



Rods, Bars, and Shapes 



B 221 
B 221 
B 221 
B 221 

B 221 

B 221 
B 221 

B 221 
B 221 

B 221 



A91060 
A91060 

A91100 
A91100 

A93003 
A93003 

A92024 
A92024 
A92024 
A92024 

A95083 
A95083 
A95083 

A95086 

A95154 
A95154 

A95454 
A95454 
A95454 

A95456 
A95456 
A95456 

A96061 
A96061 
A96061 
A96061 



Hill 


Up thru 4.000 


25 


(D(6)(8) 


39 


H112 


Up thru 4.000 


25 


(1)(6)(8) 


39 


Hill, H112 welded 


Up thru 4.000 


25 


(D(7)(8) 


38 


T6 


Up thru 4.000 


23 


CD (6) (11) 


38 


16 


Up thru 4.000 


23 


CD (6) (12) 


37 


T6 


4.001 to 8.000 


23 


(1)(6)(12) 


35 


T6 welded 


Up thru 8.000 


23 


CD (7) 


24 





All 


21 


(1X21X22) 


8.5 


H112 


All 


21 


(1) (3) (21) (2 2) 


8.5 





All 


21 


(1)(21)(22) 


11 


H112 


All 


21 


(1X3X21X22) 


11 





All 


21 


(1) (21)(22) 


14 


H112 


All 


21 


(1)(3)(21)(22) 


14 


T3 


Up thru 0.249 




(1X2X9X21X22) 


57 


T3 


0.250-0.749 




(1X2X9X21X22) 


60 


T3 


0.750-1.499 




(1) (2) (9) (21) (2 2) 


65 


T3 


1.500 and over 




(1X2X9X21X22) 


68 





Up thru 5.000 


25 


(1) (8) (21) (2 2) 


39 


Hill 


Up thru 5.000 


25 


(1)(3)(8X21)(22) 


40 


H112 


Up thru 5.000 


25 


(1)(3)(8)(21X22) 


39 


H112 


Up thru 5.000 


25 


(1)(2)(8)(21X22) 


35 





All 


22 


(1)(8)(21)(22) 


30 


H112 


All 


22 


(1) (3) (8) (21) (2 2) 


30 





Up thru 5.000 


22 


(1X21X22) 


31 


Hill 


Up thru 5.000 


22 


(1)(3)(21)(22) 


33 


H112 


Up thru 5.000 


22 


(1)(3)(21)(22) 


31 





Up thru 5.000 


25 


(1) (8) (21) (2 2) 


41 


Hill 


Up thru 5.000 


25 


(1) (3) (8) (21) (2 2) 


42 


H112 


Up thru 5.000 


25 


(1)(3X8)(21)(22) 


41 


T4 


All 


23 


(1)(2)(9)(21)(22) 


26 


16 


All 


23 


(1)(2)(9)(21)(22) 


38 


T4 welded 


All 


23 


(1X7)0X21X22) 


24 


16 welded 


All 


23 


(1X7)0X21X22) 


24 



16 


1.00 


16 


1.00 


16 


1.00 


35 


1.00 


33 


1.00 


32 


1.00 


10 


1.00 


2.5 


1.00 


2,5 


1.00 


3 


1.00 


3 


1.00 


5 


1.00 


5 


1.00 


42 


1.00 


44 


1.00 


46 


1.00 


48 


1.00 


16 


1.00 


24 


1.00 


16 


1.00 



14 

11 
11 

12 
19 
12 

19 
26 

19 

16 
35 
10 
10 



1.00 

1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 

1.00 
1.00 

1.00 

1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 



182 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-7 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 

-20 

to Spec. 

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 UNS Alloy No. No. 



183 



Die and Hand Forgings (Cont'd) 



11.1 


11.1 












A95083 


B 247 


10.7 


10.7 












A95083 




10.9 


10.9 












A95083 




10.9 


10.9 


10.9 


9.1 


7.9 


63 


4.5 


A96061 


B 247 


10.6 


10.6 


10.6 


8.8 


7.7 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 




10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


8 A 


7.4 


6.1 


4.5 


A96061 




6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.7 


6.3 


4.6 


3.5 


A96061 

Rods, 


Bars, and Shapes 


1.7 


1.7 


1.6 


1.5 


1.3 


LI 


0.8 


A91060 


B 221 


1.7 


1.7 


1.6 


1.5 


1.3 


1.1 


0.8 


A91060 




2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


1.8 


1.4 


1.0 


A91100 


B 221 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


1.8 


1.4 


to 


A91100 




3.4 


3.4 


3.4 


3.0 


2.4 


1.8 


1.4 


A93003 


B 221 


3.4 


3.4 


3.4 


3.0 


2.4 


1.8 


1.4 


A93003 




16.3 


16.3 


16.3 


12.6 


9.5 


6.0 


4.2 


A92024 


B 221 


17.1 


17.1 


17.1 


13.2 


10.0 


6.3 


4.4 


A92024 




18.6 


18.6 


18.6 


14.3 


10.8 


6.8 


4.7 


A92024 




19.4 


19.4 


19.4 


15.0 


11.3 


7.1 


5.0 


A92024 




10.7 


10.7 












A95083 


B 221 


11.4 


11.4 












A95083 




10.7 


10.7 












A95083 





9.3 9.3 ... ... ... ... ... A95086 B 221 

B 221 

B 221 



B 221 



7.3 


7.3 












A95154 


7.3 


7.3 












A95154 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 


9,4 


9.4 


9.4 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.5 


5.5 


4.1 


3.0 


A95454 


11.7 


11.7 












A95456 


12.0 


12.0 












A95456 


11.7 


11.7 












A95456 


7.4 


7.4 


7.4 


6.4 


6.0 


5.8 


4.5 


A96061 


10.9 


10.9 


10.9 


9.1 


7.9 


6.3 


4.5 


A96061 


6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.7 


6.3 


4.6 


3.5 


A96061 


6.9 


6.9 


6.9 


6.7 


6.3 


4.6 


3.5 


A96061 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



B 221 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-7 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys (Cont'd) 



Spec. 
No. 



UNS Alloy No. 



Temper 



Size or 




hickness, 


P- 


in. 


No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 




Minimum 


Minimum 


E 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


ksi 


ksi 


F 



Rods, Bars, and Shapes (Cont'd) 



B 221 


A96063 


Tl 


Up thru 0.500 


23 


(1)(2)(21)(22) 


17 


9 


1.00 




A96063 


Tl 


0.501-1.000 


23 


(1)(2)(21)(22) 


16 


8 


1.00 




A96063 


T5 


Up thru 0.500 


23 


(1)(2)(21)(22) 


22 


16 


1.00 




A96063 


T5 


0.501-1.000 


23 


(1)(2)(21)(22) 


21 


15 


1.00 




A96063 


T6 


Up thru 1.000 


23 


(1)(2)(21)(22) 


30 


25 


1.00 




A96063 


T5, T6 welded 


Up thru 1.000 


23 


(1)(7)(21)(22) 


17 


10 


1.00 


Castings 


















B 26 


A24430 


F 






(D(2) 


17 


6 


0.80 




A03560 


T6 






(D(2) 


30 


20 


0.80 




A03560 


T71 






(1)(2) 


25 


18 


0,80 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The tabulated specifications are ANSi/ASTA/1 or ASTM. For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related specifica- 
tions in Section II of the ASME Code. 

(b) The stress values in this Table may be interpolated to determine values for intermediate temperatures. 

(c) The P-Numbers listed in this Table are identical to those adopted by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Qualification of weld- 
ing procedures, welders, and welding operators is required and shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 
IX, except as modified by para. 127.5. 

(d) Tensile strengths and allowable stresses shown in "ksi" are "thousands of pounds per square inch." 

(e) The materials listed in this Table shall not be used at design temperatures above those for which allowable stress values are given. 
(0 The tabulated stress values are 5 x E (weld joint efficiency factor) orSxF (material quality factor), as applicable. Weld joint effi- 
ciency factors are shown in Table 102.4.3. 

(g) Pressure-temperature ratings of piping components, as published in standards referenced in this Code, may be used for components 
meeting the requirements of those standards. The allowable stress values given in this Table are for use in designing piping compo- 
nents that are not manufactured in accordance with referenced standards. 

(h) Aluminum and aluminum alloys shall not be used for flammable fluids within the boiler plant structure (see para. 122.7). 

(i) The y coefficient equals 0.4 [see Table 104.1.2(A)]. 

(j) The tabulated stress values that are shown in italics are at temperatures in the range where creep and stress rupture strength govern 
the selection of stresses. 

NOTES: 

(1) THIS MATERIAL IS NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR USE ON BOILER EXTERNAL PIPING - SEE FIGS. 100.1.2(A) and (B). 

(2) These allowable stress values are not applicable when either welding or thermal cutting is employed. 

(3) These allowable stress values are not applicable when either welding or thermal cutting is employed, in such cases, the corresponding 
stress values for the temper shall be used. 

(4) These allowable stress values are 90% of those for the corresponding core material. 

(5) These allowable stress values apply only to seamless pipe smaller than NPS 1 that is extruded and then drawn. 

(6) These allowable stress values are not applicable when either welding or thermal cutting is employed. In such cases, the corresponding 
stress values for the welded condition shall be used. 



184 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A- 7 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys (Cont'd) 

Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Mot Exceeding 



-20 
to 
100 



150 



200 



250 



300 



350 



400 



UNS Alloy No. 



Spec. 
No. 



4.9 
4.6 
6.3 
6.0 
8.6 
4.9 



4.9 
4.6 
6.3 
6.0 
8.6 
4.9 



4.9 
4.6 
6.3 
6.0 
8.6 
4.9 



4.2 
4.0 
5.1 
4,9 
6.8 
4.2 



4.2 
4.0 
4.6 
4.3 
5.0 
3.9 



3.4 
3 A 
3.4 
3.4 
3.4 
3.0 



2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 



Rods, Bars, and Shapes (Cont'd) 

A96063 B 221 

A96063 

A96063 

A96063 

A96063 

A96063 



3.2 
6.9 
5.8 



3.2 
6.9 
5.8 



3.2 
6.9 
5,8 



3.0 
5.0 
5.0 



2.8 
4.3 



2.5 
3.3 



2.2 
1.9 



A24430 
A03560 
A03560 



Castings 
B 26 



NOTES (Cont'd): 
(7) 



(8) 
(9) 



The strength of a reduced-section tensile specimen is required to qualify welding procedures. Refer to the ASME Boiler and Pressure 

Vessel Code, Section IX, QW-150. 

Refer to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Part UNF, NF-13(b) regarding stress corrosion. 

For stress relieved tempers (T351, T3510, T3511, T451, T4510, T4511, T651, T6510, and T6511), stress values for the material in 

the basic temper shall be used. 

(10) These allowable stress values apply to all thicknesses and sizes of seamless pipe. They also apply to seamless extruded tube in 
thicknesses up to and including 1.000 in. 

(11) These allowable stress values are for die forgings. 

(12) These allowable stress values are for hand forgings. 

(13) For temperatures up to 300°F, these allowable stress values are 83% of those for the corresponding core material. At temperatures of 
350°F and 400°F, these allowable stress values are 90% of those for the corresponding core material. 

(14) These allowable stress values are for the tempers listed in the welded condition and are identical to those for the temper. 

(15) These allowable stress values are based on 100% radiography of the longitudinal weld in accordance with ASTM B 547, para. 11. 

(16) These allowable stress values are based on spot radiography of the longitudinal weld in accordance with ASTM B 547, para. 11. 

(17) These allowable stress values are for the heat treated tempers listed in the welded condition. 

(18) The tension test specimen from plate which is not less than 0.500 in. thick is machined from the core and does not include the clad- 
ding alloy. Therefore, the allowable stress values for thicknesses less than 0.500 in. shall be used. 

(19) The tension test specimen from plate which is not less than 0.500 in, thick is machined from the core and does not include the clad- 
ding alloy. Therefore, these allowable stress values are 90% of those for the core material of the same thickness. 

(20) The allowable stress values for seamless pipe in sizes NPS 1 and larger are as follows: 



100°F 


3.5 ksi 


150°F 


3.5 ksi 


200°F 


3.4 ksi 



(21) Stress values in restricted shear, such as in dowel bolts or similar construction in which the shearing member Is so restricted that 
the section under consideration would fail without reduction of area, shall be 0.80 times the values in this Table. 

(22) Stress values in bearing shall be 1.60 times the values in this Table. 

(23) ASTM B 210 does not include this alloy/grade of material. 



185 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
\^ No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-8 Temperatures 1,200°F and Above 

















Specified 


Specified 






UNS 










Minimum 


Minimum 


Spec. 


Type or 


Alloy 






P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


No. 


Grade 


No. 


Temper 


Nominal Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 



A 213 



A 213 



A 312 



A 312 



A 376 



A 430 



TP304H 

TP310H 
TP316H 
TP316L 

TP321H 
TP347H 
TP348H 

TP304H 

TP310H 
TP316H 

TP321H 
TP347H 
TP348H 

TP304H 
TP316H 

TP321H 
TP347H 

FP304H 
FP316H 
FP321H 
FP347H 



S30409 
S30815 
S310O9 
S31609 
S31603 

S32109 
S34709 
S34809 

S30409 
S30815 
S31009 
S31609 

S32109 
S34709 
S34809 

S30409 
S31609 
S32109 
S34709 

S30409 
S31609 
S32109 
S34709 



18Cr-8Ni 

21Cr-llNi-N 

25Cr-20Ni 

16Cr~~12Ni-2Mo 

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 

18Cr-10Ni-Ti 

18Cr~10Ni-Cb 

18Cr-10Ni-Cb 

18Cr-8Ni 
21Cr-llNi-N 
25Cr-20Ni 
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 

18Cr-10Ni-Ti 

18Cr-10Ni-Cb 

18Cr-10Ni-Cb 

18Cr-8Ni 

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 

ISCr-lONi-Ti 

18Cr-10Ni-Cb 

18Cr-8Ni 
16Cr-12Ni~2Mo 
18Cr-10Ni-Ti 
18Cr-10Ni-Cb 



(1) 
(2)(4) 

CO 



(1) 
(2) (4) 



75 
87 
75 
75 

70 

75 

75 
75 

75 
87 
75 

75 

75 
75 
75 

75 
75 
75 
75 

70 
70 
70 
70 



30 
45 
30 
30 
25 

30 
30 
30 

30 
45 
30 
30 

30 
30 
30 

30 
30 
30 
30 

30 
30 
30 

30 



B 163 



N08800 
N08810 



Annealed 
Annealed 



Ni-Cr-Fe 
Ni~Cr-Fe 



45 
45 



(1) 
(1) 



75 
65 



30 
25 



B 167 

B 407 



N06617 Annealed 

N08800 C.D./ann. 
N08810 Annealed 



Welded Pipe and Tube — Without Filler Metal 

A 249 



A 249 



A 312 



TP304H 


S30409 




S30815 


TP310H 


S31009 


TP316H 


S31609 


TP321H 


S32109 


TP347H 


S34709 


TP348H 


$34809 


TP304H 


S30409 




S30815 


TP310H 


S31009 


TP316H 


S31609 



52Ni~-22Cr-13Co-9Mo 

Ni-Cr-Fe 
Ni-Cr-Fe 



18Cr-SNi 

21Cr-llNi~N 

25Cr-20Ni 

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 

18Cr-lGNi-Ti 

18Cr-10Ni-Cb 

18Cr-10Ni-Cb 

18Cr~8Ni 
21Cr-llNi-N 
25Cr-20Ni 
16Cr-12Ni~2Mo 



43 



45 
45 



95 



35 





75 


30 




65 


25 




75 


35 


(1) 


87 


45 


(D(2)(4) 


75 


35 




75 


35 




75 


35 




75 


35 




75 


35 




75 


30 


CD 


87 


45 


(2)(4) 


75 


30 




75 


30 



186 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-8 Temperatures 1 S 200°F and Above 



for 
F 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding 



1,200 



1,250 



1300 



1,350 



1,400 



1,450 



1,500 



Type or 
Grade 



Spec. 
No. 



1.00 


6.1 


4.7 


3.7 


2.9 


2.3 


1.8 


1.4 


TP304H 


1.00 


5.2 


4.0 


3 A 


2.4 


1.9 


1.6 


1.3 




1.00 


4.0 


3.0 


2.2 


1.7 


1.3 


0.97 


0.75 


TP310H 


1.00 


7.4 


5.5 


4.1 


3.1 


2.3 


1.7 


1.3 


TP316H 


1.00 


6.4 


4.7 


3.5 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


1.0 


TP316L 


1.00 


5.4 


4 A 


3.2 


2.5 


1.9 


1.5 


1.1 


TP321H 


1.00 


7.9 


5.9 


4.4 


3.2 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


TP347H 


1.00 


7.9 


5.9 


4.4 


3.2 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


TP348H 


1.00 


6.1 


4.7 


3.7 


2.9 


2.3 


1.8 


1.4 


TP304H 


1.00 


5.2 


4.0 


3.1 


2.4 


1.9 


1.6 


1.3 




1.00 


4.0 


3.0 


2.2 


1.7 


1.3 


0.97 


0.75 


TP310H 


1.00 


7.4 


5.5 


4.1 


3.1 


2.3 


1.7 


13 


TP316H 


1.00 


5.4 


4 A 


3.2 


2.5 


1.9 


1.5 


1.1 


TP321H 


1.00 


7.9 


5.9 


4.4 


3.2 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


TP347H 


1.00 


7.9 


5.9 


4.4 


3.2 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


TP348H 


1.00 


6.1 


4.7 


3.7 


2.9 


2.3 


1.8 


1.4 


TP304H 


1.00 


7.4 


5.5 


4.1 


3.1 


2.3 


1.7 


13 


TP316H 


1.00 


5.4 


4 A 


3.2 


2.5 


1.9 


1.5 


1.1 


TP321H 


1.00 


7.9 


5.9 


4.4 


3.2 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


TP347H 


1.00 


6.1 


4.7 


3.7 


2.9 


2.3 


1.8 


1.4 


FP304H 


1.00 


7.4 


5.5 


4.1 


3.1 


2.3 


1.7 


1.3 


FP316H 


1.00 


5.4 


4.1 


3.2 


2.5 


1.9 


1.5 


1.1 


FP321H 


1.00 


7.9 


5.9 


4.4 


3.2 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


FP347H 


1.00 


6.6 


4.2 


2.0 


1.6 


1A 


1.0 


0.80 




1.00 


7.4 


5.9 


4.7 


3.8 


3.0 


2.4 


1.9 





1.00 



15.3 



14.5 



11.2 



8.7 



6.6 



5.1 



3.9 



Seamless Pipe and Tube 
A 213 



1.00 


6.6 


4.2 


2.0 


1.6 


1.1 


1.0 


0.80 




1.00 


7.4 


5.9 


4.7 


3.8 


3.0 


2.4 


1.9 
Welded Pipe and Tubi 


e - Witht 


0.85 


5.2 


4.0 


3.2 


2.5 


2.0 


1.6 


1.2 


TP304H 


0.85 


4.4 


3.4 


2.6 


2.0 


1.6 


1.4 


1.1 




0.85 


3.4 


2.6 


1.9 


1.4 


1.1 


0.82 


0.64 


TP310H 


0.85 


63 


4.7 


3.5 


2.6 


1.9 


1.5 


1.1 


TP316H 


0.85 


4.6 


3.5 


2.7 


2.1 


1.6 


13 


1.0 


TP321H 


0.85 


6.7 


5.0 


3.7 


2.7 


2 A 


1.6 


1.1 


TP347H 


0.85 


6.7 


5.0 


3.7 


2.7 


2.1 


1.6 


1.1 


TP348H 


0.85 


5.2 


4.0 


3.2 


2.5 


2.0 


1.6 


1.2 


TP304H 


0.85 


4.4 


3.4 


2.6 


2.0 


1.6 


1.4 


1.1 




0.85 


3.4 


2.6 


1.9 


1.4 


1.1 


0.82 


0.64 


TP310H 


0.85 


63 


4.7 


3.5 


2.6 


1.9 


1.5 


1.1 


TP316H 



A 213 



A 312 



A 312 



A 376 



A 430 



B 163 



B 167 



B 407 



Without Filler Metal 
A 249 



A 249 



A 312 



187 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-8 Temperatures 1,200°F and Above (Cont'd) 

















Specified 


Specified 






UNS 










Minimum 


Minimum 


Spec. 


Type or 


Alloy 






P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


No. 


Grade 


No. 


Temper 


Nominal Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 



Welded Pipe and Tube - Without Filler Metal (Cont'd) 



A 312 


TP321H 


S32109 






18Cr- 


lONi- 


-Ti 




8 




TP347H 


S32709 






18Cr- 


lONi- 


-Cb 




8 


A 409 




S30815 






21Cr- 


llNi- 


-N 




8 


Welded Pipe and Tube - 


Filler Metal Added 














A 358 


1 & 3 


S30815 






21Cr- 


11NN 


^N 




8 




2 


S30815 






21Cr- 


11NN 


-N 




8 


A 409 




S30815 






21Cr- 


UNi- 


-N 




8 


B 546 




N06617 


Annea 


led 


52Ni~ 


-22Cr- 


-13Co- 


-9Mo 


43 


Plate 




















A 240 


304 


S30400 






18Cr- 


8Ni 






8 






S30815 






21Cr- 


-UNi- 


-N 




8 




310S 


S31008 






25Cr- 


-20Ni 






8 




316 


S31600 






16Cr- 


-12Ni- 


-2Mo 




8 




316L 


S31603 






16Cr- 


-12NI- 


-2W!o 




8 


A 240 


321 


S32100 






ISCr- 


-lONi 


-Ti 




8 




347 


S34700 






18Cr- 


-lONi 


-Cb 




8 




348 


S34800 






18Cr- 


■lONi 


-Cb 




8 


B 168 




N06617 


Annea 


led 


52Ni- 


~22Cr 


~13Co- 


-9A/io 


43 


B 409 




N08800 


Annea 


led 


Ni-Cr 


-Fe 






45 






N08810 


Annea 


led 


Ni-Cr 


-Fe 






45 


Bars, Rods, 


and Shapes 


















A 479 




S30815 






21Cr~ 


-UNi 


-N 




8 




TP316L 


S31603 






16Cr- 


-12Ni 


-2Mo 




8 


B 166 




N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni- 


-22Cr 


-13Co- 


-9Mo 


43 


B 408 




N08800 


Annea 


iled 


Ni-C 


-Fe 






45 






N08810 


Annec 


iled 


Ni-C 


-Fe 






45 


Forgings 




















A 182 


F304H 


S30409 






18Cr- 


-8Ni 






8 






S30815 






21Cr- 


-UNi 


-N 




8 




F310H 


S31009 






25Cr- 


-20Ni 






8 




F316H 


S31609 






l6Cr- 


-12Ni 


-2Mo 




8 




F316L 


S31603 






16Cr- 


-12Ni 


-2Mo 




8 


A 182 


F321H 


S32109 






18Cr- 


-lONi 


-Ti 




8 




F347H 


S34709 






180 


-lONi 


-Cb 




8 




F348H 


534809 






18Cr- 


-lONi 


-Cb 




8 


B 564 




N06617 


Annealed 


52Ni 


-22Cr 


-13Co 


-9Mo 


43 






N08800 


Annealed 


Ni-C 


r-Fe 






45 






N08810 


Annealed 


Ni-C 


r-Fe 






45 



(1) 



(1) 

CD 
(i) 



(2)(3) 

CD 

(2)(3)(4) 
(2) (3) 

CD 

(2)(3) 

(2)C3) 
(1)(2)(3) 



(3) 
(3) 



CD 

(1)(5) 



75 
75 



87 



87 
87 



87 
95 



75 
87 
75 
75 
70 

75 
75 
75 

95 

75 
65 



87 
70 

95 



30 
30 

45 



45 
45 



45 

35 



30 
45 
30 
30 
25 

30 
30 
30 

35 

30 
25 



45 
25 



36 





75 


30 




65 


25 




75 


30 


(1) 


87 


45 


CDC2X4) 


75 


30 




75 


30 


(i) 


70 


25 




75 


30 




75 


30 




75 


30 




95 


35 




75 


30 




65 


25 



188 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. r® 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^® 



AS/VSE B31. 1-2007 



Table A-8 Temperatures 1,200°F and Above (Cont'd) 



c Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, kst, for Metal Temperature, °F, Not Exceeding - - 

F 1,200 1,250 1,300 1,350 1,400 1,450 1,500 Grade No. 

Welded Pipe and Tube - Without Filler Metal (Cont'd) 

A 312 



0.85 


4.6 


3.5 


2.7 


2.1 


1.6 


1.3 


1.0 


TP321H 


0.85 


6.7 


5.0 


3.7 


2.7 


2 A 


1.6 


1A 


TP347H 



0.85 4.4 3.4 2.6 2.0 1.6 1.4 1.1 ... A 409 

















Welded Pipe and Tube — Filler Metal Added 


1.00 


5.2 


4.0 


3 A 


2.4 


1.9 


1.6 


13 


1 & 3 


A 358 


0.90 


4.7 


3.6 


2.8 


2.2 


1.7 


1.4 


1.2 


2 




0.80 


4.2 


3.2 


2.5 


1.9 


1.5 


1.3 


1.0 




A 409 


0,85 


13.0 


12.3 


9.5 


7.4 


5.6 


4.3 


3.3 




B 546 
Plate 


1.00 


6 A 


4.7 


3.7 


2.9 


2.3 


1.8 


1.4 


304 


A 240 


1.00 


5.2 


4.0 


3 A 


2.4 


1.9 


1.6 


13 






1.00 


2.5 


1.5 


0.80 


0.50 


0.40 


0.30 


0.20 


310S 




1.00 


7.4 


5.5 


4 A 


3.1 


2.3 


1.7 


13 


316 




1.00 


6.4 


4.7 


3.5 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


1.0 


316L 




1.00 


3.6 


2.6 


1.7 


1A 


0.80 


0.50 


0.30 


321 


A 240 


1.00 


4.4 


3.3 


2.2 


1.5 


1.2 


0.90 


0.80 


347 




1.00 


4.4 


3.3 


2.2 


1.5 


1.2 


0.90 


0.80 


348 




1.00 


15.3 


14.5 


11.2 


8.7 


6.6 


5.1 


3.9 




B 168 


1.00 


6.6 


4.2 


2.0 


1.6 


1A 


1.0 


0.80 




B 409 


1.00 


7.4 


5.9 


4.7 


3.8 


3.0 


2.4 


1.9 


Bars, Rods, 


and Shapes 


1.00 


5.2 


4.0 


3 A 


2.4 


1.9 


1.6 


13 




A 479 


1.00 


6.4 


4.7 


3.5 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


1.0 


TP316L 




1.00 


15.3 


14.5 


11.2 


8.7 


6.6 


5 A 


3.9 




B 166 


1.00 


6.6 


4.2 


2.0 


1.6 


1A 


1.0 


0.80 




B 408 


1.00 


7.4 


5.9 


4.7 


3.8 


3.0 


2.4 


1.9 




Forgings 


1.00 


6 A 


4.7 


3.7 


2.9 


23 


1.8 


1.4 


F304H 


A 182 


1.00 


5.2 


4.0 


3 A 


2.4 


1.9 


1.6 


13 






1.00 


4.0 


3.0 


2.2 


1.7 


1.3 


0.97 


0.75 


F310H 




1.00 


7.4 


5.5 


4.1 


3.1 


2.3 


1.7 


13 


F316H 




1.00 


6.4 


4.7 


3.5 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


1.0 


F316L 




1.00 


5.4 


4 A 


3.2 


2.5 


1.9 


1.5 


1A 


F321H 


A 182 


1.00 


7.9 


5.9 


4.4 


3.2 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


F347H 




1.00 


7.9 


5.9 


4.4 


3.2 


2.5 


1.8 


13 


F348H 




1.00 


15.3 


14.5 


11.2 


8.7 


6.6 


5.1 


3.9 




B 564 


1.00 


6.6 


4.2 


2.0 


1.6 


1.1 


1.0 


0.80 






1.00 


7.4 


5.9 


4.7 


3.8 


3.0 


2.4 


1.9 







189 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831.1-2007 



Table A-8 Temperatures 1,20G°F and Above (Cont'd) 







UNS 


Spec. 


Type or 


Alloy 


No. 


Grade 


No. 



Temper 



Nominal Composition 



P- 
No. 



Notes 



Specified 


Specified 


Minimum 


Minimum 


Tensile, 


Yield, 


ksi 


ksi 



Fittings (Seamless and Welded) 

A 403 



WP304H 


S30409 


18Cr-8Ni 


WP316H 


S31609 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


WP316L 


S31603 


16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 


WP321H 


S32109 


18Cr-10Ni-Ti 


WP347H 


S34709 


18Cr-10Ni-Cb 


WP348H 


S34809 


18Cr~10Ni~Cb 



(1) 


75 


30 


(1) 


75 


30 


(1) 


70 


25 


(1) 


75 


30 


(1) 


75 


30 


(1) 


75 


30 



GENERAL NOTES; 

(a) The tabulated specifications are ANSi/ASTM or ASTM. For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related specifica- 
tions in Section II of the ASME Code. 

(b) The stress values in this Table may be interpolated to determine values for intermediate temperatures. 

(c) The P-Numbers listed in this Table are identical to those adopted by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Qualification of weld- 
ing procedures, welders, and welding operators is required and shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 
iX, except as modified by para. 127.5. 

(d) Tensile strengths and allowable stresses shown in "ksi" are "thousands of pounds per square inch." 

(e) The materials listed in this Table shall not be used at design temperatures above those for which allowable stress values are given. 

(f) The tabulated stress values are S x E (weld joint efficiency factor) or 5 x F (material quality factor), as applicable. Weld joint effi- 
ciency factors are shown in Table 102.4.3. 

(g) Pressure-temperature ratings of piping components, as published in standards referenced in this Code, may be used for components 
meeting the requirements of those standards. The allowable stress values given in this Table are for use in designing piping compo- 
nents which are not manufactured in accordance with referenced standards. 

(h) All the materials listed are classified as austenitic [see Table 104.1.2(A)]. 

(i) The tabulated stress values that are shown in italics are at temperatures in the range where creep and stress rupture strength govern 
the selection of stresses. 



190 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table A-8 Temperatures 1,200°F and Above (Cont'd) 



For 
F 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, T, Not Exceeding 
1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 



1450 



1500 



Type or 
Grade 



Spec. 
No. 



Fittings (Seamless and Welded) 



1.00 


6 A 


4 J 


3.7 


2.9 


2.3 


1.8 


1A 


WP304H 


A 403 


1.00 


7.4 


5.5 


4.1 


3.1 


23 


1.7 


1.3 


WP316H 




1.00 


6.4 


4.7 


3.5 


2.5 


1.8 


1.3 


1.0 


WP316L 




1.00 


5 A 


4.1 


3.2 


2.5 


1.9 


1.5 


1A 


WP321H 




1.00 


7.9 


5.9 


4A 


3.2 


2.5 


1.8 


1.3 


WP347H 




1,00 


7.9 


5.9 


4.4 


3.2 


2.5 


1.8 


1.3 


WP348H 





NOTES: 

(1) THIS MATERIAL IS NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR USE ON BOILER EXTERNAL PIPING - SEE FIGS. 100.1.2(A) and (B). 

(2) These allowable stress values shall be used only if the carbon content of the material is 0.04% or higher. 

(3) These allowable stress values tabulated shall be used only if the material is heat treated by heating to a minimum temperature of 
1,900°F and quenching in water or rapidly cooling by other means. 

(4) These allowable stress values shall be used only when the grain size of the material is ASTM No. 6 or coarser. 

(5) These allowable stress values shall be used only when Supplementary Requirement $1 per ASTM A 479 has been specified. 



191 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-9 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 

















Specified 


Specified 


















Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 






Nominal 


P- 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Condition 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 


Seamless Pipe and Tube 


















B 338 


1 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


(1) 


35 


25 


1.00 




2 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


(1) 


50 


40 


1.00 




3 


Annealed 


Ti 




52 


(1) 


65 


55 


1.00 




7 


Annealed 


Ti-Pd 




51 


(1) 


50 


40 


1.00 




12 


Annealed 


Ti-Mo- 


-Ni 


52 


(1) 


70 


50 


1.00 


B 861 


1 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


(1) 


35 


25 


1.00 




2 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


CD 


50 


40 


1.00 




3 


Annealed 


Ti 




52 


CD 


65 


55 


1.00 




7 


Annealed 


Ti-Pd 




51 


CD 


50 


40 


1.00 




12 


Annealed 


Ti-Mo- 


-Ni 


52 


CD 


70 


50 


1.00 


Welded Pipe and Tube 


















B 338 


1 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


(1)(2) 


35 


25 


0.85 




2 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


(D(2) 


50 


40 


0.85 




3 


Annealed 


Ti 




52 


(D(2) 


65 


55 


0.85 




7 


Annealed 


Tl-Pd 




51 


(1)(2) 


50 


40 


0.85 




12 


Annealed 


Ti-Mo- 


-Ni 


52 


(1)(2) 


70 


50 


0.85 


B 862 


1 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


(D(2) 


35 


25 


0.85 




2 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


(1)(2) 


50 


40 


0.85 




3 


Annealed 


Ti 




52 


CD(2) 


65 


55 


0.85 




7 


Annealed 


Ti-Pd 




51 


(1)(2) 


50 


40 


0.85 




12 


Annealed 


Ti-Mo- 


-Ni 


52 


(D(2) 


70 


50 


0.85 


Plate, Sheet, 


and Strip 


















B 265 


1 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


(1) 


35 


25 


1.00 




2 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


(1) 


50 


40 


1.00 




3 


Annealed 


Ti 




52 


CD 


65 


55 


1.00 




7 


Annealed 


Ti-Pd 




51 


(i) 


50 


40 


1.00 




12 


Annealed 


Ti-Mo- 


-Ni 


52 


CD 


70 


50 


1.00 


Forgings 




















B 381 


Fl 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


(l) 


35 


25 


1.00 




F2 


Annealed 


Ti 




51 


CD 


50 


40 


1.00 




F3 


Annealed 


Ti 




52 


CD 


65 


55 


1.00 




F7 


Annealed 


Ti-Pd 




51 


CD 


50 


40 


1.00 




F12 


Annealed 


Ti-Mo- 


-Ni 


52 


(i) 


70 


50 


1.00 



192 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2G07 



Table A-9 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 





Maximum 


Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, 


, for Metal Temperature, 


°F, Not Exceeding 








-20 
























to 
























Spec. 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


350 


400 


450 


500 


550 


600 


Grade 


No. 






















Seamless Pipe 


and Tube 


10.0 


93 


8.3 


7.4 


6.6 


6.0 


5.5 


5.1 


4.7 


4.2 


3.6 


1 


B 338 


14.3 


13.7 


12.4 


11.3 


10.3 


9.5 


8.8 


8.2 


7.6 


7.0 


6.5 


2 




18.6 


17.5 


15.8 


14.2 


12.8 


11.5 


10.3 


9.3 


8.5 


7.9 


7.4 


3 




14.3 


13.7 


12.4 


11.3 


10.3 


9.5 


8.8 


8.2 


7.6 


7.0 


6.5 


7 




20.0 


20.0 


18.7 


17.4 


16.2 


15.2 


14.3 


13.6 


13.1 


12.7 


12.3 


12 




10.0 


9.3 


8.3 


7.4 


6.6 


6.0 


5.5 


5.1 


4.7 


4.2 


3.6 


1 


B 861 


14.3 


13.7 


12.4 


11.3 


10.3 


9.5 


8.8 


8.2 


7.6 


7.0 


6.5 


2 




18.6 


17.5 


15.8 


14.2 


12.8 


11.5 


10.3 


9.3 


8.5 


7.9 


7.4 


3 




14.3 


13.7 


12.4 


11.3 


10.3 


9.5 


8.8 


8.2 


7.6 


7.0 


6.5 


7 




20.0 


20.0 


18.7 


17.4 


16.2 


15.2 


14.3 


13.6 


13.1 


12,7 


12.3 


12 
Welded Pipe 


and Tube 


8.5 


7.9 


7.0 


6.3 


5.6 


5.1 


4.7 


4.3 


4.0 


3.6 


3.0 


1 


B 338 


12.1 


11.6 


10.6 


9.6 


8.8 


8.1 


7.5 


7.0 


6.5 


6.0 


5.5 


2 




15.8 


14.9 


13.4 


12.1 


10.8 


9J 


8.8 


7.9 


7.2 


6.7 


6.3 


3 




12.1 


11.6 


10.6 


9.6 


8.8 


8.1 


7.5 


7.0 


6.5 


6.0 


5.5 


7 




17.0 


17.0 


15.9 


14.8 


13.8 


12.9 


12.1 


11.5 


11.1 


10.8 


10.5 


12 




8.5 


7.9 


7.0 


6.3 


5.6 


5.1 


4.7 


4.3 


4.0 


3.6 


3.0 


1 


B 862 


12.1 


11.6 


10.6 


9.6 


8.8 


8.1 


7.5 


7.0 


6.5 


6.0 


5.5 


2 




15.8 


14.9 


13.4 


12.1 


10.8 


9.7 


8.8 


7.9 


7.2 


6.7 


6.3 


3 




12.1 


11.6 


10.6 


9.6 


8.8 


8.1 


7.5 


7.0 


6.5 


6.0 


5.5 


7 




17.0 


17.0 


15.9 


14.8 


13.8 


12.9 


12.1 


11.5 


11.1 


10.8 


10.5 


12 
Plate, Sheet, 


and Strip 


10.0 


9.3 


8.3 


7.4 


6.6 


6.0 


5.5 


5,1 


4.7 


4.2 


3.6 


1 


B 265 


14.3 


13.7 


12.4 


11.3 


10.3 


9.5 


8.8 


8.2 


7.6 


7.0 


6.5 


2 




18.6 


17.5 


15.8 


14.2 


12.8 


11.5 


10.3 


9.3 


8,5 


7.9 


7.4 


3 




14.3 


13.7 


12.4 


11.3 


10.3 


9.5 


8.8 


8.2 


7.6 


7.0 


6.5 


7 




20.0 


20.0 


18.7 


17.4 


16.2 


15.2 


14.3 


13.6 


13.1 


12.7 


12.3 


12 


Forgings 


10.0 


9.3 


8.3 


7.4 


6.6 


6.0 


5.5 


5.1 


4.7 


4.2 


3.6 


Fl 


B 381 


14.3 


13.7 


12.4 


11.3 


10.3 


9.5 


8.8 


8.2 


7.6 


7.0 


6.5 


F2 




18.6 


17.5 


15.8 


14.2 


12.8 


11.5 


10.3 


9.3 


8.5 


7.9 


7.4 


F3 




14.3 


13.7 


12.4 


11.3 


10.3 


9.5 


8.8 


8.2 


7.6 


7.0 


6.5 


F7 




20.0 


20.0 


18.7 


17.4 


16.2 


15.2 


14.3 


13.6 


13.1 


12.7 


12.3 


F12 





193 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table A-9 Titanium and Titanium Alloys (Cont'd) 















Specified 


Specified 
















Minimum 


Minimum 


£ 


Spec. 






Nominal 


p. 




Tensile, 


Yield, 


or 


No. 


Grade 


Condition 


Composition 


No. 


Notes 


ksi 


ksi 


F 


Bars and Billets 
















B 348 


1 


Annealed 


Ti 


51 


(1) 


35 


25 


1.00 




2 


Annealed 


Ti 


51 


(1) 


50 


40 


1.00 




3 


Annealed 


Ti 


52 


(1) 


65 


55 


1.00 




7 


Annealed 


Ti-Pd 


51 


(1) 


50 


40 


1.00 




12 


Annealed 


Ti-Mo-Ni 


52 


(1) 


70 


50 


1.00 


Castings 


















B 367 


C-2 


As-cast 


Ti 


50 


UX3) 


50 


40 


0,80 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) The tabulated specifications are ANSi/ASTM or ASTM. For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications, see related specifica- 
tions in Section II of the ASME Code. 

(b) The stress values in this Table may be interpolated to determine values for intermediate temperatures. 

(c) The P-Numbers listed in this Table are identical to those adopted by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Qualification of weld- 
ing procedures, welders, and welding operators is required and shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 
IX, except as modified bY para. 127.5. 

(d) Tensile strengths and allowable stresses shown in "ksi" are "thousands of pounds per square inch." 

(e) The materials listed in this Table shall not be used at design temperatures above those for which allowable stress values are given. 

(0 The tabulated stress values are 5 x E (weld joint efficiency factor) or 5 x F (material quality factor), as applicable. Weld joint effi- 
ciency factors are shown in Table 102.4.3. 

Pressure-temperature ratings of piping components, as published in standards referenced in this Code, may be used for components 
meeting the requirements of those standards. The allowable stress values given in this Table are for use in designing piping compo- 
nents which are not manufactured in accordance with referenced standards. 
The y coefficient equals 0.4 [see Table 104.1.2(A)]. 

The tabulated stress values that are shown in italics are at temperatures in the range where creep and stress rupture strength govern 
the selection of stresses. 



(g) 



(h) 

0) 



194 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831.1-2007 



Table A-9 Titanium and Titanium Alloys (Cont'd) 



Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension, ksi, for Metal Temperature, T, Mot Exceeding 

20 

to Spec. 

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Grade No. 



5.5 

8.8 

10.3 

8.8 

20.0 20.0 18.7 17.4 16.2 15.2 14.3 

11.4 10.5 10.0 9.0 8.3 7.6 

NOTES: 

(1) THIS MATERIAL IS NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR USE ON BOILER EXTERNAL PIPING - SEE FIGS. 100.1.2(A) and (B). 

(2) Filler metal shall not be used in the manufacture of welded pipe or tubing. 

(3) Welding of this material is not permitted. 



10.0 


9.3 


8.3 


7.4 


6.6 


6.0 


14.3 


13.7 


12.4 


11.3 


10.3 


9.5 


18.6 


17.5 


15.8 


14.2 


12.8 


11.5 


14.3 


13.7 


12.4 


11.3 


10.3 


9.5 











Bars 


and Billets 


5.1 


4.7 


4.2 


3.6 


1 


B 348 


8.2 


7.6 


7.0 


6.5 


2 




9.3 


8.5 


13 


7.4 


3 




8.2 


7.6 


7.0 


6.5 


7 




.3.6 


13.1 


12.7 


12.3 


12 
C-2 


Castings 
B 367 



195 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society- of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



MANDATORY APPENDIX B 



Begins on next page. 



196 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Table B-l Thermal Expansion Data 







A = 


Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, 


10" 6 in./in 


./°F 
















































in Going From 70°F to Indicated Temperature [Note (1)] 










© 

H O 

O "3 




B = 


Linear Thermal Expansion 


, in./lOO ft 






























Material 




Coef- 
ficient 
















Temperature Range 70°F to 
















-325 


-150 


-50 


70 


200 


300 


400 


500 


600 


700 


800 


900 


1000 


1100 


1200 


1300 


1400 




Group 1 carbon and Sow 


alloy 


A 


5.5 


5.9 


6.2 


6.4 


6.7 


6.9 


7.1 


7.3 


7.4 


7.6 


7.8 


7.9 


8.1 


8.2 


8.3 


8.4 


8.4 




t © 2007 by 
on may be in 


steels [Note (2)] 




B 


-2.6 


-1.6 


-0.9 





1.0 


1.9 


2.8 


3.7 


4.7 


5.7 


6.8 


7.9 


9.0 


10.1 


11.3 


12.4 


14.7 




Group 2 low alloy steels 


[Note (3)3 


A 


6.0 


6.5 


6.7 


7.0 


7.3 


7.4 


7.6 


7.7 


7.8 


7.9 


8.1 


8.1 


8.2 


8.3 


8.4 


8.4 


8.5 








B 


-2.9 


-1.7 


-1.0 





1.1 


2.1 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


6.0 


7.1 


8.1 


9.2 


10.3 


11.4 


12.4 


14.8 




ft* 


5Cr-l(\Ao steels 




A 


5.6 


6.0 


6.2 


6.4 


6.7 


6.9 


7.0 


7.1 


7.2 


7.3 


7.3 


7.4 


7.5 


7.6 


7.6 


7 J 


7.8 




el 

en p. 

18 

2 cfl 






B 


-2.7 


-1.6 


-0.9 





1.1 


1.9 


2.8 


3.6 


4.6 


5.5 


6.4 


7.4 


8.4 


9.4 


10.4 


11.4 


12.4 




9Cr-lMo steels 




A 


5.0 


5.4 


5.6 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 


6.3 


6.4 


6.5 


6.6 


6,7 


6.8 


6.9 


7.0 


7.1 


7.2 


7.2 


> 






B 


-2.4 


-1.4 


-0.8 





0.9 


1.7 


2.5 


3.3 


4.1 


5.0 


5.9 


6.8 


7.7 


8.7 


9.6 


10.6 


11.6 


s 

m 


3. o 
7 5" 


vo Straight chromium stainless steels 






































CD 


£ o 

o *"*> 

1. & 


^ 12Crto 13Cr steels 




A 


5.1 


5.5 


5.7 


5.9 


6.2 


6,3 


6.4 


6.5 


6.5 


6.6 


6.7 


6.7 


6.8 


6.8 


6.9 


6.9 


7.0 


J_A 






B 


-2.4 


-1.5 


-0.8 





1.0 


1.7 


2.5 


3.3 


4.2 


5.0 


5.8 


6.7 


7,6 


8.4 


93 


10.2 


10.6 


O 
O 


15Crto 17Cr steels 




A 


4.5 


4.9 


5.1 


5.3 


5.5 


5.7 


5.8 


5.9 


6.0 


6.1 


6.1 


6.2 


6.3 


6.4 


6.4 


6.5 


6.6 




P o 






B 


-2.1 


-1.3 


™0.7 





0.9 


1.6 


2.3 


3.0 


3.8 


4.6 


5.3 


6.2 


7.0 


73 


8.7 


9.6 


10.0 






27Cr steels 




A 


4.3 


4.7 


4.9 


5.0 


5.2 


5.2 


5.3 


5.4 


5.4 


5.5 


5.6 


5.7 


5.7 


5.8 


5.9 


5.9 


6.0 




52 P 

If 






B 


-2.0 


-1.2 


-0.7 





0.8 


1.4 


2.1 


2.8 


3.5 


4.2 


4.9 


5.6 


6.4 


7.2 


7.9 


8.8 


9.6 




[> CO 


Austenltic stainless steels (304, 


A 


7.5 


8.0 


8.2 


8.5 


8.9 


9.2 


9.5 


9.7 


9.8 


10.0 


10.1 


10.2 


10.3 


10.5 


10.6 


10.7 


10.8 




CO 


305, 316, 317, 321, 347, 348 


B 


-3.6 


-2.1 


-1.2 





1.4 


2.5 


3.7 


5.0 


6.3 


7.5 


8.8 


10.2 


11.5 


12.9 


14.3 


15.7 


17.2 




1 


19-9DL, XM-15, etc.) 










































(S^j 


Other austenitic stainless steels 


A 


7.1 


7.6 


7.8 


8.2 


8.5 


8.8 


8.9 


9.1 


9.2 


9.3 


9.4 


9.5 


9.6 


9.7 


9.8 


9.9 


10.1 




(309, 310, 315.XM-19 


, etc.) 


B 


-3.4 


-2.0 


-1.1 





1.3 


2.4 


3.5 


4.7 


5.8 


7.0 


8.2 


9.5 


10.7 


12.0 


13.3 


14.7 


16.0 






Gray cast iron 




A 










5.8 


5.9 


6.1 


6.3 


6.5 


6.7 


6.8 


7.0 


7.2 


... 
















B 











0.9 


1.6 


2.4 


3.2 


4.1 


5.0 


6.0 


7.0 


8.0 














Ductile cast iron 




A 




4.9 


5.3 


5.7 


6.0 


6.3 


6.5 


6.9 


7.0 


7,1 


7.3 


7.4 


7.5 


















B 




-1.3 


-0.8 





0.9 


1.7 


2.6 


3.5 


4.4 


5.4 


6.4 


7.4 


8.4 


. . » 






. . . 





Table B-l Thermal Expansion Data (Cont'd) 



2 




© 




Hi 




at 


o 


hi 


o 


O 


Tt 


C^ *<! 


C 


1-4 


^. 


•fr 


H 




B 





m 


KJ 


*< 


O 


Sf 


o 
-J 


B 


«? 


CO 


^ 



3. o 

£•* 

^ o 

o ►•+> 

& g 



s-r 



CO 3 

II- 

O <$ 

Jj> en 



>4 = Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, 10 6 in./in./°F 
B = Linear Thermal Expansion, in./100 ft 



in Going From 70°F to Indicated Temperature [Note (1)3 



Material 



Coef- 

ficient -325 



Temperature Range 70°F to 



-150 



-50 



70 



200 



300 



400 



500 600 700 



800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 



Monel (67Ni-30Cu) N04400 



Nickel alloys N02200 and N02201 



Nickel alloy N06600 



Nickel alloys N08800 and N08810 



Nickel alloy N08825 



Copper alloys C1XXXX series 



Bronze alloys 



Brass alloys 



Copper-nickel (70Cu-30Ni) 



Aluminum alloys 



Titanium alloys (Grades 1, 2, 3, 7, 
and 12) 



A 


5.8 


6.8 


7.2 


7.7 


8.1 


8.3 


8.5 


8.7 


8.8 


8.9 


8.9 


9.0 


9.1 


9.1 


9.2 


B 


-2.7 


-1.8 


-1.0 





1.3 


2.3 


3.4 


4.5 


5.6 


6.7 


7.8 


8.9 


10.1 


11.3 


12.4 


A 


5.6 


6.4 


6.7 


7.0 


73 


7.5 


7 J 


7.9 


8.1 


8.2 


8.3 


8.4 


8.5 


8.6 


8.7 


B 


-2.7 


-1.7 


-1.0 





1.2 


2.1 


3.1 


4.1 


5.1 


6.2 


7.2 


8.4 


9.5 


10.6 


11.8 


A 


5.5 


6.1 


6.4 


6.8 


7.1 


7,3 


7.5 


7.6 


7.8 


7.9 


8.1 


8.2 


8.3 


8.4 


8.6 


B 


-2.6 


-1.6 


-0.9 





1.1 


2.0 


3.0 


3.9 


5.0 


6.0 


7.1 


8.1 


9.3 


10.4 


11,6 


A 


5.9 


6.9 


7.4 


7.9 


8,3 


8.6 


8.8 


8.9 


9.0 


9.1 


9.2 


9.3 


9.4 


9.5 


9.6 


B 


-2.8 


-1.7 


-1.1 





1.3 


2.4 


3.5 


4.6 


5.7 


6.9 


8.1 


9.3 


10.5 


11.7 


13.0 


A 






7.2 


7.5 


7.7 


7.9 


8.0 


8.1 


8.2 


8.3 


8.4 


8.5 


8.6 






B 






-1.0 





1.2 


2.2 


3.2 


4.2 


5.2 


6.3 


7.4 


8.5 


9.6 






A 


7.7 


8.7 


9.0 


9.3 


9.6 


9.7 


9.8 


9.9 


10.0 














B 


-3.7 


-2.3 


-1.3 





1.5 


2.7 


3.9 


5.1 


6.1 














A 


8.4 


8.8 


9.2 


9.6 


10.0 


10.1 


10.2 


10.3 


10.4 


10.5 


10.6 


10.7 


10.8 


10.9 


11.0 


B 


-4.0 


-2.3 


-1.3 





1.6 


2.8 


4.1 


5.3 


6.6 


8.0 


9.3 


10.7 


12.1 


13,5 


14.9 


A 


8.2 


8.5 


9.0 


9.3 


9.8 


10.0 


10.2 


10.5 


10.7 


10.9 


11.2 


11.4 


11.6 


11.9 


12.1 


B 


-3.9 


-2.2 


-1.3 





1.5 


2.8 


4.1 


5.4 


6.8 


8.3 


9.8 


11.4 


13.0 


14.7 


16.4 


A 


6.7 


7.4 


7.8 


8.2 


8.5 


8.7 


8.9 


9.1 


9.2 


9.3 












B 


-3.2 


-2.0 


-1.1 





1.3 


2.4 


3.5 


4.7 


5.9 


7.0 












A 


9.9 


10.9 


11.6 


12.3 


13.0 


13.3 


13.6 


13.9 


14.2 














B 


-4.7 


-2.9 


-1.7 





2.0 


3.7 


5.4 


7.2 


9.0 














A 






4.5 


4.6 


4.7 


4.8 


4.8 


4.9 


4.9 


5.0 


5.1 










B 






-0.6 





0.7 


1.3 


1.9 


2.5 


3.1 


3.8 


4.4 











9 

13 



13, 



12 

9, 
14, 



9.3 
14.8 



14 



14 



> 



ASME B31.1-2007 



y 2 N 



7a 
3 / 4 N 

3 / 4 N 



Table B-l Thermal Expansion Data (Cont'd) 

NOTES: 

(1) These data are for information and it is not to be implied that materials are suitable for all the temperature ranges shown. 

(2) Group 1 alloys (by nominal composition): 

Carbon steels 

(C, C-Si, C~Mn, and C-Mn-Si) 
C-V 2 Mo 
ViCr-VsMo-V 
ViCr-V^Mo-Si 
ViCr-VaMo 
V^Cr-^Ni-ViMo 
3 / 4 Cr-V 2 Ni-Cu 
3 / 4 Cr- 3 / 4 Ni-Cu-Al 
lCr-V 5 Mo 
lCr-y 5 Mo-Si 
lCr-V 2 Mo 
lCr-y 2 Mo-V 
iy,Cr-y 2 Mo 
iy f Cr-y 2 fVlo-Si 
l 3 / 4 Cr-y 2 Mo-Cu 
2Cr-y 2 Mo 
2yCr-lMo 
3Cr-lMo 

(3) Group 2 alloys (by nominal composition): 

Mn-V 

Mn-y 4 Mo 

Mn~y 2 Mo 

Mn-y 2 Mo-y 4 Ni 

Mn-y 2 Mo-y 2 Ni 

Mn~y 2 Mo- 3 ANi 



i~y 2 Mo-V 

i-y 2 Cr-y f Mo-V 

i-y 2 Mo-Cr-V 

i-y 2 Mo-y,Cr-v 

i-y 2 Cu-Mo 

i-y 2 Cr-y 2 Mo-V 

i-lMo- 3 / 4 Cr 

lNi-y 2 Cr-y 2 Mo 

iyNi-lCr~y 2 Mo 

l 3 / 4 Ni- 3 / 4 Cr-y 4 Mo 

2Ni- 3 / 4 Cr-y 4 Mo 

2Ni~ 3 ACr-y 3 Mo 

2y 2 Ni 

3 a / 2 Nt 

3y 2 Ni-l 3 / 4 Cr-y 2 Mo-V 



199 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table B-l (SI) Thermal Expansion Data 



A = Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expa 
B = Linear Thermal Expansion, mm/m 


insion, 

i 


10" 6 mm/mm/°C "1 


in Going From 20°C to Indicated Temperature [Note (1)] 






Coef- 
ficient 










Temperature Range 20°C to 












Material 


-200 


-100 


-50 


20 


50 


75 


100 


125 


150 


175 


200 


225 


250 


275 


Group 1 carbon and low alloy 


A 


9.9 


10.7 


11.1 


11.6 


11.8 


11.9 


12.1 


12.2 


12.4 


12.5 


12.7 


12.8 


13.0 


13.2 


steels [Note (2)] 


B 


-2.2 


-1.3 


-0.8 





0.4 


0.7 


1.0 


1.3 


1.6 


1.9 


2.3 


2.6 


3.0 


3.4 


Group 2 low alloy steels [Note (3)] 


A 


10.8 


11.7 


12.0 


12.5 


12.7 


12.9 


13.1 


13.3 


13.4 


13.5 


13.6 


13.7 


13.8 


13.9 




B 


~2.4 


-1.4 


-0.8 





0.4 


0.7 


1.0 


1.4 


1.7 


2.1 


2.5 


2.8 


3.2 


3.6 


5Cr-lMo steels 


A 


10.1 


10.8 


11.2 


11.6 


11.8 


12.0 


12.1 


12.2 


12.4 


12.5 


12.6 


12.6 


12.7 


12.7 




B 


-2.2 


-1.3 


-0.8 





0.4 


0.7 


1.0 


1.3 


1.6 


1.9 


2.3 


2.6 


2.9 


3.3 


9Cr-lMo steels 


A 


9.0 


9.8 


10.1 


10.4 


10.6 


10.7 


10.8 


10.9 


11.1 


11.2 


11.3 


11.4 


11.5 


11.6 




B 


-2.0 


-1.2 


-0.7 





0.3 


0.6 


0.9 


1.1 


1.4 


1.7 


2.0 


2.3 


2.6 


3.0 


Straight chromium stainless steels 
































12Crto 13Cr steels 


A 


9.1 


9.9 


10.2 


10.7 


10.8 


11.0 


11.1 


11.2 


11.3 


11.4 


11.5 


11.6 


11.7 


11.7 




B 


-2.0 


-1.2 


-0.7 





0.3 


0.6 


0.9 


1.2 


1.5 


1.8 


2.1 


2.4 


2.7 


3.0 


15Cr to 17Cr steels 


A 


8.1 


8.8 


9.1 


9.6 


9.7 


9.8 


9.9 


10.0 


10.2 


10.3 


10.3 


10.4 


10.5 


10.6 




B 


-1.8 


-1.1 


-0.6 





0,3 


0.5 


0.8 


1.1 


1.3 


1.6 


1.9 


2.1 


2.4 


2.7 


27Cr steels 


A 


7.7 


8.5 


8.7 


9.0 


9.1 


9.2 


9.3 


9.4 


9.4 


9.5 


9.5 


9.6 


9.7 


9.7 




B 


-1.7 


-1.0 


-0.6 





0.3 


0.5 


0.7 


1.0 


1.2 


1.5 


1.7 


2.0 


2.2 


2.5 


Austenitic stainless steels (304, 


A 


13.5 


14.3 


14.7 


15.3 


15.6 


15.9 


16.1 


16.4 


16.6 


16.8 


17.0 


17.2 


17.3 


17.5 


(305, 316, 317, 321, 347, 348 


B 


-3.0 


-1.7 


-1.0 





0.5 


0.9 


1.3 


1.7 


2.2 


2.6 


3,1 


3.5 


4.0 


4.5 


19-9DLXM-15, etc.) 
































Other austenitic stainless steels 


A 


12.8 


13.6 


14.1 


14.7 


14.9 


15.1 


15.4 


15.6 


15.8 


16.0 


16.1 


16.2 


16.3 


16.4 


(309, 310, 315, XM-19, etc.) 


B 


-2.8 


-1.6 


-1.0 





0.4 


0.8 


1.2 


1.6 


2.1 


2.5 


2.9 


3,3 


3.8 


4.2 


Gray cast iron 


A 








9.8 


10.1 


10.2 


10.4 


10.5 


10.7 


10.8 


11.0 


11.1 


11.2 


11.4 




B 











0.3 


0.6 


0.8 


1.1 


1.4 


1.7 


2.0 


2.3 


2.6 


2.9 


Ductile cast iron 


A 




8.8 


9.5 


10.3 


10,6 


10.8 


10.9 


11.1 


11.3 


11.4 


11.7 


12.0 


12.2 


12.3 




B 




-1.1 


-0.7 





0.3 


0.6 


0.9 


1.2 


1.5 


1.8 


2.1 


2.5 


2.8 


3.1 


Monel (67Ni-30Cu) N04400 


A 


10.4 


12.2 


13.0 


13.8 


14.1 


14.4 


14.7 


14.9 


15.0 


15.2 


15.3 


15.4 


15.6 


15.7 




B 


-2.3 


-1.5 


-0.9 





0.4 


0.8 


1.2 


1.6 


2.0 


2.4 


2.8 


3.2 


3.6 


4.0 


Nickel alloys N02200 and N02201 


A 


10,1 


11.5 


12.0 


12.7 


12.9 


13.1 


13.3 


13.5 


13.6 


13.8 


13.9 


14.0 


14.2 


14.3 




B 


-2.2 


-1.4 


-0.8 





0.4 


0.7 


1.1 


1.4 


1.8 


2.1 


2.5 


2.9 


3.3 


3.6 


Nickel alloy N06600 


A 


9.9 


10.8 


11.5 


12.2 


12.5 


12.7 


12.8 


13.1 


13.2 


13.3 


13.5 


13.6 


13.7 


13.8 




B 


-2,2 


-1.3 


-0.8 





0.4 


0.7 


1.0 


1.4 


1,7 


2.1 


2.4 


2.8 


3.2 


3.5 


Nickel alloys N08800 and N08810 


A 


10.6 


12.5 


13.3 


14.3 


14.6 


14.9 


15.1 


15,3 


15,5 


15.7 


15,8 


15,9 


16.0 


16.1 




B 


-2.3 


-1.5 


-0.9 





0.4 


0.8 


1.2 


1.6 


2.0 


2.4 


2.8 


3.3 


3.7 


4.1 


Nickel alloy N08825 


A 






12.9 


13.5 


13.6 


13.8 


13.9 


14.0 


14.1 


14.2 


14,4 


14.4 


14.5 


14.6 




B 






-0.9 





0.4 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


1.8 


2.2 


2.6 


3.0 


3.3 


3.7 



200 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 



No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^* 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table B-l (SI) Thermal Expansion Data 




A — Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, lG~ 6 mm/mm/°C 1 . . .. . , ^ 
8 = Linear Thermal Expansion, mm/m J ln Gom S From 20 ° C t0 lndicated Temperature [Note (1)] 


Temperature Range 20°C to 


300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 625 650 675 700 725 750 775 


800 



13.3 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 15.0 15.0 15.1 15.1 15.2 
3.7 4.1 4.5 4.9 5.2 5.6 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.3 7.7 8.1 8.6 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.2 10.7 11.1 



14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.8 14.9 14.9 15.0 15.1 15.1 15.2 

3.9 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.3 

12.8 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.1 13.2 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.5 13.6 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.8 13.9 

3.6 3.9 4.3 4.6 5.0 5.3 5.7 6.1 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.5 7.9 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.4 

11.7 11.8 11.8 11.9 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.8 12.9 

3.3 3.6 3.9 4.2 4.6 4.9 5.2 5.6 5.9 6.3 6.6 7.0 7.3 7J 8.1 8.4 8.8 



11.7 11.8 11.8 11.9 11.9 12.0 12.1 12.1 12.2 12.2 12.2 12.3 12.3 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.5 

3.3 3.6 3.9 4.2 4.5 4.9 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.2 6.5 6,8 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.1 8.5 

10.7 10.8 10.8 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.3 11.4 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.6 11.7 11.7 

3.0 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.0 6.3 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.6 8.0 



2.7 



9.8 9.9 9.9 10.0 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.6 10.7 
3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8 4.1 4.3 4.6 4.9 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.3 



17.6 17.7 17.9 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.3 18.5 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.9 19.0 19.1 19.2 
4.9 5.4 5.9 6.4 6.9 7A 7.8 8.3 8.9 9.4 9.9 10.4 10.9 11.4 12.0 12.5 13.0 



16.5 


16.5 


16.7 


16.7 


16.8 


16.9 


17.0 


17.1 


17.2 


4.6 


5.0 


5.5 


5.9 


6.4 


6.8 


7.3 


7.8 


8.2 


11.5 


11.7 


11.8 


12.0 


12.1 


12.3 


12.4 


12.6 


12.7 


3.2 


3.6 


3.9 


4.2 


4.6 


5.0 


5.3 


5.7 


6.1 


12,5 


12.7 


12.7 


12.9 


13.0 


13.1 


13.1 


13.2 


13.3 


3.5 


3.9 


4.2 


4.6 


4.9 


5,3 


5.7 


6.0 


6.4 


15.8 


15.9 


16.0 


16.0 


16.1 


16.1 


16.2 


16.2 


16.2 


4.4 


4.9 


5.3 


5.7 


6.1 


6.5 


7.0 


7.4 


7.8 


14.4 


14.5 


14.6 


14.7 


14.8 


14,9 


15.0 


15.0 


15.1 


4.0 


4.4 


4.8 


5.2 


5.6 


6.0 


6.4 


6.8 


7.3 


13.9 


14.0 


14.1 


14.2 


14.4 


14.5 


14.6 


14.7 


14.8 


3.9 


4.3 


4.7 


5.1 


5.5 


5.9 


6.3 


6.7 


7.1 


16.2 


16.3 


16.3 


16.4 


16.5 


16.6 


16.7 


16.7 


16.8 


4.5 


5.0 


5.4 


5.8 


6.3 


6.7 


7.2 


7.6 


8.1 


14.7 


14.8 


14.9 


15.0 


15.1 


15.1 


15.2 


15.3 


15.4 


4.1 


4.5 


4.9 


5.3 


5.7 


6.1 


6.5 


7.0 


7.4 



17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 17.9 

8.7 9.2 9.7 10.1 10.6 11.1 11.6 12.2 

12.9 13.0 

6.5 6.9 

13.5 13.6 

6.8 7.2 

16.3 16.3 16.3 16.4 16.4 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.6 16.6 16.7 16.7 
8.2 8.6 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.4 10.8 11.2 11.7 12.1 12.6 13.0 

15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.8 15.9 16.0 16.1 16.2 

7.7 8.1 8.5 9.0 9.4 9.9 10.3 10.8 11.2 11.7 12.2 12.6 

14.9 15.0 15.0 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 16.1 16.2 

7.5 7.9 8.4 8.8 9.3 9.7 10.2 10.6 11.1 11.6 12.1 12.7 

16.9 17.0 17.1 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 17.8 17.9 

8.5 9.0 9.5 9.9 10.4 10.9 11.4 11.9 12.4 12.9 13.4 14.0 

15.5 15.6 

7.8 8.3 



201 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ,<*) 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^^ 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table B-l (SI) Thermal Expansion Data (Cont'd) 



A = Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, 
B = Linear Thermal Expansion, mm/m 


10~ 6 mm/mm/°C 1 


in Going From 20°C to Indicated Temperature [Note (1)] 






Coef- 
ficient 










Temperature Range 20°C to 












Material 


-200 


-100 


-50 


20 


50 


75 


100 


125 


150 


175 


200 


225 


250 


275 


Copper alloys C1XXXX series 


A 
B 


13.9 
-3.1 


15.7 
-1.9 


16.2 

-1.1 


16.8 



17.0 
0.5 


17.1 
0.9 


17.3 
1.4 


17.4 
1.8 


17.5 
2.3 


17.6 
2.7 


17.7 
3.2 


17.8 
3.7 


17.9 
4.1 


18.0 
4.6 


Bronze alloys 


A 
B 


15.1 
-3.3 


15.8 
-1.9 


16.4 
-1.1 


17.2 



17.6 
0.5 


17.9 
1.0 


18.1 
1.4 


18.2 
1.9 


18,3 
2.4 


18.3 
2.8 


18.4 
3.3 


18.5 
3.8 


18.5 
4.3 


18.6 
4.8 


Brass alloys 


A 
B 


14.7 
-3.2 


15.4 
-1.9 


16.0 
-1.1 


16.8 



17.2 
0.5 


17.4 
1.0 


17.6 
1.4 


17.8 

1.9 


18.0 
2.3 


18.2 
2.8 


18.4 
3.3 


18.6 
3.8 


18.8 
4.3 


19.0 

4.8 


Copper-nickel (70Cu-30Ni) 


A 
B 


11.9 
-2.6 


13.4 
-1.6 


14.0 
-1.0 


14.7 



14.9 
0.4 


15.2 
0.8 


15.4 
1.2 


15,5 

1.6 


15.7 
2.0 


15.9 
2.5 


16.1 
2.9 


16.2 
3.3 


16.3 
3.7 


16.4 
4.2 


Aluminum alloys 


A 
B 


18,0 
-4.0 


19.7 
-2.4 


20.8 
-1.5 


22.1 



22.6 
0.7 


23.0 

1.3 


23.4 
1.9 


23.7 

2.5 


23.9 
3.1 


24.2 
3.7 


24.5 
4.4 


24.7 

5.1 


24.9 
5.7 


25.2 

6.4 


Titanium alloys (Grades 1, 2, 3, 7, 
and 12) 


A 
B 






8.2 
-0.6 


8.3 



8.4 
0.3 


8.4 
0.5 


8.5 
0.7 


8.5 
0.9 


8.6 

1.1 


8.6 
1.3 


8.6 
1.6 


8.7 
1.8 


8.7 
2.0 


8.8 
2.2 



NOTES: 

(1) These data are for information and it is not to be implied that materials are suitable for all the temperature ranges shown. 

(2) Group 1 alloys (by nominal composition): 

Carbon steels 
(C, C-Si, C-Mn, and C-Mn-Si) 

c-y 2 Mo 

VzCr-VsMo-V 

V 3 Cr-V 4 Mo-Si 

y 3 Cr-y 2 Mo 

YJCr-ViNi-YflMo 

Y,Cr-Y 2 Ni-Cu 
YCr-Y,Ni-Cu-Al 

lCr-Y 5 Mo 

lCr-YsMo-Si 

lCr-Y 2 Mo 

lCr-Y 2 Mo-V 

lY*Cr-Y 2 Mo 

lYCr-YMo-Si 

l 3 /,Cr-Y 2 Mo-Cu 

2Cr-Y 2 Mo 

2YCr-lMo 

3Cr-lMo 

(3) Group 2 alloys (by nominal composition): 

Mn-V 

Mn-Y 4 Mo 

Mn-Y 2 Mo 

Mn-YMo-YNi 

Mn-Y 2 Mo-Y 2 Ni 

Mn-Y 2 Mo-%Ni 



y 2 Ni-y 2 Mo-V 

y 2 Ni-y 2 Cr-y 4 /Vlo-V 

y 4 Ni-y 2 Mo-Cr-V 

Y 4 Ni-Y 2 Mo-YCr-V 

y 4 Ni-Y 2 Cu-Mo 

y 4 Ni-Yicr-Y 2 Mo-V 

YNi-lMo-YCr 

lNi-Y 2 Cr-y 2 Mo 

iy 4 Ni~lCr~Y 2 Mo 

l%Ni- 3 / 4 Cr-Y 4 Mo 

2Ni-y 4 Cr-Y 4 Mo 

2Ni-YCr-YMo 

2Y 2 Ni 

3Y 2 Ni 

3Y 2 Ni-l 3 / 4 Cr-Y 2 IVlo-V 



202 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table B-l (SS) Thermal Expansion Data (Cont'd) 



A = Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, 10 6 mm/mm/°C 1 ,. , r 

B = Linear Thermal Expansion, mm/m J ,n Gom * From 20 ° C t0 SndiCated temperature [Note (1)3 

Temperature Range 20°C to 
300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 625 650 675 700 725 750 775 800 

18.0 18.1 

5.1 5.5 

18.7 18.8 18.9 19.0 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.7 19.8 

5.2 5.7 6.2 6.7 7.2 7.7 8.3 8.8 9.3 9.8 10.3 10.9 11.4 11.9 12.5 

19.2 19.3 19.5 19.7 19.9 20.1 20.3 20.5 20.7 20.8 21.0 21.2 21.4 21.6 21.8 

5.4 5.9 6.4 7.0 7.6 8.1 8.7 9.3 9.9 10.5 11.1 11.8 12.4 13.1 13.7 

16.5 16.5 16.6 16.6 16.7 

4.6 5.0 5.5 5.9 6.3 

25.5 25.7 

7.1 7.8 

8.8 8.9 8.9 9.0 9.0 9.1 

2.5 2.7 2.9 3.2 3.4 3.7 



203 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



MANDATORY APPENDIX C 



Table C-l Moduli of Elasticity for Ferrous Material 



£ = Modulus of Elasticity, psi (Multiply Tabulated Values by 10 6 ) [Note (1)3 

Temperature, °F 

-100 70 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 



Material 



Carbon steels with carbon content 
0.30% or less 

Carbon steels with carbon content 
above 0,30% 

Carbon-moly steels 

Nickel steels 

Chromium steels: 
V 2 Cr through 2Cr 
2 1 /,Cr through 3Cr 
5Cr through 9Cr 

Austenitic stainless steels; 
Type 304, 18Cr-8Ni 
Type 310, 25Cr-20Ni 
Type 316, 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 
Type 321, 18Cr-10Ni-Ti 
Type 347, 18O-10Ni-Cb 
Type 309, 23Cr-12Ni 

Straight chromium stainless steels 
(12Cr, 17Cr, 27Cr) 

Gray cast iron 



30.2 29.5 28.8 28.3 27.7 27.3 26.7 25.5 24.2 22.4 20.4 18.0 

30.0 29.3 28.6 28.1 27.5 27.1 26.5 25.3 24.0 22.3 20.2 17.9 15.4 

29.9 29.2 28.5 28.0 27.4 27.0 26.4 25.3 23.9 22.2 20.1 17.8 15.3 

28.5 27,8 27.1 26.7 26.1 25.7 25.2 24.6 23.9 23.2 22.4 21.5 20.4 19.2 17.7 



30.4 29.7 29.0 28.5 27.9 27.5 26.9 26.3 25.5 24.8 23.9 23.0 21.8 20.5 18.9 
31.4 30,6 29.8 29.4 28.8 28.3 27.7 27.1 26.3 25.6 24.6 23.7 22.5 21.1 19.4 
31.7 30.9 30.1 29.7 29.0 28.6 28.0 27,3 26.1 24.7 22.7 20.4 18.2 15.5 12.7 



-29.1 28.3 27.6 27.0 26.5 25.8 25.3 24.8 24.1 23.5 22.8 22.1 21.2 20.2 19.2 18.1 



30,1 29.2 28.5 27.9 27.3 26.7 26,1 25.6 24.7 23.2 21.5 19-1 16.6 
... 13.4 13.2 12.9 12.6 12,2 11.7 11.0 10.2 



NOTE: 

(1) These data are for information and it is not to be implied that materials are suitable for all the temperature ranges shown. 



204 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 



No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^® 



AS/VIE B31. 1-2007 



Table C-l (SI) Moduli of Elasticity for Ferrous Material 



£ - Modulus of Elasticity, GPa [Note (1)] 



Temperature, °C 



Material 



-75 20 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 



Carbon steels with carbon content 208 
030% or less 

Carbon steels with carbon content 207 
above 0.30% 



Carbon-moly steels 
Nickel steels 

Chromium steels: 
V 2 Cr through 2Cr 
2%Cr through 3Cr 
5Cr through 9Cr 

Austenitic stainless steels: 
Type 304, 18Cr-8Ni 
Type 310, 25Cr~20Ni 
Type 316, 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 
Type 321, 18Cr-10Ni-Ti 
Type 347, 18Cr-10Ni~Cb 
Type 309. 23Cr-12Ni 



206 
196 



210 
216 

219 



203 201 198 195 191 189 185 179 172 162 150 136 122 107 ... 

202 200 197 194 190 188 184 178 171 161 149 135 121 106 ... 

201 199 196 193 189 187 183 177 170 160 149 135 121 106 ... 

192 190 187 184 180 178 174 169 162 153 141 128 115 101 ... 



205 204 201 197 193 190 186 181 176 170 160 148 133 

211 210 207 203 199 195 191 187 182 175 165 153 137 

213 212 209 205 201 197 193 189 185 181 176 171 164 156 147 



138 



-201 195 194 192 188 184 180 176 172 168 164 160 156 152 146 140 134 127 



Straight chromium stainless steels 
(12Cr, 17Cr, 27Cr) 208 

Gray cast iron 



201 200 198 194 190 186 181 178 174 167 156 144 130 113 ... 
92 92 91 89 87 85 82 78 73 67 



NOTE: 

(1) These data are for information and it 



s not to be implied that materials are suitable for all the temperature ranges shown. 



205 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table C-2 Moduli of Elasticity for Nonferrous Material 











f = 


Modulus of Elasticity, psi (Multiply Tabulated Values by 10 6 ) [Note (1)3 


















Temperature 


, °F 












Materials 


-100 


70 


200 


300 


400 


500 


600 


700 


800 


900 


1,000 


1,100 


1,200 


High Nkkei Alloys 




























N02200 (200) 
N02201 (201) 


J" 30.9 


30.0 


29.3 


28.8 


28,5 


28,1 


27.8 


27.3 


26.7 


26.1 


25.5 


25.1 


24.5 


N04400 (400) 


26.8 


26.0 


25.4 


25.0 


24.7 


24.3 


24.1 


23.7 


23.1 


22.6 


22.1 


21.7 


21.2 


N06002 00 
N06600 (600) 
N06617 (617) 
N06625 (625) 


29.4 
31.9 

30.9 


28.5 
31.0 
29.2 

30.0 


27.8 
30.2 
28.4 
29.3 


27.4 
29.9 
28.0 
28.8 


27.1 
29.5 
27.7 
28.5 


26.6 
29.0 
27.4 
28.1 


26.4 
28.7 
27.0 
27.8 


25.9 
28.2 
26.5 
27.3 


25,4 
27.6 
26,0 
26.7 


24.8 
27.0 
25.5 
26.1 


24.2 
26.4 
24.9 
25.5 


23.7 
25.9 
24.3 
25.1 


23.2 
25.3 
23.8 
24.5 


N08800 (800) (2) 
N08810 (800H) (2) 


J" 29.4 


28.5 


27.8 


27.4 


27.1 


26.6 


26.4 


25.9 


25.4 


24.8 


24.2 


23.8 


23.2 


N10001 (B) 


32.0 


31.1 


30.3 


29.9 


29.5 


29.1 


28.8 


28.3 


27.7 


27.1 


26.4 


26.0 


25.3 


N06007 (G) 
N06455 (C-4) 
N08320 (20 Mod) 
N10276 (C-276) 
N10665 (B-2) 


28.6 
30.6 
28.6 
30.6 
32.3 


27.8 
29.8 
27.8 
29.8 
31.4 


27.1 
29.1 
27.1 
29.1 
30.6 


26.7 
28.6 
26.7 
28.6 
30.1 


26.4 
28.3 
26.4 
28.3 
29.8 


26.0 
27.9 
26.0 
27.9 
29.3 


25.7 
27.6 
25,7 
27.6 
29.0 


25.3 
27.1 
25.3 
27.1 
28.6 


24.7 
26.5 
24.7 
26.5 
27.9 


24.2 
25.9 
24.2 
25.9 
27.3 


23.6 
25.3 
23.6 
25.3 
26.7 


23,2 
24.9 
23.2 
24.9 
26.2 


22.7 
24.3 
22.7 
24.3 

25.6 


Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 


























A24430 (B443) 
A91060 (1060) 
A91100 (1100) 
A93003 (3003) 
A93004 (3004) 
A96061 (6061) 
A96063 (6063) 




- 10.5 


10.0 


9.6 


9.2 


8.7 


8.1 
















A95052 (5052) 
A95154 (5154) 
A95454 (5454) 
A95652 (5652) 




- 10.7 


10,2 


9.7 


9.4 


8.9 


8.3 
















A03560 (356) 
A95083 (5083) 
A95086 (5086) 
A95456 (5456) 




- 10.8 


103 


9.8 


9.5 


9.0 


8.3 
















Copper and Copper Alloys 


























C83600 
C92200 


J" 14.4 


14.0 


13.7 


13.4 


13.2 


12.9 


12.5 


12.0 












C46400 






























C65500 
C95200 




- 15.4 


15.0 


14.6 


14.4 


14.1 


13.8 


13.4 


12.8 












C95400 































C11000 



16.5 



16.0 



15.6 



15.4 



15.0 



14.7 



14.2 13.7 



206 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ,jC 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^ 



A5ME B31.1-2007 



Table C-2 Moduli of Elasticity for Nonfeirous Material (Cont'd) 



Materials 



-100 



70 



Modulus of Elasticity, psi (Multiply Tabulated Values by 10 6 ) [Note (1)3 



Temperature, °F 



200 



300 



400 



500 



600 



700 



800 



900 1,000 1,100 



1,200 



Copper and Copper Alloys (Cont'd) 

C10200 

C12000 

C12200 

C12500 h 17.5 17.0 

C1420Q 

C23000 

C61400 



16.6 



16.3 



16.0 



15.6 



15.1 



14.5 



C70600 
C97600 
C71000 
C71500 



8.5 


18,0 


17.6 


17.3 


16.9 


16.6 


16.0 


15.4 


9.6 


19.0 


18.5 


18.2 


17.9 


17.5 


16.9 


16.2 


0.6 


20.0 


19.5 


19.2 


18.8 


18.4 


17.8 


17.1 


2.7 


22.0 


21.5 


21.1 


20.7 


20.2 


19.6 


18.8 



Unalloyed Titanium 

Grades 1, 2, 3, 
7, and 12 



15.5 



15.0 



14.6 



14.0 



13.3 



12.6 11.! 



11.2 



NOTES: 

(1) These data are for information and it is not to be implied that materials are suitable for all the temperature ranges shown. 

(2) For N08800 and N08810, use the following E values above 1200°F: at 1300°F, E = 22.7; at 1400°F, E = 21.9; at 1500°F, E 
x 10 6 psi. 



21.2 



207 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table C-2 (SS) Moduli of Elasticity for Nonferrous Material 



Materials 



Modulus of Elasticity, GPa [Note (1)] 



Temperature, °C 



-75 20 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 



High Nickel Alloys 

N02200 (200) 
N02201 (201) 

N04400 (400) 

N06002 (X) 
N06600 (600) 
N06617 (617) 
N06625 (625) 



U 



4 207 

185 179 

203 197 

221 214 

201 

214 207 



N08800 (800) 

N08810 (800H) J- 203 197 



I 



N10001 (B) 



222 214 



N06007 (G) 198 192 

N06455 (G4) 212 205 

N08320 (20 Mod) 198 192 

N10276 (G276) 212 205 

N10665 (B-2) 224 217 

Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 

A24430 (B443) 
A91060 (1060) 
A91100 (1100) 
A93003 (3003) 
A93004 (3004) 
A96061 (6061) 
A96063 (6063) 

A95052 (5052) 
A95154 (5154) 
A95454 (5454) 
A95652 (5652) 

A03560 (356) 
A95083 (5083) 
A95086 (5086) 
A95456 (5456) 



205 202 199 197 194 191 189 186 183 180 176 172 169 164 161 156 

178 175 173 170 168 166 164 161 158 156 153 149 146 142 139 135 

195 192 189 187 184 182 179 177 174 171 167 163 160 156 153 148 

212 209 206 203 200 198 195 192 189 186 182 178 174 170 166 161 
... 196 193 191 189 187 184 181 178 174 171 167 164 160 156 152 
205 202 199 197 194 191 189 186 183 180 176 172 169 164 161 156 

195 192 189 187 184 182 179 177 174 171 167 163 160 156 153 148 

213 210 207 204 201 198 196 193 190 186 182 178 175 170 167 161 

190 187 185 182 180 177 175 172 169 167 163 159 156 152 149 144 

204 201 198 195 193 190 188 185 182 179 175 171 167 163 160 155 

190 187 185 182 180 177 175 172 169 167 163 159 156 152 149 144 

204 201 198 195 193 190 188 185 182 179 175 171 167 163 160 155 

215 212 209 206 203 200 198 195 191 188 184 180 176 172 168 163 



- 72 69 68 66 63 61 57 52 



74 



74 



70 69 67 65 62 



71 



70 68 65 62 



58 53 



58 



54 



46 



47 



47 



Copper and Copper Alloys 

C83600 
C92200 



C46400 
C65500 
C95200 
C95400 



J- 99 97 



96 94 93 91 89 87 84 81 



107 103 102 101 99 98 



93 90 86 



C11000 

C10200 
C12000 
C12200 
C12500 
C14200 
C23000 
C61400 



114 110 109 108 106 104 102 99 96 92 



121 117 116 115 113 111 108 106 102 



208 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Table C-2 (SI) Moduli of Elasticity for Nonferrous Material (Cont'd) 



f = Modulus of Elasticity, GPa [Note (1)] 



Temperature, °C 



Materials 



-75 20 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 



Copper and Copper Alloys (Cont'd) 



C70600 


C97600 


C71000 


C71500 


Unalloyed Titanium 


Grades 1, 2, 3, 


7, and 12 



128 124 123 121 119 117 115 112 108 104 



107 106 103 100 97 92 



84 79 75 71 



NOTE: 

(1) These data are for information and it is not to be implied that materials are suitable for all the temperature ranges shown. 



209 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. r® 

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ASME B31.1-2007 



MANDATORY APPENDIX D 



(07) 



Table D-l Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors 



Description 



Flexibility 


Flexibility 


Stress 


Characteristic, 


Factor, 


Intensification Factor, 


h 


k 


/ 



Sketch 



Welding elbow or pipe bend 
[Notes (1), (2), (3), (4), (5)] 



t n R 



1.65 
h 



0.9 

h 20 




'A 



Closely spaced miter bend 
[Notes (1), (2), (3), (5)] 
s <r(l + tan 0) 
B>6t n 
0< 22 l f 2 deg 



st n cot 
2r 2 



1.52 

h S/6 



0.9 



£ f " 



fi 






0^ 

T 


t 

, o s cot e 






- R ~ 2 







Widely spaced miter bend 
[Notes (1), (2), (5), (6)] 
s > r{\ + tan 9) 
0<22y 2 deg 



t n (1 + cot - 



1.52 



0.9 




r(1 + cotfl) 



Welding tee per 
ASME B16.9 [Notes (1), 
(2), (7)] 



r 



0.9 



£= 



^x 



1-L 



Reinforced fabricated tee 
[Notes (1), (2), (8), (9)] 



r(U 3 



0.9 



_U 







r 


( 










i» 


T^ 






^T-, 


Pad 






Saddle 



Unreinforced fabricated tee 
[Notes (1), (2), (9)] 



0.9 

h V3 



' T 



210 



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ASME 831.1-2007 



Table D-l Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors (Cont'd) 



(07) 



Description 



Flexibility 


Flexibility 


Stress 


Characteristic, 


Factor, 


Intensification Factor, 


h 


k 


/ 



Sketch 



Branch welded-on fitting 
(integrally reinforced) per 
MSS SP-97 [Notes (1), (2)] 



3.3f n 



0.9 




Extruded outlet meeting the 
requirements of para. 
1043.1(G) [Notes (1), (2)] 



0.9 



±*n 



\1T 



ZL 



Welded-in contour insert 
[Notes (1), (2), (7)3 



3.1* 
r 



0.9 




Description 



Flexibility 

Factor, 

k 



Stress Intensification Factor, 
/ 



Sketch 



Branch connection 
[Notes (1), (10)] 



For checking branch end 

[i m\ it-nb 
\tnhl \ R mj \tnh, 



1,5 



W 



See Fig. D-l 



Butt weld [Note (1)] 



t> 0.237 in., 
<W ^ Vie in., 
and 3 avg /f<0.13 



Butt weld [Note (1)] 



f> 0.237 in., 



^max ^ /s in., 

and <5 avg /f = any value 



Butt weld [Note (1)] 



1.0 [Note (11)] 



1.9 max. or [0.9 + 2.7(<5 avg /f)], 
but not less than 1.0 
[Note (11)] 




t < 0.237 in., 

4iax ^ Vl6 in., 

and d avg /t < 0.33 



Fillet welds 



1.3 [Note (12)] 



See Figs. 127.4.4(A), 127.4.4(B), and 
127.4.4(C) 



Tapered transition per para. 
127.4.2(B) and 
ASME B16.25 [Note (1)] 



1.9 max. or 



D 8 

1.3 + 0.0036™+ 3.6- 

tn t n 




211 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



(07) 



Table D-l Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors (Cont'd) 



Description 



Flexibility 
Factor, k 



Stress Intensification Factor, 



Sketch 



Concentric reducer per 
ASME B16.9 [Note (13)] 



2.0 max. or 



0.5 + 0.01a 



D: 




Threaded pipe joint or 
threaded flange 



2.3 



Corrugated straight pipe, or 
corrugated or creased bend 
[Note (14)] 



2.5 



NOTES: 

(1) The following nomenclature applies to Table D-l: 

8 = length of miter segment at crotch, in. (mm) 
D = outside diameter, in. (mm) 
D ob = outside diameter of branch, in. (mm) 
R — bend radius of elbow or pipe bend, in. (mm) 
r ~ mean radius of pipe, in. (mm) (matching pipe for tees) 
r x - external crotch radius of welded-in contour inserts and welding tees, in. (mm) 
s - miter spacing at centerline, in. (mm) 

T c = crotch thickness of welded-in contour inserts and welding tees, in. (mm) 
t n = nominal wall thickness of pipe, in. (mm) (matching pipe for tees) 
t r = reinforcement pad or saddle thickness, in. (mm) 
a = reducer cone angle, deg 
d - mismatch, in. (mm) 
$ - one-half angle between adjacent miter axes, deg 

(2) The flexibility factors k and stress intensification factors / in Table D-l apply to bending in any plane for fittings and shall in no case 
be taken less than unity. Both factors apply over the effective arc length (shown by heavy centerlines in the sketches) for curved and 
miter elbows, and to the intersection point for tees. The values of k and / can be read directly from Chart D-l by entering with the 
characteristic h computed from the formulas given. 

(3) Where flanges are attached to one or both ends, the values of k and / in Table D-l shall be multiplied by the factor c given below, 
which can be read directly from Chart D-2, entering with the computed h: one end flanged, c = h 1 - 6 ; both ends flanged, c = h il3 . 

(4) The designer is cautioned that cast butt welding elbows may have considerably heavier walls than those of the pipe with which they 
are used. Large errors may be introduced unless the effect of these greater thicknesses is considered. 

(5) In large diameter thin-wall elbows and bends, pressure can significantly affect magnitudes of k and /'. Values from the Table may be 
corrected by dividing k by 

P 



and dividing / by 



Ed \t t 



1 + 3.25 



3(C 



2/3 



(6) Also includes single miter joints. 

(7) If r x > D ob /S and T c > 1.5f„, a flexibility characteristic, h, of AAt n /r may be used. 

(8) When t r > 1.5f„, h = 4.05f n /r. 

(9) The stress intensification factors in the Table were obtained from tests on full size outlet connections. For less than full size outlets, 
the full size values should be used until more applicable values are developed. 



212 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Table D-l Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors (Cont'd) (07) 

NOTES (Cont'd): 

(10) The equation applies only if the following conditions are met: 

(a) The reinforcement area requirements of para. 104.3 are met. 

(b) The axis of the branch pipe is normal to the surface of run pipe wall. 

(c) For branch connections in a pipe, the arc distance measured between the centers of adjacent branches along the surface of the 
run pipe is not less than three times the sum of their inside radii in the longitudinal direction or is not less than two times the sum 
of their radii along the circumference of the run pipe. 

(d) The inside corner radius r 1 (see Fig. D-l) Is between 10% and 50% of t nh . 

(e) The outer radius r 2 (see Fig. D-l) is not less than the larger of T b /2, (T b + y)/2 [shown in Fig. D-l sketch (c)], or f r , /t /2. 

(f) The outer radius r 3 (see Fig. D-l) is not less than the larger of: 

(1) 0.0Q20d o ; 

(2) 2(sin B) 3 times the offset for the configurations shown in Fig. D-l sketches (a) and (b). 

(g) Rm /tnh $ 50 and r ' m /R m < 0.5. 

(11) The stress intensification factors apply to girth butt welds between two items for which the wall thicknesses are between 0.875f and 
l.lOf for an axial distance of v 'D f. D and f are nominal outside diameter and nominal wall thickness, respectively. S avg is the aver- 
age mismatch or offset. 

(12) For welds to socket welded fittings, the stress intensification factor is based on the assumption that the pipe and fitting are matched 
in accordance with ASME B16.ll and a full weld is made between the pipe and fitting as shown in Fig. 127. 4.4(C). For welds to 
socket welding flanges, the stress intensification factor is based on the weld geometry shown in Fig. 127.4.4(B) and has been shown 
to envelop the results of the pipe to socket welded fitting tests. Blending the toe of the fillet weld, with no undercut, smoothly into 
the pipe wall, as shown in the concave fillet welds in Fig. 127.4.4(A) sketches (b) and (d), has been shown to improve the fatigue 
performance of the weld. 

(13) The equation applies only if the following conditions are met: 

(a) Cone angle a does not exceed 60 6eg t and the reducer is concentric. 

(b) The larger of D 1 /t 1 and D 2 /t 2 does not exceed 100. 

(c) The wall thickness is not less than t x throughout the body of the reducer, except in and immediately adjacent to the cylindrical 
portion on the small end, where the thickness shall not be less than t 2 . 

(14) Factors shown apply to bending; flexibility factor for torsion equals 0.9. 



213 



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100 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Chart D-l Flexibility Factor, k, and Stress Intensification Factor, / 



<D 4 



1 

0.01 



- Flexibility factor for elbows 
A-= 1.65//I 




Flexibility factor for miters 
k=1,52/h 5/6 



Stress intensification factor 
/ = 0,9//7 2/3 



0.04 0.05 0.06 



0.08 0.10 0.14 0.2 

Characteristic, h 



2.0 



214 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Chart D-2 Correction Factor, c 



1.00 






0.90 






0.80 


- 


One end flanged c= h 1 ' 6 . _^~- -— """ — ^**^**^ 


o 

^ 0.70 

o 






,2 0.60 


- 




c 

o 

"g 0.50 

82 


^ 


Both ends flanged c= fr 1/3 ^ ^^^^^ 


o 
u 






0.30 


- 


1 I 1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 1 



0.01 



0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.10 



0.14 0.20 

Characteristic, h 



0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.80 



1.0 



215 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Fig. D-l Branch Connection Dimensions 




Branch pipe 



Branch 




(a) 



(b) 



T b =t nb +Q.667y 



Branch pipe 




Branch 




(c) 



(d) 



D b = outside diameter of branch pipe, in. (mm) 
L 1 = height of nozzle, in. (mm) 
R m = mean radius of run pipe, in. (mm) 
T b = effective thickness of branch 

reinforcement, in. (mm) 
r s = inside radius of branch, in. (mm) 
r' m = mean radius of branch pipe, in. (mm) 



r v r 2' r 3 = transition radii of branch 
reinforcement, in. (mm) 
r p = outside radius of branch 
reinforcement, in. (mm) 
t nb = nominal thickness of branch pipes, in. (mm) 
t nh = nominal thickness of run pipe, in. (mm) 
n ^ transition angle of branch 
reinforcement, deg 



216 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



MANDATORY APPENDIX F 
REFERENCED STANDARDS 



Specific editions of standards incorporated in this Code by reference are shown in this issue of Appendix F. It is not practical to refer to 
a specific edition of each standard throughout the Code text, but instead, the specific edition reference dates are shown here. Appendix F 
will be revised at intervals as needed and issued. The names and addresses of the sponsoring organizations are also shown in this issue. 



American National Standard 
Z223. 1-1999 

AST/V1 Specifications [Note (1)] 

A 36/A 36M-00a 
A 47/A 47M-99 
A 48-94a' fl 
A 53/A 53M-99b 

A 105/A 105M-98 

A 106-99 61 

A 125-96 

A 126-95* 1 

A 134-96 

A 135-97c 

A 139-00 

A 178/A 178M-95 

A 179/A 179M-90a 

A 181/A 181M-00 

A 182/A 182M-00C 

A 192/A 192M-91 

A 193/A 193M-00a 

A 194/A 194M-00a 

A 197/A 197M-00 

A 210/A 210M-96 
A 213/A 213M-99a 
A 214/A 214M-96 
A 216/A 216M-93 
A 217/A 217M-99 
A 229/A 229M-99 
A 234/A 234M-00 
A 240/A 240M-00 
A 242/A 242M-00a 
A 249/A 249M-98 
A 254-97 
A 268/A 268M-00a 



ASTM Specifications [Note (1)] 
(Cont'd) 

A 276-00a 

A 278-93 

A 283/A 283JV1-00 

A 285/A 285M-90 (R96) 

A 299/A 299M-97 

A 307-00 

A 312/A 312M-00C 

A 320/A 320M-00b 

A 322-91 (R96) 

A 333/A 333M-99 

A 335/A 335M-00 

A 336/A 336M-99 

A 350/A 350M-00b 

A 351/A 351M-00 

A354-00a 

A 358/A 358M-00 

A 369/A 369M-00 

A 376/A 376M-00a 

A 377-99 

A 387/A 387M-99 

A 389/A 389M-93 (R98) 

A 395/A 395M-99 

A 403/A 403M-0Qb 
A 409/A 409M-95a 
A 420/A 420M-00a 
A 426-92 (R97) 
A 437/A 437M-00a 
A 449-00 

A 450/A 450M-96a 
A 451-93 (R97) 
A 453/A 453M-00 
A 479/A 479M-00 

A 515/A 515M-92V 

A 516/A 516M-90 (R96) (R97) 



ASTM Specifications [Note (1)] 
(Cont'd) 

A 530/A 530M-99 
A 564/A 564M-99 
A 575-96 
A 576-90b (R00) 
A 587-96 

A 671-96 
A 672-96 
A 691-98 

A 714-99 

A 789/A 789M-O0a 
A 790/A 790M-00 

A815-98a 

A 928-98 
A 992-02 

B 26/B 26M-99 

B 32-00 

B 42-98 

B 43-98 

B 61-93 

B 62-93 

B 68-99 

B 68M-99 

B 75-99 

B 88-99 

B 88M-99 

B 108-99 

B 111-98 

B 111M-98 

B 148-97 

B 150-98 

B 150M-95a 

B 151/B 151M-00 



217 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



(07) 



Referenced Standards (Cont'd) 



ASTM Specifications [Note (1)] 
(Cont'd) 

B 161-00 
B 163-98a 
B 165-93 
B 166-04 
B 167-04 
B 168-04 

B 209-00 

B 210-00 

B 210M-00 

B 221-00 

B 234-00 

B 234M-00 

B 241/B 241M-00 

B 247-00 

B 247M-00 

B 251-97 

B 251M-97 

B 265-99 

B 280-99 

B 283-99a 

B 302-00 
B 315-99 
B 338-99 
B 348-00 
B 361-95 
B 366-04D 
B 367-93 (R98) 
B 381-00 

B 407-96 

B 408-96 

B 409-96a 

B 423-99 

B 424-98a 

B 425-99 

B 435-03 

B 443-93 

B 444-94 

B 446-93 

B 462-00a 

B 463-99 

B 464-99 

B 466/B 466M-98 

B 467-88 (R97) 

B 468-99 

B 473-96 

B 546-04 

B 547/B 547M-00 

B 564-00a 

B 572-03 

B 584-00 



ASTM Specifications [Note (1)] 
(Cont'd) 

B 608-95 
B 619-05 
B 622-04a 
B 625-99 
B 626-04 
B 649-95 
B 673-96 
B 674-96 
B 677-99 

B 704-91 
B 705-94 
B 729-00 

B 828-00 
B 861-00 
B 862-99 

ASTM Standard Test Methods 

D 323-99 
E 94-00 
E 125-63 (R85) 
E 186-91 
E 280-93 
E 446-91 



MSS Standard Practices 

SP-6-96 

SP-9-97 

SP-25-98 

SP-42-90 

SP-43-91 

SP-45-98 

SP-51-91 

SP-53-95 

SP-54-95 

SP-55-96 

SP-58-93 

SP-61-92 

SP-67-95 

SP-68-97 

SP-69-96 

SP-75-98 

SP-79-92 

SP-80-97 

SP-83-01 

SP-89-98 

SP-93-87 

SP-94-92 

SP-95-00 

SP-97-95 

SP-105-96 

SP-106-03 



AWS Specification 

A3.0-94 
QC1-88 

API Specification 

5L, 38th Edition, 1990 

ASME Codes & Standards 

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 
2001 Edition, including 
Addenda 

Bl. 1-1989 

B1.13M-2001 

Bl. 20.1-1983 (R01) 

(AN5I/ASME Bl.20.1) 
Bl.20.3-1976 (R98) 

(ANSI Bl.20.3) 
B16.1-1998 
B16. 3-1998 
B16.4-1998 
B16. 5-1996 
B16.9-2001 
B16.10-2000 
B16. 11-2001 
B16. 14-1991 
B16. 15-1985 (R94) 

(ANSI/ASME B16.15) 
B16.18-1984 (R94) 

(ANSI B16.18) 
B16. 20-1998 
B16. 21-1992 
B16.22-1995 
B16. 24-2001 
B16.25-1997 
B16.34-1996 (98A) 
B16.42-1998 
B16.47-1996 (98A) 
B16. 48-1997 
B16. 50-2001 

B18. 2. 1-1996 (99A) 
B18. 2. 2-1987 (R99) 

(ASME/ANSi B18.2.2) 
B18.2.3.5M-1979 (R01) 
B18.2.3.6M-1979 (R01) 
B18.2.4.6M-1979 (R98) 
B18. 21. 1-1999 
B18.22M-1981 
B18. 22. 1-1965 (R98) 

B31. 3-2002 
B31. 4-2002 
B31.8-1999 

B36.10M-200O 
B36.19M-1985 (R94) 
(ANSI/ASME B36.19M) 



TDP-1-1998 



218 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Referenced Standards (Cont'd) 



AWWA and ANSi/AWWA 
Standards 

C110/A21. 10-98 
C111/A21. 11-95 
C115/A21.15-99 
C150/A21. 50-96 
C151/A21. 51-96 
C153/A21.53-94 

C200-97 
C207-94 
C208-96 



AWWA and ANSI/AWWA 
Standards (Cont'd) 



C300-97 


C301-99 


C302-95 


C304-99 


C500-93(95a) 


C504-94 


C509-94 


C600-99 


C606-97 



National Fire Codes 

NFPA 1963-93 
NFPA 8503-92 



PFI Standards 



ES-16-94 
ES-24-9S 



FC! Standard 
79-1-03 



GENERAL NOTE: The issue date shown immediately following the hyphen afterthe number of the standard (e.g., Bl. 1-1989, A 36-89, SP-6-96) 

is the effective date of issue (edition) of the standard. B18. 2. 2-1987 (R99) designates specification reaffirmed without change in 1999. 

NOTE: 

(1) For boiler external piping material application, see para. 123.2.2. 



Specifications and standards of the following organizations appear in this Appendix: 



AISC American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. 
One East Wacker Drive 
Chicago, IL 60601-1802 

ANSI American National Standards Institute 
25 West 43rd Street 
New York, NY 10036 
Phone: 212 642-4900 

API American Petroleum Institute 

1220 L Street, NW 
Washington, DC 20005-4070 
Phone: 202 682-8000 

ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
Three Park Avenue 
New York, NY 10016-5990 

ASME Order Department 

22 Law Drive 

Box 2300 

Fairfield, Nj 07007-2300 

Phone: 201 882-1167 

800-THE-ASME (US & Canada) 
Fax: 201 882 1717, 5155 

ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials 
100 Barr Harbor Drive 
P.O. Box C700 

West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 
Phone: 610 832-9585 
Fax: 610 832-9555 

AWS American Welding Society 
550 NW Lejeune Road 
Miami, FL 33126 
Phone: 305 443-9353 



AWWA American Water Works Association 
6666 W. Quincy Avenue 
Denver, CO 80235 
Phone: 303 794-7711 

FCI Fluid Controls Institute, Inc. 

1300 Sumner Avenue 
Cleveland, OH 44115-2851 
Phone: 216 241-7333 
Fax: 216 241-0105 

MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society of 
the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc. 
127 Park Street, NE 
Vienna, VA 22180-4602 
Phone: 703 281-6613 

NFPA National Fire Protection Association 
1 Batterymarch Park 
Quincy, MA 02169-7471 
Phone: 617 770-3000 
Fax: 617 770-0700 

PFI Pipe Fabrication Institute 

666 Fifth Avenue, No. 325 
New York, NY 10103 
Phone: 514 634-3434 

PPI Plastics Pipe institute 

1825 Connecticut Avenue, NW 
Suite 680 

Washington, DC 20009 
Phone: 202 462-9607 
Fax: 202 462-9779 



219 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



(07) 



MANDATORY APPENDIX G 
NOMENCLATURE 



This Appendix is a compilation of the nomenclature used within this Code. Included are the term definitions 
and units that can be uniformly applied. These terms are also defined at a convenient location within the Code. 
When used elsewhere within the Code, definitions given here shall be understood to apply. 



Units 



References 



Symbol 



Definition 



U.S. 



Paragraph 



Table/Fig./App. 



Corrosion, erosion, and mechanical allowances 
(including threading, grooving) 



Area available for reinforcement: 
Ai in run pipe 



in branch pipe 



A 5 

A 6 

A 7 

B 
b 
C 



by deposited metal beyond outside diameter of 
run and branch and for fillet weld attachments 
of rings, pads, and saddles 

by reinforcing ring, pad, or integral reinforcement 



in saddle on right angle connection 

Pressure design area expected at the end of ser- 
vice life 

Required reinforcement area 

Length of miter segment at crotch 
Subscript referring to branch 
Cold-spring factor 



Size of fillet weld for socket welding components 
other than flanges 

Flanged elbow correction factor 



Nominal pipe size 

Inside diameter of Y-globe valve 



104.1. 2(A)[eqs. (3), 

(3A), (4), (4A)] 
104.3.1(0.2) 
104.3.1(G) 
104.4.1(B) 
104.5. 2(B)[eq. (6)] 
104.5.3(A) 



104.3. 1(D.2.3) 
104.3.KG.6) 

104.3. KD.2.3) 
104.3. 1(G.6) 

104.3.1(D.2.3) 



104.3.1(D.2.3) 
104.3. 1(G.6) 

104.3. 1(D.2.3) 

104.3.1(0.2) 

104.3.1(0.2.2) 
104.3.1(G.5) 

104.3.3(A&B) 

104.3.1(D.2) 

119.10.1[eqs. (9), 

(10)] 



119.7.1(A.3) 



104.3.1(G) 



104.3.1(D) 
104.3.1(G) 

104.3.1(D) 
104.3.1(G) 

104.3.1(D) 



104.3.1(D) 
104.3.1(G) 

104.3.1(D) 

104.3.1(D) 

104.3.1(D) 
104.3.1(G) 

App. D, Table D-l 

1043.1(D) 



127.4.4(C) 



Table D-l 
Chart D-2 



122.1.7(C) 



220 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Units 



References 



Symbol 



Definition 



SI U.S. 



Paragraph 



Table/Fig./App. 



D Outside diameter of run pipe 

12 Outside diameter of reducer 

D n Nominal outside diameter of pipe 

D Outside diameter of pipe 



d 2 
ds 
d 6 
d b 
d c 

dn 
d r 
E 



Outside diameter of branch 

Outside diameter of header 

Inside diameter of pipe 

Outside diameter of branch pipe 

Inside centeriine longitudinal direction of the fin- 
ished branch opening in the run of the pipe 

Half-width of reinforcement zone 

Diameter of finished opening 

Inside or pitch diameter of gasket 

Corroded internal diameter of branch pipe 

Corroded internal diameter of extruded outlet 

Nominal inside diameter of pipe 
Corroded internal diameter of run 
Weld joint efficiency factor 



Young's modulus of elasticity (used with sub- 
scripts) 



mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 



GPa 



psi 



Casting quality factor 



1043.1(6.4) 
104.3. 1(G. 5) 



102.3.2(D) 

102.3.2(D) 

104.1. 2(A)[eqs. (3), 

(4)] 
104.3,1(D.2) 
104.8.1[eqs. (11A), 

(HB)] 
104.8. 2[eqs. (12A), 

(12B)] 

104.3. 1(D.2) 

104.3.1(D.2.3) 

104.3.1(E) 

104.3.1(0.2) 
104.3.1(E) 

104.1. 2(A)[eqs. (3A), 
(4A), (5)] 

104.3.KG.4) 
104.3.KG.5) 

104.3.1(D) 

104.3.1(E) 

104.3. 1(D.2) 

104.4.2 

104.5. 3(A)[eq. (7)] 

104.3.KG.4) 

104.3.KG.4) 
104.3. 1(G. 5) 
104.3. 1(G. 6) 

102.3.2(D) 

104.3.1(G.4) 

104.1. 2 (A. 5) 



119.6.2 
119.6.4 

119.10.1[eqs. (9), 
(10)] 

104.1. 2 (A. 5) 



104.3.1(G) 
App. D, Table D-l 



App. D, Table D-l 
104.1. 2(A)[eq. 

(5)] 



App. D, Fig. D-l 



104.1.2(A) 
104.3.1(G) 
104.3.1(D) 
104.3.1(D) 

104.5.3 

104.3.1(G) 

104.3.1(G) 



104.3.1(G) 

102.4.3 

App. A Notes and 
Tables 

App. C, Tables 
C-l and C-2 
App. D, Table D-l 



App. A Notes and 
Tables 



221 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Units 



References 



Symbol 



Definition 



St U.S. 



Paragraph 



Table/Fig./App. 



f 



I 
K 
k 

k 
L 
i-i 

is 
M 



MAWP 
MSOP 
N 



Stress range reduction factor 

Subscript referring to run or header 

Thread depth (ref. ASME Bl.20.1) 
Flexibility characteristic, to compute /, k 
Height of extruded lip 

Lorenz equation compensation factor 

Stress intensification factor 



Subscript for resultant moment 
Factor for reinforcing area 
Factor for occasional loads 

Flexibility factor 

Developed length of line axis 

Height of nozzle 

Altitude of reinforcing zone outside run pipe 

Altitude of reinforcing zone for extruded outlet 



Moment of bending or torsional force (used with 
subscripts to define applications as shown in 
referenced paragraphs) 



Maximum allowable working pressure 
Maximum sustained operating pressure 
Equivalent full temperature cycles 



mm in. 



mm in. 



mm-N 



kPa 

kPa 



in. ib 



psi 
psi 



102.3.2(C)[eq. (1)] 
104.8.3[eqs. (13A), 
(13B)] 

104.3.1(D.2) 



102.4.2 



104.3. 1(G.2) 
104.3.1(G.4) 

102.4.5[eqs. (3B), 
(3C), (3D), (3E)] 

104.8.1[eqs. (11A), 

(HB)] 
104.8. 2[eqs, (12A), 

(12B)] 
104.8. 3[eqs. (13A), 

(13B)] 
104.8.4(C) 

104.8.4(A) 

104.3. 1(G. 5) 

104.8. 2[eqs. (12A), 
(12B)] 



119.7.1(A.3) 

104.8.4(C) 

104.3. 1(D.2) 

104.3.1(6.4) 
104.3.KG.6) 

104.8. l[eqs. (11A), 

(11 B)] 
104.8.2[eqs. (12A), 

(12B)] 
104.8. 3[eqs. (13A), 

(13B)] 
104.8.4(A) 
104.8.4(C) 

100.2 

101.2.2 

102.3.2(C)[eq. (2)] 



102.3.2(C) 



104.3.1(D) 
104.3.1(G) 



App. D, Table D-l 
104.3.1(G) 



App. D, Table D-l 



104.3.1(G) 

App. D, Table D-l 

App. D, Fig. D-l 

1043.1(D) 

104.3.1(G) 

104.8.4 



102.3.2(C) 



222 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Symbol 



Units 



References 



Definition 



SI 



U.S. 



Paragraph 



Table/Fig./App. 



N n 

NPS 
P 



r'm 



Number of cycles of full temperature change 

Number of cycles of lesser temperature change, 
n = 1, 2, . . . 

Nominal pipe size 

Internal design gage pressure of pipe, component 



Reaction moment in flexibility analysis (used with 
subscripts) 

Centerline radius of elbow or bend, and effective 
"radius" of miter bends 

Mean radius of run pipe 

Ratio of partial AT to maximum AT (used with 
subscripts) 

Mean radius of pipe using nominal wall t n 

Half width of reinforcement zone 

Transition radii of branch reinforcement 

Branch mean cross-sectional radius 

inside radius of branch 

Mean radius of branch 

Radius of curvature of external curved portion 



kPa 



mm-N 



mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 
mm 



psi 



in.-lb 



102.3.2(C)[eq. (2)] 
102.3.2(C)[eq. (2)] 

General 

1023.2(D) 

104.1. 2(A)[eqs. (3), 

(3A), (4), (4A)] 
104.5.1(A) 
104.5.2(B) 
104.5.3(A)[eq. (7)] 
104.5.3(B) 
104.8.1[eqs. (11A), 

(11 B)] 
104.8.2[eqs. (12A), 

(12B)] 
122.1.2(A) 
122.1.3(A) 
122.1.4(A) 
122.1.4(B) 
122.1.6(B) 
122.1.7(C) 
122.4(B) 

119.10.1[eqs. (9), 

(io)3 

102.4.5(B) 
104.3. 3CC.3.1) 



102.3.2(C)[eq. (2)3 

104.3.3 
104.3.1(G.4) 

104.8,4 

104.8.4(C) 

104.8.4(C) 



104.3. 1(G.2) 
104.3.KG.4) 
104.3. 1(G. 6) 



App. D, Table D-l 



App. D, Table D-l 



App. D, Fig. D-l 
App. D, Table D-l 



App. D, Table D-l 
104.3.1(G) 
App. D, Fig. D-l 

App. D, Fig. D-l 

App. D, Fig. D-l 
App. D, Table D-l 

104.3.1(G) 



App. D, Fig. D-l 
App. D, Table D-l 



223 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Symbol 



Units 



Definition 



Si 



U.S. 



References 



Paragraph 



Table/Fig./App. 



r x External crotch radius of welded-in contour 

inserts 



App. D 



Sc 

s h 



SE 



SE 



SF 



Basic material allowable stress 



Basic material allowable stress 

Bolt design stress at atmospheric temperature 

Bolt design stress at design temperature 

Basic material allowable stress at minimum (cold) 
temperature 

Allowable stress for flange material or pipe 

Basic material allowable stress at maximum (hot) 
temperature 



Longitudinal pressure stress 



Allowable stress range for expansion stress 



Computed thermal expansion stress range 



S L Longitudinal stress due to pressure, weight, and 

other sustained loads 



Allowable stress (including weld joint efficiency 
factor) 



Allowable stress (including weld joint efficiency MPa ksi 

factor) 

Allowable stress (including casting quality factor) MPa psl 



MPa 


psi 


122.1.2(A) 
122.1.3(B) 
122.4(B.3) 




MPa 


ksi 


102.3.1(A) 


App. A Tables 
and Notes 


kPa 


psi 


104.5.1(A) 




kPa 


psi 


104.5.1(A) 




MPa 


psi 


102.3.2(Q[eq. (1)] 




kPa 


psi 


104.5.1(A) 




MPa 


psi 


102.3.2(C)[eq. (1)] 

102.3.2(D) 

104.8. l[eqs. (IIA), 

(11 B)] 
104.8,2[eqs. (12A), 

(12B)] 
104.8.3[eqs. (13A), 

(13B)] 
119.10.1 [eq. (10)] 




kPa 


psi 


102.3.2(D) 
104.8 




MPa 


psi 


102.3.2(C)[eq. (1)] 
104.8. 3[eqs. (13A), 
(13B)] 




MPa 


psi 


104.8.3[eqs. (13A), 

(13B)] 
119.6.4 
119.10.1[eq. (10)] 




MPa 


psi 


102.3.2(D) 

104.8. l[eqs. (HA), 

(11B)] 
104.8. 3[eqs. (13A), 

(13B)] 




MPa 


psi 


102.3.2(C) 

104.1. 2(A)[eqs. (3), 

(3A), (4), (4A)] 
104.5.2(B) 
104.5.3(A)[eq. (7)] 
104.5.3(B) 




MPa 


ksi 


102.3.1(A) 


App. A Tables 
and Notes 



104.1.2(A) 



224 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Symbol 



Units 



References 



Definition 



SI 



U.S. 



Paragraph 



Table/Fig./App. 



SF 



Allowable stress (including casting quality factor) 



MPa 



ksi 



102.3.1(A) 



App. A Tables 
and Notes 



ha 



Miter spacing pipe centerline 

Pipe wail thickness (measured or minimum, in 
accordance with purchase specification used 
with or without subscripts), viz., 

7" b = thickness of branch 

T h -thickness of header, etc. 

Crotch thickness of welded-in contour inserts 
Corroded finished thickness extruded outlet 



Pressure design thickness pipe, components 
(used with subscripts) 



Nominal wall thickness of reducer 
Required thickness of branch pipe 

Throat thickness of cover fillet weld, branch con- 
nection 

Effective branch wall thickness 

Required thickness of header or run 

Minimum required thickness of component, 
including allowances (c) for mechanical joining, 
corrosion, etc. (used with subscripts), viz., 
f m i, = minimum thickness of branch 
f m/j - minimum thickness of header 



mm 
mm 
mm 



1043. 1(D. 2) 
104.8.4(C) 



104.3.1(G.4) 
104.3.1(6.6) 

104.1. 2(A)[eqs. (3), 

(3A), (4), (4A)j 
104.3.1(0.2) 
104.3.1(G.4) 
104.3.3(C3.1) 
104.3.3(C.3.2) 
104.4.1(B) 
104.4.2 

104.5.2(B)[eq. (6)j 
104.5. 3(A)[eq. (7)] 
104.5.3(B) 
104.8.1 
104.8.4(C) 
127.4.8(B) 
132.4.2(E) 



104.3.1(6.4) 
104.3.1(6.6) 

127.4.8(B) 
132.4.2(E) 

104.8.4(C) 

104.3.1(6.4) 

104.1. 2(A)[eqs. (3), 

(3A), (4), (4A)] 
104.3.1(0.2) 
104.3.1(E) 
104.3.1(6) 
104.3.3(C3.1) 
104.3.3(C.3.2) 
104.4.1(B) 
104.5.2(B)[eq. (6)] 
104.5.3(A) 



App. D, Table D-l 

104.3.1(D) 
App. D, Fig. D-l 



App. D, Table D-l 
104.3.1(G) 



104.3.1(G) 

104.5.3 

127.4.8(D) 



App. D, Table D-l 
104.3.1(G) 

127.4.8(D) 



104.3.1(6) 

102.4.5 

104.1.2(A) 

104.3.1(D) 

104.3.1(G) 
127.4.2 



225 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Units 



References 



Symbol 



Definition 



Si 



U.S. 



Paragraph 



Table/Fig./App. 



U 



<5 

Ar 
o 

On 



Nomina! wall thickness of component (used with 
subscripts), viz., 
t nb = nominal wall thickness of branch 
t nh - nominal wall thickness of header 
t nr - nominal thickness of reinforcement 



Thickness of reinforcing pad or saddle 

Walt thickness of segment or miter 

Weld thickness 

Anchor distance (length of straight line joining 
anchors) 

Size of fillet weld for slip-on and socket welding 
flanges or socket wall for socket welds 

Resultant of movement to be absorbed by pipe- 
lines 

A coefficient having values given in Table 
104.1.2(A) 



Branch offset dimension 
Section modulus of pipe 



Angle between axes of branch and run 

Reducer cone angle 

Mismatch or offset 

Range of temperature change (used with sub- 
scripts) 

Angle of miter cut 

Transition angle of branch reinforcement 

Equal to or greater than 

Equal to or less than 



deg 
deg 



deg 
deg 



deg 



deg 
deg 



102.3.2(D) 

104.3.1(G) 

1043.3 

104.8. l[eqs. (11A), 

(11 B)] 
104.8. 2[eqs. (12A), 

(12B)] 
104.8.4(C) 
127.4.8(B) 
132.4.2(E) 

104.3. 1(D.2) 
104.3.1(E) 

104.3.3(C3) 

104.3. 1(C2) 

119.7.1(A.3) 



119.7. 1(A.3) 



104.1. 2(A.7)[eqs. 
(3), (3A), (4), (4A), 
(5)] 



104.8. l[eqs. (11 A), 

(11 B)] 
104.8. 2[eqs. (12A), 

(12B)] 
104.8. 3[eqs. (13A), 

(13B)] 
104.8.4(A) 
104.8.4(C) 

104.3. 1(D.2) 
104.3.1(E) 



102.3.2(C) 



104.3.3 



127.4.4(B) 
127.4.4(C) 
127.4.8(D) 
App. D, Fig. D-l 
App, D, Table D-l 



104.3.1(D) 

App. D, Table D-l 



127.4.8(F) 



127.4.4(B) 



104.1.2(A) 

App. A, Notes to 
Tables A-4, A- 5, 
A-6, A-7, and 
A-9 

App. D, Fig. D-l 



104.3.1(D) 

App. D, Table D-l 
App. D, Table D-l 

App. D, Table D-l 
App. D., Fig. D-l 



226 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



MANDATORY APPENDIX H 
PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL INQUIRIES 



H-l INTRODUCTION 

The ASME B31 Committee, Code for Pressure Piping, 
will consider written requests for interpretations and 
revisions of the Code rules, and develop new rules if 
dictated by technical development. The Committee's 
activities in this regard are limited strictly to interpreta- 
tions of the rules or to the consideration of revisions to 
the present rules on the basis of new data or technology. 
The Introduction to this Code states "It is the owner's 
responsibility to determine which Code Section is appli- 
cable to a piping installation/' The Committee will not 
respond to inquiries requesting assignment of a Code 
Section to a piping installation. As a matter of published 
policy ASME does not approve, certify rate, or endorse 
any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity, 
and, accordingly, inquiries requiring such consideration 
will be returned. Moreover, ASME does not act as a 
consultant on specific engineering problems or on the 
general application or understanding of the Code rules. 
If, based on the inquiry information submitted, it is the 
opinion of the Committee that the inquirer should seek 
professional assistance, the inquiry will be returned with 
the recommendation that such assistance be obtained. 

Inquiries that do not provide the information needed 
for the Committee's full understanding will be returned. 



H-2 REQUIREMENTS 

Inquiries shall be limited strictly to interpretations of 
the rules or to the consideration of revisions to the pres- 
ent rules on the basis of new data or technology. Inquiries 
shall meet the following requirements: 



(a) Scope. Involve a single rule or closely related rules 
in the scope of the Code. An inquiry letter concerning 
unrelated subjects will be returned. 

(b) Background. State the purpose of the inquiry, 
which may be either to obtain an interpretation of Code 
rules, or to propose consideration of a revision to the 
present rules. Provide concisely the information needed 
for the Committee's understanding of the inquiry, being 
sure to include reference to the applicable Code Section, 
Edition, Addenda, paragraphs, figures, and tables. If 
sketches are provided, they shall be limited to the scope 
of the inquiry. 

(c) Inquiry Structure 

(1) Proposed Question(s). The inquiry shall be stated 
in a condensed and precise question format, omitting 
superfluous background information, and, where 
appropriate, composed in such a way that "yes" or "no" 
(perhaps with provisos) would be an acceptable reply. 
The inquiry statement should be technically and editori- 
ally correct. 

(2) Proposed Reply (ks). Provide a proposed reply 
stating what it is believed that the Code requires. If in 
the inquirer 's opinion, a revision to the Code is needed, 
recommended wording shall be provided in addition to 
information justifying the change. 

H-3 SUBMITTAL 

Inquiries should be submitted in typewritten form; 
however, legible handwritten inquiries will be consid- 
ered. They shall include the name and mailing address 
of the inquirer, and be mailed to the following address: 

Secretary 

ASME B31 Committee 

Three Park Avenue 

New York, NY 10016-5990 



227 



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\^ No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^ 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



MANDATORY APPENDIX J 

QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS FOR 

BOILER EXTERNAL PIPING (BEP) 



FOREWORD 

This Appendix contains the quality control require- 
ments for boiler external piping. The following is that 
portion of Appendix A-300 Quality Control System of 
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I, 
which is applicable to BEP. 

J-l QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM 
J-l.l General 

J-l. 1.1 Quality Control System. The Manufacturer 
or assembler shall have and maintain a quality control 
system which will establish that all Code requirements, 
including material, design, fabrication, examination (by 
the Manufacturer), and inspection of boilers and boiler 
parts (by the Authorized Inspector), will be met. Pro- 
vided that Code requirements are suitably identified, 
the system may include provisions for satisfying any 
requirements by the Manufacturer or user which exceed 
minimum Code requirements and may include provi- 
sions for quality control of non-Code work. In such sys- 
tems, the Manufacturer may make changes in parts of 
the system which do not affect the Code requirements 
without securing acceptance by the Authorized Inspec- 
tor. Before implementation, revisions to quality control 
systems of Manufacturers and assemblers of safety and 
safety relief valves shall have been found acceptable to 
an ASME designee if such revisions affect Code require- 
ments. 

The system that the Manufacturer or assembler uses 
to meet the requirements of this Section must be one 
suitable for his/her own circumstances. The necessary 
scope and detail of the system shall depend on the com- 
plexity of the work performed and on the size and com- 
plexity of the Manufacturer's (or assembler's) 
organization. A written description of the system the 
Manufacturer or assembler will use to produce a Code 
item shall be available for review. Depending upon the 
circumstances, the description may be brief or volu- 
minous. 

The written description may contain information of 
proprietary nature relating to the Manufacturer's (or 
assembler's) processes. Therefore, the Code does not 
require any distribution of this information, except for 
the Authorized Inspector or ASME designee. 



It is intended that information learned about the sys- 
tem in connection with evaluation will be treated as 
confidential and that all loaned descriptions will be 
returned to the Manufacturer upon completion of the 
evaluation. 

J-l. 2 Outline of Features to Be Included in the 
Written Description of the Quality Control 
System 

The following is a guide to some of the features which 
should be covered in the written description of the qual- 
ity control system and which is equally applicable to 
both shop and field work. 

J-l. 2.1 Authority and Responsibility. The authority 
and responsibility of those in charge of the quality con- 
trol system shall be clearly established. Persons per- 
forming quality control functions shall have sufficient 
and well-defined responsibility, the authority, and the 
organizational freedom to identify quality control prob- 
lems and to initiate, recommend, and provide solutions. 

J-l. 2.2 Organization. An organization chart show- 
ing the relationship between management and engi- 
neering, purchasing, manufacturing, field assembling, 
inspection, and quality control is required to reflect the 
actual organization. The purpose of this chart is to iden- 
tify and associate the various organizational groups with 
the particular function for which they are responsible. 
The Code does not intend to encroach on the Manufac- 
turer's right to establish, and from time to time to alter, 
whatever form of organization the Manufacturer consid- 
ers appropriate for its Code work. 

J-l. 2.3 Drawings, Design Calculations, and Specifica- 
tion Control. The Manufacturer 's or assembler 's quality 
control system shall provide procedures which will 
assure that the latest applicable drawings, design calcu- 
lations, specifications, and instructions, required by the 
Code, as well as authorized changes, are used for manu- 
facture, assembly, examination, inspection, and testing. 

J-l. 2. 4 Material Control. The Manufacturer or 
assembler shall include a system of receiving control 
which will insure that the material received is properly 
identified and has documentation, including required 
material certifications or material test reports, to satisfy 



228 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Code requirements as ordered. The material control sys- 
tem shall insure that only the intended material is used 
in Code construction. 

J-l.2.5 Examination and Inspection Program. The 

Manufacturer's quality control system shall describe the 
fabrication operations, including examinations, suffi- 
ciently to permit the Authorized Inspector to determine 
at what stages specific inspections are to be performed. 

J-l. 2.6 Correction of Nonconformities. There shall 
be a system agreed upon with the Authorized. Inspector 
for correction of nonconformities. A nonconformity is 
any condition which does not comply with the applica- 
ble rules of this Section. Nonconformities must be cor- 
rected or eliminated in some way before the completed 
component can be considered to comply with this 
Section. 

J-l. 2. 7 Welding. The quality control system shall 
include provisions for indicating that welding conforms 
to requirements of Section IX as supplemented by this 
Section. 

J-l. 2. 8 Nondestructive Examination. The quality 
control system shall include provisions for identifying 
nondestructive examination procedures the Manufac- 
turer will apply to conform with requirements of this 
Section. 

J-l.2.9 Heat Treatment The quality control system 
shall provide controls to assure that heat treatments as 
required by the rules of this Section are applied. Means 
shall be indicated by which the Authorized Inspector 
can satisfy him /herself that these Code heat treatment 
requirements are met. This may be by review of furnace 
time - temperature records or by other methods as 
appropriate. 

J-l.2.10 Calibration of Measurement and Test Equip- 
ment. The Manufacturer or assembler shall have a sys- 
tem for the calibration of examination, measuring, and 
test equipment used in fulfillment of requirements of 
this Section. 

J-l.2.11 Records Retention. The Manufacturer or 
assembler shall have a system for the maintenance of 
radiographs and Manufacturers' Data Reports as 
required by this Section. 

J-l.2.12 Sample Forms. The forms used in the qual- 
ity control system and any detailed procedures for their 



use shall be available for review. The written description 
shall make necessary references to these forms. 

J-l.2.13 inspection of Boilers and Boiler Parts 

J- 1,2, 13,1 Inspection of boilers and boiler parts 
shall be by the Authorized Inspector described in PG-91. 

J-l.2.13.2 The written description of the quality 
control system shall include reference to the Authorized 
Inspector. 

J-l.2.13.2.1 The Manufacturer (or assembler) 
shall make available to the Authorized Inspector at the 
Manufacturer's plant (or construction site) a current 
copy of the written description or the applicable quality 
control system. 

J-l. 2.1 3.2.2 The Manufacturer's quality control 
system shall provide for the Authorized Inspector at the 
Manufacturer's plant to have access to all drawings, 
calculations, specifications, procedures, process sheets, 
repair procedures, records, test results, and any other 
documents as necessary for the Inspector to perform 
his/her duties in accordance with this Section. The Man- 
ufacturer may provide such access either to his/her own 
files of such documents or by providing copies to the 
Inspector. 

J-l. 2. 14 Inspection of Safety and Safety ReliefValves 

J-l. 2.14.1 Inspection of safety and safety relief 
valves shall be by designated representative of the 
ASME, as described in PG-73.3. 

J-l. 2. 14.2 The written description of the quality 
control system shall include reference to the ASME 
designee. 

J-l. 2. 14.2.1 The valve Manufacturer (or assem- 
bler) shall make available to the ASME designee at the 
Manufacturer's plant a current copy of the written 
description of the applicable quality control system. 

J-l. 2. 14. 2. 2 The valve Manufacturer's (or 
assembler's) quality control system shall provide for the 
ASME designee to have access to all drawings, calcula- 
tions, specifications, procedures, process sheets, repair 
procedures, records, test results, and any other docu- 
ments as necessary for the designee to perform his/her 
duties in accordance with this Section. The Manufacturer 
may provide such access either to his/her own files of 
such documents or by providing copies to the designee. 



229 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



NONMANDATORY APPENDICES 



NONMANDATORY APPENDIX II 
RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF SAFETY VALVE INSTALLATIONS 1 



FOREWORD 

ASME B31.1 contains rules governing the design, fab- 
rication/ materials, erection, and examination of power 
piping systems. Experience over the years has demon- 
strated that these rules may be reasonably applied to 
safety valve installations. Nevertheless, instances have 
occurred wherein the design of safety valve installations 
may not have properly and fully applied the ASME B31.1 
rules. Accordingly, this nonmandatory Appendix to 
ASME B31.1 has been prepared to illustrate and clarify 
the application of ASME B31.1 rules to safety valve 
installations. To this end, Appendix II presents the 
designer with design guidelines and alternative design 
methods. 



11-1.0 SCOPE AHD DEFINITION 
ll-l.l Scope 

The scope of Appendix II is confined to the design of 
the safety valve installations as defined in para. 1.2 of 
this Appendix. The loads acting at the safety valve sta- 
tion will, affect the bending moments and stresses in 
the complete piping system, out to its anchors and/ 
or extremities, and it is the designer's responsibility to 
consider these loads. Appendix II, however, deals pri- 
marily with the safety valve installation, and not the 
complete piping system. 

The design of the safety valve installation requires 
that careful attention be paid to 

(A) all loads acting on the system 

(B) the forces and bending moments in the piping 
and piping components resulting from the loads 

(C) the loading and stress criteria 

(D) general design practices 

All components in the safety valve installation must 
be given consideration, including the complete piping 



1 Nonmandatory appendices are identified by a Roman numeral; 
mandatory appendices are identified by a letter. Therefore, Roman 
numeral I is not used, in order to avoid confusion with the letter I. 



system, the connection to the main header, the safety 
valve, valve and pipe flanges, the downstream discharge 
or vent piping, and the system supports. The scope of 
this Appendix is intended to cover all loads on all com- 
ponents. It is assumed that the safety valve complies 
with the requirements of American National Standards 
prescribed by ASME B31.1 for structural integrity. 

This Appendix has application to either safety, relief, 
or safety-relief valve installations. For convenience, 
however, the overpressure protection device is generally 
referred to as a safety valve. The loads associated with 
relief or safety-relief valve operation may differ signifi- 
cantly from those of safety valve operation, but other- 
wise the rules contained herein are equally applicable 
to each type of valve installation. See para. II-1.2 for 
definition. 

This Appendix provides analytic and nomenclature 
definition figures to assist the designer, and is not 
intended to provide actual design layout (drains, drip 
pans, suspension, air gaps, flanges, weld ends, and other 
design details are not shown). Sample problems have 
been provided at the end of the text to assist the designer 
in application of the rules in this Appendix. 

iS-1.2 Definitions (Valve Descriptions Follow the 
Definitions Given in Section I of the ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) 

safety valve: an automatic pressure relieving device actu- 
ated by the static pressure upstream of the valve and 
characterized by full opening pop action. It is used for 
gas or vapor service. 

relief valve: an automatic pressure relieving device actu- 
ated by the static pressure upstream of the valve which 
opens further with the increase in pressure over the 
opening pressure. It is used primarily for liquid service. 

safety relief valve: an automatic pressure actuated reliev- 
ing device suitable for use either as a safety valve or 
relief valve, depending on application. 

power-actuated pressure relieving valve: a relieving device 
whose movements to open or close are fully controlled 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



by a source of power (electricity, air, steam, or hydraulic). 
The valve may discharge to atmosphere or to a container 
at lower pressure. The discharge capacity may be 
affected by the downstream conditions, and such effects 
shall be taken into account. If the power-actuated pres- 
sure relieving valves are also positioned in response 
to other control signals, the control impulse to prevent 
overpressure shall be responsive only to pressure and 
shall override any other control function. 

open discharge installation: an installation where the fluid 
is discharged directly to the atmosphere or to a vent pipe 
that is uncoupled from the safety valve. Figure II-1-2(A) 
shows a typical open discharge installation with an 
elbow installed at the valve discharge to direct the flow 
into a vent pipe. The values for / and m on Fig. II-1-2(A) 
are upper limits for which the rules for open discharge 
systems may be used. / shall be limited to a value less 
than or equal to 4D ; in shall be limited to a value less 
than or equal to 6D where D is the outside diameter 
of the discharge pipe. Open discharge systems which 
do not conform to these limits shall be evaluated by the 
designer for the applicability of these rules. 

closed discharge installation: an installation where the 
effluent is carried to a. distant spot by a discharge pipe 
which is connected directly to the safety valve. 
Figure II-1-2(B) shows a typical closed discharge system. 

safety valve installation: the safety valve installation is 
defined as that portion of the system shown on 
Figs. II-1-2(A) and IM-2(B). It includes the run pipe, 
branch connection, the inlet pipe, the valve, the dis- 
charge piping, and the vent pipe. Also included are the 
components used to support the system for all static 
and dynamic loads. 

11-2.0 LOADS 

11-2.1 Thermal Expansion 

Loads acting on the components in the safety valve 
installation and the displacements at various points due 
to thermal expansion of the piping shall be determined 
by analyzing the complete piping system out to its 
anchors, in accordance with procedures in para. 119. 

11-2.1.1 Installations With Open Discharge. For 

safety valve installations with open discharge, there will 
be no thermal expansion loads acting on the discharge 
elbow, the valve, or the valve inlet other than that from 
restraint to thermal expansion as described below. 
Restraint to thermal expansion can sometimes occur due 
to drain lines, or when structural supports are provided 
to carry the reaction forces associated with safety valve 
lift. Examples of such structural supports are shown in 
Fig. II-6-1 sketch (b). When such restraints exist, the 
thermal expansion loads and stresses shall be calculated 
and effects evaluated. 



11-2.1.2 Installations With Closed Discharge. Loads 
due to thermal expansion and back pressure of a safety 
valve installation with a closed discharge can be high 
enough to cause malfunction of the valve, excessive leak- 
age of the valve or flange, or overs tress of other compo- 
nents. The loads due to thermal expansion shall be 
evaluated for all significant temperature combinations, 
including the cases where the discharge piping is hot 
following safety valve operation. 

11-2.2 Pressure 

Pressure loads acting on the safety valve installation 
are important from two main considerations. The first 
consideration is that the pressure acting on the walls of 
the safety valve installation can cause membrane stresses 
which could result in rupture of the pressure retaining 
parts. The second consideration is that the pressure 
effects associated with discharge can cause high loads 
acting on the system which create bending moments 
throughout the piping system. These pressure effects 
are covered in para. II-2.3. 

All parts of the safety valve installation must be 
designed to withstand the design pressures without 
exceeding the Code allowable stresses. The branch con- 
nection, the inlet pipe, and the inlet flanges shall be 
designed for the same design pressure as that of the run 
pipe. The design pressure of the discharge system will 
depend on the safety valve rating and on the configura- 
tion of the discharge piping. The open discharge installa- 
tion and the closed discharge installation present 
somewhat different problems in the determination of 
design pressures, and these problems are discussed in 
the paragraphs below. 

11-2.2.1 Design Pressure and Velocity for Open Dis- 
charge Installation Discharge Elbows and Vent Pipes. 

There are several methods available to the designer for 
determining the design pressure and velocity in the dis- 
charge elbow and vent pipe. It is the responsibility of 
the designer to assure himself that the method used 
yields conservative results. A method for determining 
the design pressures and velocities in the discharge 
elbow and vent pipe for open discharge installation is 
shown below and illustrated in the sample problem. 

(A) First, calculate the design pressure and velocity 
for the discharge elbow. 

(A.l) Determine the pressure, P {/ that exists at the 
discharge elbow outlet (Fig. II-2-1). 



Pi 



W (b - 1) l2(ho-a)J 



(A.l) Determine the velocity, Vy that exists at the 
discharge elbow outlet (Fig. II-2-1). 



Vi 



! 2gcJ(h - a) 



V e*- 1 ) 



231 



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v No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. II-1-2(A) Safety Valve Installation (Open Discharge System) 



Vent pipe- 



Safety valve 



Outlet flanges 



Inlet weld ■ 



Inlet flanges- 



-*1 



Inlet pspe- 



Branch connection - 



Run pipe 



\ 



Discharge 
pipe 



232 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^^ 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



Fig. 1I-1-2(B) Safety Valve Installation (Closed Discharge System) 



' Receiver 






Safety valve 



Inlet flanges v^^ ,_ 

r 

Inlet pipe 



Outlet flanges 



Closed discharge 
pipe 



Inlet weld 



- Branch connection 



Run pipe 



233 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 11-2-1 Discharge Elbow (Open Discharge Installation) 







Point 1 



Table 11-2.2.1 Values of a and h 



Steam Condition 



Wet steam, 
< 90% quality 

Saturated steam, 
> 90% quality, 
15 psia <P t < 1,000 psia 



a, Btu/lbm 



291 



823 



11 



4.33 



(A3) Determine the safety valve outlet pressure, 
P hl , at the inlet to the discharge elbow (Fig. II-2-1). 

(A. 3.1) Determine the length to diameter ratio 
(dimensionless) for the pipe sections in the discharge 
elbow (L/D) 



L/D 



D 



Superheated steam, 
> 90% quality, 
1,000 psia < P x < 2,000 psia 1 



831 



4.33 



NOTE: 

(1) This method may be used as an approximation for pressures 

over 2,000 psi, but an alternate method should be used for 

verification. 



where 

A l = discharge elbow area, in; 

g c = gravitational constant 

= 32.2 lbnvft/lbf~sec 2 



stagnation enthalpy at the safety valve inlet. 



Btu/lbm 
/ = 778.16 ft-lbf/Btu 
?! = pressure, psia (lbf/in. 2 , absolute) 
V 1 = ft/sec 
W = actual mass flow rate, Ibm/sec 

Common values of a and b are listed in Table II-2.2.1. 



(A. 3.2) Determine a Darcy-Weisbach friction fac- 
tor, /, to be used. (For steam, a value of 0.013 can be 
used as a good estimate since / will vary slightly in 
turbulent pipe flow.) 

(A3 3) Determine a specific heat ratio (for super- 
heated steam, k — 1.3 can be used as an estimate — for 
saturated steam, k = 1.1). 

(A3 A) Calculate /(L max /D). 

(A3.5) Enter Chart II-l with value of /(L max /D) 
and determine ?/P. 

(A3.6) P la = ?! (P/P*). 

(A3 J) Pi a is the maximum operating pressure of 
the discharge elbow. 

(B) Second, determine the design pressure and veloc- 
ity for the vent pipe. 

(B.l) Determine the pressure, P 3 , that exists at the 
vent pipe outlet (Fig. II-2-2) 



p,i4i 



234 



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ASME B31, 1-2007 



Q 1x10 



1 x 1 0~ 2 



Chart IS-1 Compressible Flow Analysis 




pip* 



(B.2) Determine the velocity, V 3/ that exists at the 
vent pipe outlet (Fig. II-2-2) 

V 3 = V } 

(B.3) Repeat Steps (3.1) to (3.7) in the calculation 
of the discharge elbow maximum operating pressure 
to determine the maximum operating pressure of the 
vent pipe. 

(BA) Determine the velocity, V 2 , and pressure, P 2 , 
that exist at the inlet to the vent pipe (Fig. TI-2-2). 

(BAA.) Enter Chart II-l 2 with value of f(L m JD) 
from Step (3.4) and determine values of V/V* and P/P*. 
(BA.2) Calculate V 2 



" Chart II-l may be extended to other values of /(L max /D) by 
use of the Keenan and Kaye Gas Tables for Fanno lines. The Darcy- 
Weisbach friction factor is used in Chart II-l, whereas the Gas 
Tables use the Fanning factor which is one-fourth the value of the 
Darcy-Weisbach factor. 



V 2 = y 3 (V/VV 

(BA.3) P 2 = P$ (P/P*)- This is the highest pressure 
the vent stack will see and should be used in calculating 
vent pipe blowback (see para. II-2.3.1.2). 

SI-2.2.2 Pressure for Closed Discharge Installations. 

The pressures in a closed discharge pipe during steady 
state flow may be determined by the methods described 
in. para. 11-2,2.1. However, when a safety valve discharge 
is connected to a relatively long run of pipe and is 
suddenly opened, there is a period of transient flow 
until the steady state discharge condition is reached. 
During this transient period, the pressure and flow will 
not be uniform. When the safety valve is initially opened, 
the discharge pipe may be filled with air. If the safety 
valve is on a steam system, the steam discharge from 
the valve must purge the air from the pipe before steady 
state steam flow is established and, as the pressure 



235 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 11-2-2 Vent Pipe (Open Discharge Installation) 

WVo 



& 








-Sufficient overlap to prevent 

the discharge elbow from pulling 
out of the vent pipe due to opening 
reaction and/or displacement 
resulting from expansion movements 



Pa)*2 



builds up at the valve outlet flange and waves start 
to travel down the discharge pipe, the pressure wave 
initially emanating from the valve will steepen as it 
propagates, and it may steepen into a shock wave before 
it reaches the exit. Because of this, it is recommended 
that the design pressure of the closed discharge pipe be 
greater than the steady state operating pressure by a. 
factor of at least 2. 

11-2.3 Reaction Forces From Valve Discharge 

It is the responsibility of the piping system, designer 
to determine the reaction forces associated with valve 
discharge. These forces can create bending moments at 



various points in the piping system so high as to cause 
catastrophic failure of the pressure boundary parts. Since 
the magnitude of the forces may differ substantially, 
depending on the type of discharge system, each system 
type is discussed in the paragraphs below. 

11-2.3-1 Reaction Forces With Open Discharge 
Systems 

I 1-2.3. 1.1 Discharge Elbow. The reaction force F 
due to steady state flow following the opening of the 
safety valve includes both momentum and pressure 
effects. The reaction force applied is shown in Fig. II- 2-1, 
and may be computed by the following equation: 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



f i = y V, + (P, - P.) A, 

where 

Aj = exit flow area at Point 1, in. 2 

F x = reaction force at Point 1, lbf 

g c = gravitational constant 

= 32.2 lbm-ft/lbf-sec 2 

p l = static pressure at Point 1, psia 

P a = atmospheric pressure, psia 

V\ = exit velocity at Point 1, ft/sec 

W - mass flow rate, (relieving capacity stamped on 
the valve x 1.11), Ibm/sec 

To ensure consideration of the effects of the suddenly 
applied load F, a dynamic load factor, DLF, should be 
applied (see para. II-3.5.1.3). 

The methods for calculating the velocities and pres- 
sures at the exit point of the discharge elbow are the 
same as those discussed in para. II-2.2 of this Appendix. 

11-2.3.1.2 Vent Pipe. Figure II-2-2 shows the exter- 
nal forces resulting from a safety valve discharge, which 
act on the vent pipe. The methods for calculating F 2 and 
F 3 are the same as those previously described. The vent 
pipe anchor and restraint system must be capable of 
taking the moments caused by these two forces, and 
also be capable of sustaining the unbalanced forces in 
the vertical and horizontal directions. 

A bevel of the vent pipe will result in a flow that is 
not vertical. The equations shown are based on vertical 
flow. To take account for the effect of a bevel at the exit, 
the exit force will act at an angle, <b, with the axis of the 
vent pipe discharge which is a function of the bevel 
angle, 0. The beveled top of the vent deflects the jet 
approximately 30 deg off the vertical for a 60 d eg bevel, 
and this will introduce a horizontal component force on 
the vent pipe systems. 

The terms in the equations shown on Fig. 11-2-2 are 
the same as those defined in para. 11-2.3.1 above. 

The vent pipe must be sized so that no steam is blown 
back at the vent line entrance. The criteria which may 
be used as a guide to prevent this condition are listed 
below. 



W (Vi - v 2 ) 



> (P 2 - P a ) A 2 - (P, - P a )Ai 



where 



A = area, in.~ 

g c = gravitational constant 

= 32.2 lbm-ft/lbf-sec 2 

Pi, P 2 = local absolute pressure, psia 

P a = standard atmospheric pressure, psia 

V = velocity, ft /sec 

W = mass flow rate, Ibm/sec 

The inequality states that the momentum at Point 1 
has to be greater than the momentum at Point 2 in order 



that air is educted into the vent pipe. If the momentum 
at Point 1 equalled the momentum at Point 2, no air 
would be educted into the vent pipe. If the momentum 
at Point 1 was less than the momentum at Point 2, steam 
would "blow back" from the vent pipe. 

The educting effect of the vent pipe is especially 
important for indoor installation of safety valves. The 
steam being vented from the upper body during safety 
valve operation will be removed from the area through 
the vent pipe. For that reason, the fluid momentum at 
1 should exceed the fluid momentum at 2, not just be 
equal. 

If this inequality is satisfied, blowback will not occur. 
The pressures and velocities are those calculated in 
para. II-2.2.1. 

11-2.3.2 Reaction Forces With Closed Discharge 
Systems. When safety valves discharge a closed piping 
system, the forces acting on the piping system under 
steady state flow will be self-equilibrated, and do not 
create significant bending moments on the piping sys- 
tem. The large steady state force will act only at the 
point of discharge, and the magnitude of this force may 
be determined as described for open discharge systems. 
Relief valves discharging into an enclosed piping sys- 
tem create momentary unbalanced forces which act on 
the piping system during the first few milliseconds fol- 
lowing relief valve lift. The pressure w T aves traveling 
through the piping system following the rapid opening 
of the safety valve will cause bending moments in the 
safety valve discharge piping and throughout the 
remainder of the piping system. In such a case, the 
designer must compute the magnitude of the loads, and 
perform appropriate evaluation of their effects. 

11-2.4 Other Mechanical Loads 

Other design mechanical loads that must be consid- 
ered by the piping designer include the following: 

11-2.4.1 Interaction loads on the pipe run when 
more than one valve opens. 

11-2.4.2 Loads due to earthquake and /or piping 
system vibration (see para. 11-3.4). 

11-3.0 BENDING MOMENT COMPUTATIONS 

11-3.1 General 

One of the most important considerations related to 
the mechanical design and analysis of safety valve instal- 
lation is the identification and calculation of the 
moments at critical points in the installation. If the bend- 
ing moments are not properly calculated, it will not be 
possible to meet the loading and stress criteria contained 
in ASME B31.1. As a minimum, the following loads, 
previously discussed in para. II-2.0 of this Appendix, 
should be considered in determining these moments: 



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A5ME B31. 1-2007 



(A) thermal expansion 

(B) dead weight 

(C) earthquake 

(D) reaction force from valve discharge 

(E) other mechanical loads 

The analysis of the safety valve installation should 
include all critical sections/ such as intersection points, 
elbow s, transition sections, etc., and any related piping, 
vessels, and their supports which may interact with the 
safety valve installation. It is often most appropriate to 
model the safety valve installation and its related piping 
as a lumped mass system joined by straight or curved 
elements. 

11-3.2 Thermal Expansion Analysis 

There are many standard and acceptable methods for 
determination of moments due to thermal expansion of 
the piping installation. The thermal expansion analysis 
must comply with the requirements in para. 119. The 
safety valve installation often presents a special problem 
in that there may be a variety of operational modes to 
consider where each mode represents a different combi- 
nation of temperatures in various sections of the piping 
system. The design condition shall be selected so that 
none of the operational modes represents a condition 
that gives thermal expansion bending moments greater 
than the design condition. 

The design of the safety valve installation should con- 
sider the differential thermal growth and expansion 
loads, as well as the local effects of reinforcing and sup- 
ports. The design should also consider the differential 
thermal growth and expansion loads existing after any 
combination of safety valves (one valve to all valves) 
operates, raising the temperature of the discharge 
piping. 

18-3.3 Dead Weight Analysis 

The methods used for determination of bending 
moments due to dead weight in a safety valve installa- 
tion are not different from the methods used in any 
other piping installation. If the support system meets 
the requirements in para. 121, the bending moments due 
to dead weight may be assumed to be 1,500Z (in.-lb) 
where Z is the section modulus (in. 3 ) of the pipe or 
fitting being considered. How T ever, bending moments 
due to dead weight are easily determined and should 
always be calculated in systems where stresses exceed 
90% of the allowable stress limits in meeting the require- 
ments of eqs. (11) and (12) of para. 104.8. 

H-3.4 Earthquake Analysis 

Seismic loads must be known in order to calculate 
bending moments at critical points in the safety valve 
installation. If a design specification exists, it should 
stipulate if the piping system must be designed for 
earthquake. If so, it should specify the magnitude of 



the earthquake, the plant conditions under which the 
earthquake is assumed to occur, and the type earthquake 
analysis to be used (equivalent static or dynamic). If a 
design specification does not exist, it is the responsibility 
of the designer to determine what consideration must 
be given to earthquake analysis. It is beyond the scope 
of this Appendix to provide rules for calculating 
moments due to earthquake. The literature contains sat- 
isfactory references for determining moments by use 
of static seismic coefficients and how to perform more 
sophisticated dynamic analyses of the piping system 
using inputs in such form as time histories of displace- 
ment, velocity, and acceleration or response spectra 
where displacement, velocity, or acceleration is pre- 
sented as a. function of frequency. 

Two types of seismic bending moments occur. One 
type is due to inertia effects and the other type is due 
to seismic motions of pipe anchors and other attach- 
ments. As will be shown later, the moments due to inertia 
effects must be considered in eq. (12), para. 104.8, in the 
kS h category. Moments due to seismic motions of the 
attachments may be combined with thermal expansion 
stress and considered in eq. (13), para. 104.8 in the S A 
category For this reason, it may sometimes be justified 
for the designer to consider the moments separately; 
otherwise both sets of moments would have to be 
included In the kS^ category. 

H-3.5 Analysis for Reaction Forces Due to Valve 
Discharge 

H-3.5.1 Open Discharge Systems 

IS- 3. 5. 1.1 The moments due to valve reaction 
forces may be calculated by simply multiplying the 
force, calculated as described in para. II-2.3.1.1, times 
the distance from the point in the piping system being 
analyzed, times a suitable dynamic load factor. In no 
case shall the reaction moment used in para. II-4.2 at 
the branch connection below the valve be taken at less 
than the product of 

(DLF) (Fj) (D) 

where 

D = nominal O.D. of inlet pipe 

DLF = dynamic load factor (see para. II-3.5.1.3) 

F x = force calculated per para. II-2.3.1.1 

Reaction force and resultant moment effects on the 
header, supports, and nozzles for each valve or combina- 
tion of valves blowing shall be considered, 

11-3.5.1.2 Multiple Valve Arrangements. Reaction 
force and moment effects on the run pipe, header, sup- 
ports, vessel, and connecting nozzles for each valve 
blowing, and when appropriate, for combinations of 
valves blowing should be considered. In multiple valve 
arrangements, each valve will open at a different time, 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



and since all valves may not be required to open during 
an overpressure transient several possible combinations 
of forces can exist. It may be desirable to vary the direc- 
tion of discharge of several safety valves on the same 
header to reduce the maximum possible forces when all 
valves are blowing. 

11-3.5.1.3 Dynamic Amplification of Reaction 
Forces. In a piping system acted upon by time varying 
loads, the internal forces and moments are generally 
greater than those produced under static application of 
the load. This amplification is often expressed as the 
dynamic load factor, DLF, and is defined as the maxi- 
mum ratio of the dynamic deflection at any time to the 
deflection which would have resulted from the static 
application of the load. For structures having essentially 
one degree-of- freedom and a single load application, 
the DLF value will range between one and two 
depending on the time-history of the applied load and 
the natural frequency of the structure. If the run pipe is 
rigidly supported, the safety valve installation can be 
idealized as a one degree-of- freedom system and the 
time-history of the applied loads can often be assumed 
to be a single ramp function between the no-load and 
steady state condition. In this case, the DLF may be 
determined in the following manner: 

(A) Calculate the safety valve installation period T 
using the following equation and Fig. II-3-1: 



T = 0.1846 



I Wh 3 
EI 



where 



Young's modulus of inlet pipe, lb /in. 2 , at 
design temperature 
h — distance from run pipe to centerline of outlet 

piping, in. 
I = moment of inertia of inlet pipe, in. 4 
T = safety valve installation period, sec 
W = weight of safety valve, installation piping, 
flanges, attachments, etc., lb 

(B) Calculate ratio of safety valve opening time to 
installation period (t /T), where t a is the time the safety 
valve takes to go from fully closed to fully open, sec, 
and T is determined in (A) above. 

(C) Enter Fig. II-3-2 with the ratio of safety valve 
opening time to installation period and read the DLF 
from the ordinate. The DLF shall never be taken less 
than 1.1. 

If a less conservative DLF is used, the DLF shall be 
determined by calculation or test. 

11-3.5.1.4 Valve Cycling. Often, safety valves are 
full lift, pop-type valves, and are essentially full-flow 
devices, with no capability for flow modulation. In 
actual pressure transients, the steam flow required to 
prevent overpressure is a varying quantity, from zero to 



the full rated capacity of the safety valves. As a result, 
the valves may be required to open and close a number 
of times during the transient. Since each opening and 
closing produces a reaction force, consideration should 
be given to the effects of multiple valve operations on 
the piping system, including supports. 

11-3.5.1.5 Time-History Analysis. The reaction 
force effects are dynamic in nature. A time-history 
dynamic solution, incorporating a multidegree of free- 
dom lumped mass model solved for the transient 
hydraulic forces is considered to be more accurate than 
the form of analysis presented in this Appendix. 

il-3.5.2 Closed Discharge Systems. Closed dis- 
charge systems do not easily lend themselves to simpli- 
fied analysis techniques. The discussions on pressure in 
para. II-2.2.2 and on forces in para. II-2.3.2 indicate that 
a time-history analysis of the piping system may be 
required to achieve realistic values of moments. 

11-3.5.3 Water Seals. To reduce the problem of steam 
or gas leakage through the safety valve seats, the valve 
inlet piping may be shaped to form a water seal below 
each valve seat. If the valves are required to open to 
prevent overpressure, the water from the seal is dis- 
charged ahead of the steam as the valve disk lifts. The 
subsequent flow of water and steam through the dis- 
charge piping produces a significant pressure and 
momentum transient. Each straight run of discharge pip- 
ing experiences a resulting force cycle as the water mass 
moves from one end of the run to the other. 

For most plants which employ water seals, only the 
first cycle of each occurrence has a force transient based 
on water in the seal. The remaining cycles of each occur- 
rence would be based on steam occupying the seal pip- 
ing, and the transient forces would be reduced in 
magnitude. 



11-4.0 LOADING CRITERIA AND STRESS 
COMPUTATION 

11-4.1 Loading Criteria 

All critical points in the safety valve installation shall 
meet the following loading criteria: 



s, p + s SL < s h 


(1) 


Si,, + S SL + S ol $ kS u 


(2) 


Sip + S SL + S E < S A + Si, 


(3) 



where 

S E = bending stresses due to thermal expansion 
Sip = longitudinal pressure stress 
Sol = bending stresses due to occasional loads, 
such as earthquake, reaction from safety 
valve discharge and impact loads 



239 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. 11-3-1 Safety Valve Installation (Open Discharge System) 



Center of gravity of safety valve, 
retaliation piping, and flanges 




S SL — bending stresses due to sustained loads, 
such as dead weight 

S/i, k, and S A are as defined in ASME B31.1. 
The three loading criteria defined above are repre- 
sented by eqs. (11) and (12) in para. 104.8. 

H-4.2 Stress Calculations 

11-4.2.1 Pressure Stresses. The Code does not 
require determination of the pressure stresses that could 
cause failure of the pressure containing membrane. 
Instead, the Code provides rules to insure that sufficient 
wall thickness is provided to prevent failures due to 
pressure. It is not necessary to repeat these rules in this 
Appendix; however, some of the more important are 
listed below for reference. 

(A) All pipe (plus other components) must satisfy the 
minimum required wall thickness of eq. (3) of para. 
104.1.2. In addition, wall thickness must be adequate 



to satisfy eqs. (11) and (12) in para. 104.8. These two 
equations may govern determination of wall thickness 
in low pressure systems. 

(B) No minimum wall thickness calculations are 
needed for components purchased to approved stan- 
dards in Table 126.1. 

(C) Pipe bends must meet the requirements of eq. (1) 
above after bending. 

(D) Branch connections which do not meet the 
requirements of eq. (2) above must meet the area replace- 
ment requirements of para. 104.3. 

If -4.2. 2 Pressure Plus Bending Stresses. In order to 
guard against membrane failures (catastrophic), prevent 
fatigue (leak) failures, and to assure shakedown, the 
equations in para. 104,8 must be satisfied. These equa- 
tions apply to all components in the safety valve installa- 
tion and will not be repeated here. However, some 
additional explanation of these equations in regard to 



240 



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AS/VIE B31.1-2007 



Fig. 11-3-2 Dynamic Load Factors for Open Discharge System 



2.0 






1.6 



> 



1.4 



1.2 



1.0 

















~~ 




x 










- 




\ 

\ 


\ 








_ 






\ 

\ 

\ 








- 






\ 








_ 















0.1 



0.2 



0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10 

Ratio of Safety Valve Opening Time to Installation Period, t /T 
GENERAL NOTE: This Figure is based on curves from Introduction to Structural Dynamics, J. M. Biggs, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1964 



20 



the very critical points upstream of the safety valve are 
in the paragraphs below. 

11-4.2.2.1 Additive Stresses at Branch Connection, 

For the purposes of eqs. (11), (1.2), and (13) in para. 104.8, 
the section modulus and moments for application to 
branch connections, such as safety valve inlet pipes, are 
as follows: 

(A) For branch connections, the Z should be the effec- 
tive section modulus for the branch as defined in para. 
104.8. Thus, 

Z = Zf, = lirrt (effective section modulus) 

where 

r b = mean branch cross-sectional radius, in. 

t s = lesser of t r and it b , where 

t r = nominal thickness of run pipe 

i = the branch connection stress intensification 

factor 

t b = nominal thickness of branch pipe 

(B) Moment terms shall be defined as follows: 



M B = 



JMJ + Mj + M z: 



where M B , M l3 , M, /3 , and M z3 are defined in para. 104.8. 
(C) Where the D Q /t n of the branch connection differs 
from the D /t n header or run, the larger of the two D /t u 
values should be used in the first term of eqs. (11) and 
(12), where D and t n are defined in paras. 104.1 and 
104.8, respectively. 

11-4.2.2.2 Additive Stresses in Inlet Pipe. Equa- 
tions (11), (12), and (13) in para. 104.8 may be applied 
to the inlet pipe in the same manner as described above 
for the branch connection, except that the values for 
D /t n and Z should be for the inlet pipe and the stress 
intensification factor used will be different. It should be 
noted that the values D , t n , and Z should be taken from, 
a point on the inlet pipe such that D /t n will have a 
maximum and Z a minimum value for the inlet pipe. 

11-4.2.3 Analysis of Flange. It is important that the 
moments from the various loading conditions described 
in para. II-4.2.2 do not overload the flanges on the safety 
valve inlet and outlet. One method of doing this is to 
convert the moments into an equivalent pressure that is 
then added to the internal pressure. The sum of these 
two pressures, P w , would be acceptable if either of the 
following criteria are met: 



241 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



(A) P FD does not exceed the ASME B16.5 flange rating. 

(B) S H/ S R , and S T should be less than the yield stress 
at design temperature, where S Hf S R , and $ r are as 
defined in 2-7 of ASME Section VIII, Division 1 with 
the following exceptions: 

(B.l) P FD should be used in the ASME Section VIII, 
Division 1 equations instead of the design pressure. 

(B.l) S H should include the longitudinal pressure 
stress at the flange hub. 

11-4.2.4 Analysis of Valve. The allowable forces and 
moments which the piping system may place on the 
safety valves must be determined from the valve manu- 
facturer. In some cases, the valve flanges are limiting 
rather than the valve body. 

11-5.0 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 
11-5.1 General 

The design of safety valve installations shall be in 
accordance with para. 104 except that consideration be 
given to the rules provided in the following subpara- 
graphs. These rules are particularly concerned with that 
portion of the piping system attached to and between 
the safety valve and the run pipe, header, or vessel which 
the valve services and includes the branch connection 
to the run pipe, header, or vessel. 

11-5.2 Geometry 

81-5.2.1 Locations of Safety Valve Installations. 

Safety valve installations should be located at least eight 
pipe diameters (based on ID.) dowmstream from any 
bend in a high velocity steam line to help prevent sonic 
vibrations. This distance should be increased if the direc- 
tion of the change of the steam flow is from vertical 
upwards to horizontal in such a manner as to increase 
density of the flow in the area directly beneath the station 
nozzles. Similarly, safety valve installation should not 
be located closer than eight pipe diameters (based on 
I.D.) either upstream or downstream from fittings. 

li-5.2.2 Spacing of Safety Valve Installation. Spacing 
of safety valve installations must meet the requirements 
in Note (1.0)(c), Appendix D, Table D-l. 

18-53 Types of Valves and Installations 

11-5.3.1 Installations With Single Outlet Valves. 

Locate unsupported valves as close to the run pipe or 
header as is physically possible to minimize reaction 
moment effects. 

Orientation of valve outlet should preferably be paral- 
lel to the longitudinal axis of the run pipe or header. 

Angular discharge elbows oriented to minimize the 
reaction force moment shall have a straight pipe of at 
least one pipe diameter provided on the end of the elbow 
to assure that the reaction force is developed at the 
desired angle. Cut the discharge pipe square with the 



centerline. Fabrication tolerances, realistic field erection 
tolerances, and reaction force angle tolerances must be 
considered when evaluating the magnitude of the reac- 
tion moment. 

The length of unsupported discharge piping between 
the valve outlet and the first outlet elbow [Fig. II-1-2(A), 
distance /] should be as short as practical to minimize 
reaction moment effects. 

li-53.2 Installations With Double Outlet Valves. 

Double outlet valves with symmetrical tail-pipes and 
vent stacks will eliminate the bending moment in the 
nozzle and the run pipe or header providing there is 
equal and steady flow from each outlet. If equal flow T 
cannot be guaranteed, the bending moment due to the 
unbalanced flow must be considered. Thrust loads must 
also be considered. 

11-53.3 Multiple Installations. The effects of the dis- 
charge of multiple safety valves on the same header 
shall be such as to tend to balance one another for all 
modes of operation. 

fl-5.4 Installation Branch Connections 

Standard branch connections shall as a minimum 
meet the requirements of para. 104.3. It should be noted 
that branch connections on headers frequently do not 
have sufficient reinforcement when used as a connection 
for a safety valve. It may be necessary to provide addi- 
tional reinforcing (weld deposit buildup) or special 
headers that will satisfactorily withstand the reaction 
moments applied. 

Material used for the branch connection and its rein- 
forcement shall be the same or of higher strength than 
that of the run pipe or header. 

It is strongly recommended that branch connections 
intersect the run pipe or header normal to the surface 
of the run pipe or header at a = 90 deg, where a is 
defined as the angle between the longitudinal axis of 
the branch connection and the normal surface of the run 
pipe or header. Branch connections that intersect the 
run pipe or headers at angles, 

90 deg > a > 45 deg 

should be avoided. Branch connections should not in 
any case intersect the run pipe or header at angles, 

a < 45 deg 

11-5.5 Water in installation Piping 

11-5.5.1 Drainage of Discharge Piping. Drains shall 
be provided so that condensed leakage, rain, or other 
water sources will not collect on the discharge side of 
the valve and adversely affect the reaction force. Safety 
valves are generally provided with drain plugs that can 
be used for a drain connection. Discharge piping shall 



242 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



be sloped and provided with adequate drains if low 
points are unavoidable in the layout. 

11-5.5.2 Water Seals. Where water seals are used 
ahead of the safety valve, the total water volume in the 
seals shall be minimized. To minimize forces due to slug 
flow or water seal excursion, the number of changes of 
direction and the lengths of straight runs of installation 
piping shall be limited. The use of short radius elbows 
is also discouraged; the pressure differential across the 
cross section is a function of the elbow radius. 

11-5.6 Discharge Stacks 

If telescopic or uncoupled discharge stacks, or equiva- 
lent arrangements, are used then care should be taken 
to insure that forces on the stack are not transmitted 
to the valve discharge elbow. Stack clearances shall be 
checked for interference from thermal expansion, earth- 
quake displacements, etc. Discharge stacks shall be sup- 
ported adequately for the forces resulting from valve 
discharge so that the stack is not deflected, allowing 
steam to escape in the vicinity of the valve. In addition, 
the deflection of the safety valve discharge nozzle 
(elbow) and the associated piping system when sub- 
jected to the reaction force of the blowing valve shall 
be calculated. This deflection shall be considered in the 
design of the discharge stacks slip-joint to assure that 
the discharge nozzle remains in the stack, preventing 
steam from escaping in the vicinity of the valve. 

To prevent blowback of discharging steam from inlet 
end of vent stack, consider the use of an antiblowback 
device that still permits thermal movements of header. 

11-5*7 Support Design 

Supports provided for safety valves and the associated 
piping require analysis to determine their role in 
restraint as well as support. These analyses shall con- 
sider at least the following effects: 

(A) differential thermal expansion of the associated 
piping, headers, and vessels. 

(B) dynamic response characteristics of the support 
in relation to the equipment being supported and the 
structure to which it is attached, during seismic events 
and valve operation. Maximum relative motions of vari- 
ous portions of the building and structures to which 
supports are attached resulting from seismic excitation 
must be considered in selecting, locating, and analyzing 
support systems. 

(C) capability of the support to provide or not provide 
torsional rigidity, per the support design requirements. 

11-5.7.1 Pipe Supports. Where necessary, it is recom- 
mended that the support near the valve discharge be 
connected to the run pipe, header, or vessel rather than 
to adjacent structures in order to minimize differential 
thermal expansion and seismic interactions. 

Each straight leg of discharge piping should have a 
support to take the force along that leg. If the support 



is not on the leg itself, it should be as near as possible 
on an adjacent leg. 

When a large portion of the system lies in a plane, 
the piping if possible should be supported normal to 
that plane even though static calculations do not identify 
a direct force requiring restraint in that direction. 
Dynamic analyses of these systems have shown that 
out-of-plane motions can occur. 

11-5.7.2 Snubbers. Snubbers are often used to pro- 
vide a support or a stop against a rapidly applied load, 
such as the reaction force of a blowing valve or the 
pressure-momentum transient in a closed piping system. 
Since snubbers generally displace a small distance before 
becoming rigid, the displacement must be considered 
in the analysis. In addition, if the load is applied to the 
snubber for a. relatively long time, the snubber perform- 
ance characteristics shall be reviewed to assure that the 
snubber will not permit motion during the time period 
of interest, or the additional displacement must be con- 
sidered in the analysis. The snubber performance shall 
also be reviewed for response to repetitive load applica- 
tions caused by the safety valve cycling open and closed 
several times during a pressure transient. 

11-5.8 Silencer Installation 

Silencers are occasionally installed on safety valve 
discharges to dissipate the noise generated by the sonic 
velocity attained by the fluid flowing through the valve. 

Silencers must be properly sized to avoid excessive 
backpressure on the safety valve causing improper valve 
action or reducing relieving capacity. 

Safety valve discharge piping, silencers, and vent 
stacks shall be properly supported to avoid excessive 
loading on the valve discharge flange. 

11-6.0 SAMPLE DESIGNS 

Examples of various safety valve installations that a 
designer may encounter in practice are presented in 
Figs. n-l-2(A) and II-6-1. 

11-7.0 SAMPLE PROBLEM (SEE FIGS. 11-7-1 AND 
11-7-2) 

11-7.1 Procedure 

(A) Determine pressure and velocity at discharge 
elbow exit. 

(B) Calculate maximum operating pressure for dis- 
charge exit. 

(C) Calculate reaction force at discharge elbow exit. 

(D) Calculate bending moments of Points (1) and (2) 
from reaction force and seismic motion. 

(E) Determine stress intensification factors at Points 
(1) and (2). 

(F) Calculate predicted stresses at Points (1) and (2) 
and compare with allowable stress. 



243 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Fig. il-6-1 Examples of Safety Valve Installations 





Insulation 



(a) 



(b) 



O 
A ', 



^nuO 




(c) 



F -A> 




(d) 



F= reaction force 



(G) Calculate maximum operating pressure for vent 
pipe. 

(H) Check for blowback. 

(I) Calculate forces and moments on vent pipe. 

1 1-7.1 .1 Pressure and Velocity at Discharge Elbow Exit 
(Para. 11-2.2.1) 



P, - 



W(b-l) 2% -&)] 



A, 






(2b - 1) 



2gc J(h - a) 
V {2b -1) 



where 
A l = 50.03 in. 2 
a = 823 Btu/lbm for 15 < P { < 1,000 psia and h < 

1,600 Btu/lbm 
b - 4.33 for 15 < P 1 < 1,000 psia and ft < 

1,600 Btu/lbm 
g c = 32.2 lbm-ft/lbf-sec 2 



ft = stagnation enthalpy for steam at 925 psia, 
1,000°F 
= 1,507.3 Btu/lbm 
/ = 778 ft-lbf/Btu 
?! = 118 psia 
V\ - 2,116 ft/sec 
W = flow rate 

= 116.38 ibm/sec 

H-7.1.2 Discharge Elbow Maximum Operating 
Pressure. For 8 in. Class 150 ASME weld neck flange, 



L 
D 



4 in. 

7.981 in. 



= 0.5 



For 8 in. SCH 40 short radius elbow, 



§ = 3 ° 



For 12 in. of 8 in. SCH 40 pipe, 



244 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Fig. H-7-1 Sample Problem Figure 1 



Point (3) 



Vent pipe 




relief vaive set pressure =910 psig 
steam temperature = 1 000°F 

orifice size =11.05 in. 2 (Q orifice) 
actual flow capacity of valve 

at 10% accumulation =418,950 Ibm/hr 
valve inlet l.D. =6 in. 
valve outlet i.D. =8 in. 
vaive discharge elbow =8 in. SCH 40 
valve vent pipe = 12 in. SCH 30 
seismic coefficient = 1.5g 

nozzle material = ASTM A 335 P22 2V 4 Cr-1 Mo 
allowable stress at 1000°F =7800 psi 
valve weight =800 lb 
valve rise time - 0.040 sec 

Determine stresses at Points (1 ) and (2) due to seismic and 
relief valve discharge loads only. 



33V/in. 



\/////////////////// //////////////////////// /A 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Fig. 11-7-2 Sample Problem Figure 2 



/ = 1.5 



*m\ 2 k\r^ \y 2 \ niK 



T r \\ r. 



R m , T fl r^, T' b , and r p are shown in sketch below: 

/ -i s M5-375 \ 2 / 3 f 4.25 \V 2 / 2.5 W 4.25 I 
, * 1 »- 1 - 5 |~2S"1 lT^75j l^lUs") 

/ (1 j = 2.05 



8 3 / 4 in. 



Point (2) 



Point (1 



1.218 in. 




fl,„ = 153/ 8 in 



7>2Voin. 



246 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



D 



L _ 12 in. 
D ~ 7.981 in. 

lu 



1.5 



0.5 + 30 + 1.5 = 32.0 



/ - 0.013 

k = 1.3 



1 l D 



0.416 



From Chart II- 1, P/P* = 1.647. 

Pu = Pi (P/P*) = 194 psia 

11-7-1.3 Reaction Force at Discharge Elbow Exit. 

Reaction force, 



F 'i =-— L + (Pi- ?«)>!, 



where 

W = 116.38 lbm/sec 

Vi = 2,116 ft/sec 

& = 32.2 lbm-ft/lbf-sec 2 

Pi = 118 psia 

P a = 15 psia 

A a = 50.03 in. 2 

(P a - P„) = 118 - 15 - 103 psig 

WVi/gc = 7,648 lbf 

(Pi -P a )A x = 5,153 Ibf 

F 1 = 12,801 Ibf 

11-7.1.4 Bending Moments at Points (1) and (2) 

(A) Bending Moment at Points (I) and (2) Due to Reaction 
at Point (1) 

Mi(i) = A4i (2 ) 

= f! x L x DLF 

L = moment arm 

= 24 in. 

DLF = dynamic load factor 

To determine DLF, first determine the safety valve instal- 
lation period T: 

T = 0.1846 /JB£ 
\ EI 

where 

E = Young's modulus of inlet pipe at design tem- 
perature 
= 23 x 10 6 psi 
h = distance from run pipe to centerline of outlet 
piping 
= 19 in. 



I — moment of inertia of inlet pipe 

= £ w. 4 - oh 

Use average O.D. and I.D. to determine I D — 
9.875 in. avg.; Dj = 6 in. avg. 
= 403.2 in. 4 
T = 0.00449 sec 
W = weight of valve 
- 800 1b 

For a valve rise time of 0.040 sec = t , the ratio t /T is 
8.9. From Fig. II-3-2, DLF = 1.11. 

Using F 1 "= 12,801 lbf, L = 24 in., and DLP - 1.11, 

M ](1) - M 1(2) - 341,018 in.-lb 

(B) Bending Moments at Points (1) and (2) Due to Seismic 
Loading 
Seismic force, 



Fs = mass x acceleration 
800 lbm 



32.2 lbm-ft/lbf-sec 2 

x 1.5(32.2 ft/sec 2 ) 

- 1,200 Ibf 
Moment arm for Point (1) = 19 in. 

M S(1) = 1,200 Ibf (19 in.) = 22,800 in.-lb 
Moment arm for Point (2) = 12 in. 

M S( 2) = 1/200 Ibf (12 in.) = 14,400 in.-lb 

(C) Combined Bending Moments at Points (1) and (2) 

A*(i) = M 1(1) + M S(1) = 363,819 in.-lb 

M (2) - Mi (2 ) + M S(2) = 355,419 in.-lb 

11-7.1.5 Stress Intensification Factors at Points (1) 
and (2) 

(A) At Point (1), Branch Connection 



t(D 



>.05 



(B) Stress Intensification Factors at Point (2), Butt Weld 
i (2) - 1.0 

11-7.1.6 Predicted Stresses at Points (1) and (2) 

(A) Predicted Stresses at Point (1), Branch Connection 



Predicted stress = 



PD 



D 

— - for run pipe 



4i n 

33.25 in. _ 
2.5 in. 



13.3 



247 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Do , , , . 11 in. 

— for branch pipe = -— — - 4.4 

t n r r 2.5 in. 

Use larger value with P = 910 psig. 

Pressure stress(i) = 3,030 psi 

0.75z M (1) 
Flexure stress/]) = — ■= 

Z (1) = irr & 2 f 5 

£s = lesser of t T or (f) ^ 

t R - 2.5 in.; (/) t b = (2.05) 2.5 in. 

t s = 2.5 in. 

r 6 - 4.25 in. 

2 (1) - 142 in. 3 

f (1) = 2.05; M (1) = 363,819 in.-lb 

Flexure stress (1 ) = 3,939 psi 
Combined stress (1) = pressure stress(i) 
+ flexure stress(j) 
= 6,969 psi 

(B) Predicted Stresses at Point (2), Butt Weld 

PD 



Pressure stress = — — 
P - 910 psig 

D - 8.75 in. 

t n = 1.218 in. 

Pressure stress (2) = 1,635 psi 



Flexure stress n) = 



0.75 i M 



Z, 



2(2) - 



p, 4 _ D 4. 



32 D 
D - 8.75 in. 

Dj = 6 in. 
Z (2) = 51.1 in. 3 

1(2) = 1-0 

M (2 ) = 355,419 in.-lb 
Flexure stress (2 ) - 6,955 psi 

(Note that 0.75/ is set equal to 1.0 whenever 0.752 is less than 
1.0, as in this case.) 



Combined stress ( 2 ) = pressure stress (?) 
+ flexure stress {2 ) 
= 8,590 psi 

(C) Comparison of Predicted Stress With Allowable Stress. 
Allowable stress of nozzle material at 1,000°F is 

S h = 7,800 psi 

k = 1.2 

kS h - 9,360 psi 

Combined stress (i) = 6,969 psi 

Combined stress ^ = 8,590 psi 

11-7.1.7 Calculate the Maximum Operating Pressure 
for Vent Pipe 



n ( A A no • 50.03 in. 2 
Py — = 118 psia 



A 



114.80 in: 



— 51.4 psia 
L/D for 20 ft in. of 12 in. SCH 30 pipe - 19.85. 

1(L/D) = (^) = 19.85 

/ - 0.013 

k = 1.3 



/ 



(L„ 



D 



0.258 



From Chart 11-1, P/P* = 1.506. 

P 2 = P 3 (P/P*) - 77.4 psia 

11-7.1.8 Check for Blowback From Vent Pipe. Calcu- 
late the velocity V 2 that exists at the inlet to the vent 
pipe (para. H-2.2.1.4). 



/-—^ = 0.258 from. Step (7) 



V 3 = v i = 2,116 ft/sec 
From Chart O-l, V/V* = 0.7120. 

y 2 = y 3 (V/y*) = 1,507 ft/sec 
Check the inequality from para. II-2.3.1.2. 

— ^ — - > rp 2 - p fl ) a 2 

- (Pi - Pa) A x 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



116.38 (2,116 - 1,507) 

32.2 



> (77.4 - 14.7X1148) 
-(118- 14.7)(50.03) 



Fig. 11-7-3 Sample Problem Figure 3 



2,201 > 2,030 

The inequality has been satisfied but the designer may 
require a design margin that would make 14 in. SCH 30 
more acceptable. If a larger vent pipe is chosen, then 
the vent pipe analysis would have to be repeated for 
the 14 in. SCH 30 pipe. 

11-7.1.9 Calculate Forces and Moments on Vent Pipe 
Anchor 






(116.38X1,507) 

32.2 

+ (77.4 - 14.7) (114.8) 
5,447 + 7,198.0 - 12,645 lbf 



■Fa = 



(116.38)(2,116) 



32.2 

+ (51.4 - 14.7)(114.8) 
= 7,648 + 4,213 = 11,861 lbf 

Assume a 30 deg jet deflection angle for vent pipe outlet. 
Vertical component of F 3 

F w = F 3 cos 30 deg = 10,272 lbf 

Horizontal component of F 3 

F m = F ?f sin 30 deg = 5,931 lbf 



60,568 Ib-ft 




Anchor (a) 



Net imbalance on the vent pipe in the vertical direction is 

F 2 - F 3V - 2,373 lbf 
Moment on vent pipe anchor 

D 

IM - (F 2 - F 3V ) y 

+ F 3H x [distance from (a) to Point (3)] 

= (2,373) ji^p) + (5,931)(10.0) 

- 60,568 ft-lb 

'The vent pipe anchor would then be designed for the 
loads shown in Fig. II- 7-3 for safety valve operation. 

Conclusion 

Branch connection stresses at Points (1) and (2) due 
to seismic and relief valve discharge are within 1.2 S/ ? . 
Blowback will not occur with the 12 in. standard weight 
vent pipe. The vent pipe anchor loads have been 
identified. 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



NONMANDATORY APPENDIX HI 
RULES FOR NONMETALLIC PIPING AND PIPING LINED WITH 

NONMETALS 



FOREWORD 

ASME B31.1 contains rules governing the design, fab- 
rication, materials, erection, and examination of power 
piping systems. Experience in the application of nonme- 
tallic materials for piping systems has shown that a 
number of considerations exist for the use of these mate- 
rials that are not addressed in the current body of the 
Code, In order to address these, the requirements and 
recommendations for the use of nonmetallic piping 
(except in paras. 1053, 108.4, 116, and 11.8) have been 
separately assembled in this nonmandatory Appendix. 

111-1.0 SCOPE AND DEFINITION 

lll-l.l General 

lll-l.l.l This Appendix provides minimum 
requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, erec- 
tion, testing, examination, and inspection of nonmetallic 
piping and metallic piping lined with nonmetals within 
the jurisdiction of the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code. 
All references to the Code or to Code paragraphs in this 
Appendix are to the Section B31.1 Power Piping Code. 
In this Appendix, nonmetallic piping shall be limited 
to plastic and elastomer based piping materials, with or 
without fabric or fibrous material added for pressure 
reinforcement. Metallic piping lined with nonmetals 
shall be limited to factory-made plastic-lined ferrous 
metal pipe, fittings, and flanges produced to one of the 
product standards for plastic-lined piping materials 
listed in Table 111-4.1.1. 

EU-1.1.2 Standards and specifications incorporated 
in this Appendix are listed in Table III-4.1.1. The effective 
date of these documents shall correspond to the date of 
this Appendix. 

Ell-l.1.3 The provisions in Chapters I through VI 
and in Appendices A through F are requirements of this 
Appendix only when specifically referenced herein. 

ISS-1.2 Scope 

IEI-1.2.1 All applicable requirements of para. 100.1 
and the limitations of para. 1.05.3 shall be met in addition 
to those in this Appendix. 

Hl-l.2.2 Use of this Appendix is limited to 
(A) water service. 



(B) nonflammable and nontoxic liquid, dry material, 
and slurry systems. 

(C) reinforced thermosetting resin pipe in buried 
flammable and combustible liquid service systems [refer 
to para. 122.7.3(F)]. 

(D) polyethylene pipe in buried flammable and com- 
bustible liquid and gas service. Refer to paras. 122.7.3(F) 
and 122.8.1(G). 

(E) metallic piping lined with nonmetals. If used in 
accordance with para. 122.9 for conveying corrosive liq- 
uids and gases, the design of the lined piping system 
shall meet the requirements of para. 104.7. 

Hl-l.2.3 Nonmetallic piping systems shall not be 
installed in a confined space where toxic gases could be 
produced and accumulate, either from combustion of 
the piping materials or from exposure to flame or ele- 
vated temperatures from fire. 

111-13 Definitions and Abbreviations 

111-1.3.1 Terms and definitions relating to plastic 
and other nonmetallic piping materials shall be in accor- 
dance with ASTM D 883. The following terms and defi- 
nitions are in addition to those provided in the ASTM 
standard. 

adhesive: a material designed to join two other compo- 
nent materials together by surface attachment (bonding). 

adhesive joint: a bonded joint made using an adhesive 
on the surfaces to be joined. 

bonder: one who performs a manual or semiautomatic 
bonding operation. 

bonding operator: one who operates a machine or auto- 
matic bonding equipment. 

bonding procedure: the detailed methods and practices 
involved in the production of a bonded joint. 

Bonding Procedure Specification (BPS): the document that 
lists the parameters to be used in the construction of 
bonded joints in accordance with the requirements of 
this Code. 

butt-and-wrapped joint: a joint made by applying plies of 
reinforcement saturated with resin to the surfaces to be 
joined. 

chopped roving: a collection of noncontinuous glass 
strands gathered without mechanical twist. Each strand 



250 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Table 111-4.1.1 Nonmetallic Material and Product Standards 



Standard or Specification Designation [Notes (l), (2)] 

Nonmetallic Fittings 

Threaded Polyvinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 ASTM D 2464-90 

Polyvinyl Chloride) PVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 ASTM D 2466-90a 

Socket-Type Polyvinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule SO ASTM D 2467-90 

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene ABS Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 ASTM D 2468-89 

Thermoplastic Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings ASTM D 2513-90b 

Reinforced Epoxy Resin Gas Pressure Pipe and Fittings ASTM D 2517-81 (R1987) 

Plastic insert Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe ASTM D 2609-90 

Socket-Type Polyethylene Fittings for Outside Diameter-Controlled Polyethylene Pipe and Tubing ,.„ ASTM D 2683-90 

Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) CPVC Plastic Hot and Cold Water Distribution Systems ASTM D 2846-90 

Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe and Tubing ASTM D 3261-90 

Poiybutylene (PB) Plastic Hot-Cold-Water Distribution Systems ASTM D 3309-89a 

Reinforced Thermosetting Resin (RTR) Flanges ASTM D 4024-87 

Threaded Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 ASTM F 437~89a 

Socket-Type Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 ASTM F 438-89a 

Socket-Type Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule SO ASTM F 439-89 

Electrofusion Type Polyethylene Fittings for Outside Diameter Controlled Polyethylene Pipe and Tubing ASTM F 1055-98 

Nonmetallic Pipe and Tube Products 

Polyethylene Line Pipe API 15LE (1987) 

Thermoplastic Line Pipe (PVC and CPVC) APi 15LP (1987) 

Low Pressure Fiberglass Line Pipe API 15LR (1986) 

Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe ASTM C 14-82 

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80 ASTM D 1527-77 (1989) 

Polyvinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80 and 120 ASTM D 1785-89 

Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Schedule 40 ASTM D 2104-89 

Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SIDR-PR) Based on Controlled Inside Diameter ASTM D 2239-89 

Polyvinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-Rated Pipe (SDR Series) ASTM D 2241-89 

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) ASTM D 2282-89 

Machine-Made Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin Pipe ASTM D 2310-80 (1986) 

Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80, Based on Outside Diameter ASTM D 2447-89 

Thermoplastic Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings ASTM D 2513-86A 

Reinforced Epoxy Resin Gas Pressure Pipe and Fittings ASTM D 2517-81 (R1987) 

Poiybutylene (PB) Plastic Pipe (SIDR-PR) Based on Controlled Inside Diameter ASTM D 2662-89 

Poiybutylene (PB) Plastic Tubing ASTM D 2666-89 

Joints for IPS PVC Pipe Using Solvent Cement ASTM D 2672-89 

Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Tubing ASTM D 2737-89 

Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot- and Cold-Water Distribution System ASTM D 2846-90 

Filament-Wound "Fiberglass' 1 (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe ASTM D 2996-88 

Centrifugally Cast Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Pipe ASTM D 2997-90 

Poiybutylene (PB) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter ASTM D 3000-89 

Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Controlled Outside Diameter ASTM D 3035-89a 

PB Plastic Hot-Water Distribution Systems ASTM D 3309-89a 

Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80 ASTM F 441-89 

Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, (SDR-PR) ASTM F 442-87 

Plastic-Lined Ferrous Metal Pipe, Fittings, and Flanges [Note (3)3 ASTM F 1545-97 

PVC Pressure Pipe, 4-inch through 12-inch, for Water *AWWA C 900-97 

AWWA Standard for Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin Pressure Pipe *AWWA C 950-88 

Miscellaneous 

Standard Methods of Testing Vitrified Clay Pipe ASTM C 301-87 

Contact-Molded Reinforced Thermosetting Plastic (RTP) Laminates for Corrosion Resistant Equipment ASTM C 582-87 

Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Plastics ASTM D 297-81 

Standard Abbreviations of Terms Relating to Plastics ASTM D 1600-90 

Threads 60° (Stub) for "Fiberglass" (Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) Pipe *ASTM D 1694-91 

Solvent Cements for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe and Fittings ASTM D 2235-88 

External Loading Properties of Plastic Pipe by Parallel-Plate Loading ASTM D 2412-87 

Solvent Cements for Polyvinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings ASTM D 2564-88 

Heat-joining Polyolefin Pipe and Fitting ASTM D 2657-90 

251 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



Table 111-4.1.1 Nonmetallic Material and Product Standards (Cont'd) 



Standard or Specification 



Designation [Notes (1), (2)] 



Miscellaneous (Cont'd) 

Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials ASTM D 2837-90 

Making Solvent-Cemented Joints With Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Fittings ASTM D 2855-90 

Standard Test Method For External Pressure Resistance of Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Pipe ASTM D 2924-86 

Obtaining Hydrostatic or Pressure Design Basis for "Fiberglass" (Giass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin) 

Pipe and Fittings *ASTM D 2992-87 

joints for Plastic Pressure Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals ASTM D 3139-89 

Underground Installation of "Fiberglass" (Glass-Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting Resin) Pipe ASTM D 3839-89 

Design and Construction of Nonmetallic Enveloped Gaskets for Corrosive Service ASTM F 336-87 

Solvent Cements for Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings ASTM F 493-89 

Electrofusion Joining Polyolefin Pipe and Fitting ASTM F 1290-98a 

Plastic Pipe Institute (PPI) Technical Report Thermal Expansion and Contraction of Plastic Pipe PPI TR-21-88 

GENERAL NOTE: This standard contains no pressure-temperature ratings. Paragraph lll-2.1.2(B.3) applies. 
NOTES: 

(1) An asterisk (*) preceding the designation indicates that the standard has been approved as an American National Standard by the 
American National Standards institute. 

(2) Numbers in parentheses are reapproval dates. 



is made up of glass filaments bonded together with a 
finish or size for application by chopper gun. 

chopped strand mat: a collection of randomly oriented 
glass fiber strands, chopped or swirled together with a 
binder in the form of a blanket. 

continuous roving: a collection of continuous glass 
strands wound into a cylindrical package without 
mechanical twist. 

curing agent: a reactive material which when combined 
with a resin material reacts or polymerizes (crosslinks) 
with the resin; also referred to as a hardener. 

diluent: a reactive modifying material, usually liquid, 
which reduces the concentration of a resin material to 
facilitate handling characteristics and improve wetting. 

electrofusion: a heat fusion joining process where the heat 
source is an integral part of the fitting, such that when 
electric current is applied, heat is produced that melts 
and joins the plastics. 

fire retardant resin: a specially compounded material 
combined with a resin material designed to reduce or 
eliminate the tendency to burn. 

flexibilizer: a modifying liquid material added to a resin- 
ous mixture designed to allow the finished component 
the ability to be flexed or less rigid and more prone to 
bending. 

grout: a heavily filled paste material used to fill crevices 
and transitions between piping components. 

heat fusion joint: a joint made by heating the surfaces to 
be joined and pressing them together so they fuse and 
become essentially one piece. 

hot gas welded joint: a joint made by simultaneously heat- 
ing a filler material and the surfaces to be joined with 



a stream of hot air or hot inert gas until the materials 
soften, after which the surfaces to be joined are pressed 
together and welded with the molten filler material. 

liner: a coating or layer of material constructed as, 
applied to, or inserted within the inside surface of a 
piping component intended to protect the structure from 
chemical attack, to inhibit erosion, or to prevent leakage 
under strain. 

seal weld: the addition of material external to a joint by 
welding or bonding for the purpose of enhancing leak 
tightness. 

solvent cement joint: a joint using a solvent cement to 
soften the surfaces to be joined, after which the joining 
surfaces are pressed together and become essentially 
one piece as the solvent evaporates. 

stiffness factor: the measurement of a pipe's ability to 
resist deflection as determined in accordance with 
ASTM D 2412. 

thixatropic agent: a material added to resin to impart high 
static shear strength (viscosity) and low dynamic shear 
strength. 

ultraviolet absorber: a material which when combined in 
a resin mixture will selectively absorb ultraviolet radi- 
ation. 

woven roving: a heavy glass fiber fabric reinforcing mate- 
rial made by the weaving of glass fiber roving. 

Ili-l.3.2 Abbreviations used in this Appendix 
denote materials and terms as follows: 



252 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



Abbreviation 


Term 


ABS 1 


Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene 


AP 


Polyacetal 


CP 


Chlorinated polyether 


CPVC 1 


Chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride) 


DS 


Design stress 


FEP 1 


Perfluoro (ethylene propylene) 


HDB 


Hydrostatic design basis 


HDS 


Hydrostatic design stress 


PA 1 


Polyamide (nylon) 


FB 


Polybutylene 


PE 1 


Polyethylene 


PFA 


Poly (perfluoroalkoxy) 


POP 


Poly (phenylene oxide) 


PP 1 


Polypropylene 


PPS 


Polyphenylene 


PR 


Pressure rated 


PTFE 1 


Polytetrafluoroethylene 


PVC 1 


Poly (vinyl chloride) 


PVDC 


Poly (vinylidene chloride) 


PVDF 


Poly (viny lid ene fluoride) 


RTR 


Reinforced thermosetting resin 


SDR 


Standard dimensional ratio 


ISI-2.0 DESIGN 





HI-2,1 Conditions and Criteria 

111-2.1.1 General 

(A) The Design Conditions of para. 101 shall apply 
for the design of nonmetallic piping systems. 

(B) The design of nonmetallic piping systems must 
ensure the adequacy of material and its manufacture, 
considering at least the following: 

(B.l) tensile, compressive, flexural, shear strength, 
and modulus of elasticity at design temperature (long- 
term and short-term) 

(B.l) creep characteristics for the service conditions 
(B3) design stress and its basis 
(BA) coefficient of thermal expansion 
(B.5) ductility and plasticity 
(B.6) impact and thermal shock properties 
(B.7) temperature limits for the service 
(B.8) transition temperatures: melting and vapor- 
ization 

(B.9) toxicity of the material or of the gases pro- 
duced by its combustion or exposure to elevated temper- 
atures 

(B.10) porosity and permeability 
(B.ll) test methods 

(B. 11) methods of making joints and their efficiency 
(B.l 3) deterioration in the service environment 
(B.14) the effects on unprotected piping from exter- 
nal heat sources (particularly solar radiation) 



Abbreviations in accordance with ASTM D 1600. 



IEI-2.1.2 Pressure-Temperature Ratings for 
Components 

(A) Components having specific pressure- 
temperature ratings have been established in the stan- 
dards listed in Table I1I-4.1.1. Other components may 
be used in accordance with para. 111-2. 1.2(B). 

(A. 1) Except as qualified in para. IH-2.1.3, the rat- 
ings of Tables 111-4.2.1, III-4.2.2, and 1II-4.2.3 are the lim- 
iting values for allowable stresses at temperature in this 
Appendix. 

(A.2) The application of pressures exceeding the 
pressure-temperature ratings of valves is not permitted. 
Valves shall be selected for operation within the limits 
defined in para III-2. 1.2(C). 

(B) Components Not Hewing Specific Ratings 

(B.l) Pipe and other piping components for which 
allowable stresses have been developed in accordance 
with para. III-2.1.3, but which do not have specific 
pressure-temperature ratings, shall be rated by the rules 
for pressure design in para. III-2.2 within the range of 
temperatures for which stresses are listed in 
Tables III-4.2.1, III-4.2.2, and 111-4.2.3. 

(B.l) Custom-molded pipe and other piping com- 
ponents that do not have allowable stresses or pressure- 
temperature ratings shall be qualified for pressure 
design as required in para. III-2.2.9. 

(B3) When components other than described 
above, such as pipe or fittings not assigned pressure- 
temperature ratings in an ASME or American National 
Standard, are used, the manufacturer's recommended 
pressure-temperature rating shall not be exceeded. 

(C) Allowances for Pressure and Temperature Variations 
(C.l) Nonmetallic Piping. Allowances for variations 

of pressure, temperature, or both, above design condi- 
tions are not permitted. The most severe conditions of 
coincident pressure and temperature shall be used to 
determine the design conditions. 

(C.l) Metallic Piping Lined With Nonmetals. Allow- 
ances for pressure and temperature variations provided 
in para. 102.2.4 are permitted only if the suitability of 
the lining material for the increased conditions is estab- 
lished through prior successful experience or tests under 
comparable conditions. 

(D) Considerations for Local Conditions. Where two ser- 
vices that operate at different pressure-temperature con- 
ditions are connected, the valve segregating the two 
services shall be rated for the most severe service condi- 
tions. Other requirements of para. 102.2.5 must be con- 
sidered where applicable. 

IIE-2.1.3 Allowable Stresses and Other Stress Limits 

(A) General. Tables UI-4.2.1, II1-4.2.2, and 111-4.2.3 list 
recommended maximum allowable stresses in the form 
of hydrostatic design stresses (HDS), allowable design 
stresses (DS), and the hydrostatic design basis (HDB), 
which may be used in design calculations except where 
modified by other provisions of this Appendix. The use 



253 



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ASME B31. 1-2007 



of hydrostatic design stresses for calculations other than 
pressure design has not been established. The basis for 
determining allowable stresses and pressures is outlined 
in para. III-2. 1.3(B). The allowable stresses are grouped 
by materials and listed for stated temperatures. Where 
sufficient data have been provided, straight-line interpo- 
lation between temperatures is permissible. The 
materials listed are available from one or more manufac- 
turers and may be obtained with maximum allowable 
stresses varying from those listed in Tables III-4.2.1, 
111-4.2.2/ and III-4.2.3. These materials and values are 
acceptable for use where they have been established in 
accordance with (B) below and para. III-2.2.9. 
(B) Basis for Allowable Stresses for Internal Pressure 

(B.l) Thermoplastics. A method of determining 
hydrostatic design stress (HDS) and pressure rating (PR) 
is described in ASTM D 2837. Hydrostatic design 
stresses are provided in Table III-4.2.1 for those materials 
and temperatures for which sufficient data have been 
compiled to substantiate a determination of stress. Data 
on these materials at other temperatures, and on other 
materials, are being developed. Pending publication of 
additional data, the limitations in para. III-2. 1.2(B) shall 
be observed. 

(B.2) Reinforced Thermosetting Resin (Laminated). 
For laminated piping components, the design stresses 
(DS) are listed in Table IIT-4.2.2. These typically are based 
on one-tenth of the minimum tensile strengths specified 
in Table 1 of ASTM C 582. 

(B.3) Reinforced Thermosetting Resin (Filament Wound 
and Centrifugally Cast). For filament wound and centrif- 
ugally cast piping components, hydrostatic design basis 
(HDB) values are listed in Table IH-4.2.3. These values 
may be obtained by procedures in ASTM D 2992. HDS 
may be obtained by multiplying the HDB by a service 
(design) factor 2 selected for the application, in accor- 
dance with procedures described in ASTM D 2992, 
within the following limits: 

(B.3.1) When using the cyclic HDB from Table 

III-4.2.3, the service (design) factor shall not exceed 1.0. 

(B.3.2) When using the static HDB from Table 

III-4.2.3, the service (design) factor shall not exceed 0.5. 

S!l-2,1.4 Limits of Calculated Stresses Due to Sus- 
tained Loads 

(A) Internal Pressure Stresses. The limits for stress due 
to internal pressure are provided in para. 111-2.2.2, 

(B) External Pressure Stresses. Stresses due to uniform 
external pressures shall be considered safe when the 
wall thickness of the component, and means of stiffen- 
ing, have been established in accordance with 
para. 111-2.2.9. 



" The service (design) factor should be selected by the designer 
after evaluating fully the service conditions and the engineering 
properties of the specific material under consideration. Aside from 
the limits in paras, III-2.1.3(B.3.1) and (B.3.2), it is not the intent 
of the Code to specify service (design) factors. 



(C) External Loading Stresses. Design of reinforced 
thermosetting resin (RTR) and thermoplastic piping 
under external loading shall be based on the results of 
the parallel plate loading test in ASTM D 2412. The 
allowable deflection for RTR and thermoplastic pipe 
shall be 5% of the pipe diameter. Where other nonm.eta.l- 
lic piping is intended for use under conditions of exter- 
nal loading, it shall be subject to a crushing or three- 
edge bearing test, in accordance with ASTM C 14 or 
C 301, and the allowable load shall be 25% of the mini- 
mum value obtained. 

111-2.1.5 Limits of Calculated Stresses Due to Occa- 
sional Loads 

(A) Operation. The total stress produced by pressure, 
live and dead loads, and by occasional loads, such as 
wind or earthquake, shall not exceed the considerations 
and recommendations in para. 111-2.5. Wind and earth- 
quake forces need not be considered as acting concur- 
rently. 

(B) Test. Stresses due to test conditions are not subject 
to the limitations in (A) above. It is not necessary to 
consider other occasional loads, such as wind and earth- 
quake, as occurring concurrently with test loads. 

111-2.1.6 Allowances 

(A) Erosion , Corrosion, Threading, and Grooving. In 
determining the minimum required thickness of a pip- 
ing component, allowances shall be included for erosion 
and for thread depth or groove depth. 

(B) Mechanical Strength. When necessary, pipe wail 
thicknesses shall be increased to prevent overstress, 
damage, collapse, or buckling due to superimposed 
loads from supports, ice formation, backfill, or other 
causes. Where increasing thickness will cause excessive 
local stress, or is otherwise impractical, the required 
strength may be obtained through the use of additional 
supports, braces, or other means without an increased 
wall thickness. Particular consideration should be given 
to the mechanical strength of a small branch connected 
to large piping or to equipment. 

Hl-2.2 Pressure Design of Piping Components 

111-2.2.1 Criteria for Pressure Design. The design of 
piping components shall consider the effects of pressure 
and temperature in accordance with para. III-2.1.2, and 
provide for allowances in accordance with para. III-2.1.6. 
In addition, the design shall be checked for adequacy 
of mechanical strength under other applicable loadings 
as required in paras. III-2.1.4 and III-2.1.5. 

(A) The required minimum wall thickness of straight 
sections of pipe, t mt shall be determined in accordance 
with eq. (1). 



L, = t+c 



(1) 



254 



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ASME B31.1-2007 



where 

c = the sum of the mechanical allowances (thread 
or groove depth), plus erosion and /or corrosion 
allowance, and the manufacturer's minus toler- 
ance for product wall thickness, in. For threaded 
components, the nominal thread depth shall 
apply. For machined surfaces or grooves where 
a tolerance is not specified, the tolerance shall 
be assumed to be 0.02 in., in addition to the 
specified depth of the thread or groove. 
t = pressure design thickness, in., as calculated in 
para. III-2.2.2 for internal pressure, or in accor- 
dance with para. III-2.2.3 for external pressure 
i m = minimum required thickness, in. 

SII-2.2.2 Straight Pipe Under Internal Pressure 

(A) The internal pressure design thickness, t, shall not 
be less than that calculated by the following equations. 
(A.l) Thermoplastic Pipe 



D 



2S tt /P + l 



(2) 



(A.l) Reinforced Thermosetting Resin (Laminated) 
D 



t = 



2S b /P + 1 



(3) 



(A3) Reinforced Thermosetting Resin (Filament 
Wound and Centrifugally Cast) 



D 



2S C F/P + 1 



(4) 



where 

D = outside diameter of pipe, in. 

F = service design factor in accordance with para. 

III-2.1.3(B.3) 

P = internal design gage pressure, psi 

S a = hydrostatic design stress from Table III-4.2.1 

S b = design stress from Table III-4.2.2 

S c — hydrostatic design basis from Table III-4.2.3 

(A.4) Metallic Pipe Lined With Nonmetals. Pressure 
limitations shall be those established by the manufac- 
turer, considering both pressure and temperature limita- 
tions of the metal housings and sealing ability of the 
liner at flanged joints. In addition, the metallic pipe shall 
meet the requirements of the mandatory sections of B31 
including the pressure design requirements of 
ASME B31.1 Chapter II. 

(B) The internal pressure design thickness t in (A.l) 
and (A. 2) above shall not include any thickness of pipe 
wall reinforced, with less than 30% (by weight) of rein- 
forcing fibers, or added liner thickness. 

111-2.2.3 Straight Pipe Under External Pressure 

(A) Thermoplastic Pipe. The external pressure design 
thickness t shall be qualified as required by 
para. III-2.2.9. 



(B) Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Pipe 

(B.l) Above Ground, For determining design pres- 
sure thickness for straight pipe under external pressure, 
the procedures outlined in ASTM D 2924 shall be fol- 
lowed. A safety factor of at least 4 shall be used. 

(B.l) Below Ground. For determining design pres- 
sure thickness for straight pipe under external pressure 
in a buried condition, the procedures outlined in 
AWWA C-950, Appendix A, Sections A-2.5 and A-2.6 
shall be followed. 

(C) Metallic Pipe Lined With Nonmetals 

(C. 1) The external pressure design thickness for the 
base (outer) material shall be determined in accordance 
with para. 104.1.3. 

(C.2) The external pressure design thickness, t, for 
the lining material shall be qualified as required by 
para. III-2.2.9. 

IH-2.2.4 Curved and Mitered Segments of Pipe 

(A) Pipe Bends. The minimum required thickness, t m , 
of a. pipe bend after bending shall be determined as for 
straight pipe in accordance with para. III-2.2.1. 

(B) Elbows. Manufactured elbows not in accordance 
with para. III-2.1.2 shall meet the requirements of 
para. III-2.2.9. 

(C) Mitered Bends. Mitered bend sections shall meet 
the requirements of para. III-2.2.9. 

IEI-2.2.5 Branch Connections 

(A) General. A pipe having a branch connection is 
weakened by the opening that must be made in it, and 
unless the wall thickness of the pipe is sufficiently in 
excess of that required to sustain the pressure, it is neces- 
sary to provide added reinforcement. The amount of 
reinforcement required shall be in accordance with the 
requirements of para. IH-2.2.9 except as provided in (B) 
and (C) below. 

(B) Branch Connections Using Fittings. A branch con- 
nection shall be considered to have adequate strength 
to sustain the internal and external pressure which will 
be applied to it if a fitting (a tee, lateral, or cross) is 
utilized in accordance with para. 111-2. 1.2(A). 

(C) Additional Considerations. The requirements of (A) 
and (B) above are designed to assure satisfactory per- 
formance of a branch connection subjected only to inter- 
nal or external pressure. The designer shall also consider 
the following: 

(CD external forces and moments which may be 
applied to a branch connection by thermal expansion 
and contraction, by dead and live loads, by vibration or 
pulsating pressure, or by movement of piping terminals, 
supports, and anchors 

(C.2) adequate flexibility shall be provided in 
branch piping to accommodate movements of the run 
piping 

(C.3) ribs, gussets, or clamps may be used for pres- 
sure-strengthening a branch connection in lieu of the 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31. 1-2007 



reinforcement required by (A) above if the adequacy 
of the design is established in accordance with para. 

ni-2.2.9 

9SI-2.2.6 Closures. Closures in piping systems, such 
as those provided for temporary or future lateral or end- 
point branches, shall be made using fittings, flanges, or 
parts in accordance with paras. 111-2.2.7 and M-2.2,9. 

ISi-2.2.7 Pressure Design of Flanges 

(A) General 

(A.l) Nonmetallic flanges that are rated in accor- 
dance with published ASTM standards listed in Table 
111-4.1.1 shall be considered suitable for use within the 
limitations specified in this Appendix. Alternatively, 
flanges shall be in accordance with para. 103, or may 
be designed in conformance w T ith the requirements of 
para. II1-2.2.7 or III-2.2.9. 

(A.l) Flanges for use with ring type gaskets may 
be designed in accordance with Section VIII, Division 
1, Appendix 2 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code, except that the allowable stresses for nonmetallic 
components shall govern. All nomenclature shall be as 
defined in the ASME Code except the following: 
P = design gage pressure 

S a = bolt design stress at atmospheric temperature. 
(Bolt design stresses shall not exceed those in 
Appendix A.) 
St, = bolt design stress at design temperature. (Bolt 
design stresses shall not exceed those in Appen- 
dix A.) 
Sf = allowable stress for flange material from para. 
III-4.2 

(A3) The flange design rules in (A.2) above are not 
applicable for designs employing full-face gaskets that 
extend beyond the bolts or w T here flanges are in solid 
contact beyond the bolts. The forces and reactions in 
such a joint differ from those joints employing ring type 
gaskets, and the flanges should be designed in accor- 
dance with Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix Y of the 
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (Note that the 
plastic flange sealing surface may be more irregular than 
the sealing surface of a steel flange. For this reason, 
thicker and softer gaskets may be required for plastic 
flanges.) 

(B) Blind Flanges. Blind flanges shall be in accordance 
with para. 103, or alternatively, may be designed in 
accordance with para. 104.5.2, except that the allowable 
stress for nonmetallic components shall be taken from 
the data in para. III-4.2. Otherwise, the design of blind 
flanges shall meet the requirements of para. III-2.2.9. 

ill-2.2.8 Reducers. Reducers not in compliance with 
para. 103 shall meet the requirements of para. III-2.2.9. 

111-2-2.9 Design of Other Components 

(A) Listed Components. Other pressure-retaining com- 
ponents manufactured in accordance with standards 



listed in Table 111-4.1.1 may be utilized in accordance 
with para. HI-2.1.2. 

(B) Unlisted Components and Products. For pressure- 
retaining components and piping products not in accor- 
dance with the standards and specifications in Table 
III-4.1.1, and for proprietary components and joints for 
which the rules in paras. III-2.2.1 through III-2.2.8 do 
not apply, pressure design shall be based on calculations 
consistent with the design criteria of the Code. This must 
be substantiated by one or more of the following, with 
consideration given to applicable dynamic effects, such 
as vibration and cyclic operation, the effects of thermal 
expansion or contraction, and the load effects of impact 
and thermal shock: 

(B.l) extensive successful service experience under 
comparable design conditions with similarly propor- 
tioned components or piping elements made of the same 
or like material 

(B.l) performance tests under design conditions, 
including applicable dynamic and creep effects, contin- 
ued for a time period sufficient to determine the accept- 
ability of the component or piping element for its 
design life 

(B.3) for either (B.l) or (B.2) above, reasonable inter- 
polations between sizes and pressure classes and reason- 
able analogies among related materials are permitted 

1IS-2.3 Selection of Piping Components 

fli-2.3.1 General Nonmetallic pipe, tubing, fittings, 
and miscellaneous items conforming to the standards 
and specifications listed in Table ffl-4.1.1 shall be used 
within the limitations of para. 111-4.0 of this Appendix. 

ilI-2.4 Selection of Piping Joints 

fit -2.4.1 General. Joints shall be suitable for the 
pressure-temperature design conditions and shall be 
selected giving consideration to joint tightness and 
mechanical strength under those conditions (including 
external loadings), the materials of construction, the 
nature of the fluid service, and the limitations of paras. 
III-2.4.2 through III-2.4.7. 

flS-2.4.2 Bonded joints 

(A) General Limitations. Unless limited elsewhere in 
para. III-2.4.2, joints made by bonding in accordance 
with para. III-5.1, and examined in accordance with para. 
ffi-6.2, may be used within other limitations on materials 
and piping components in this Appendix. 

(B) Specific Limitations 

(B.l) Fillet joints. Fillet bonded joints may be used 
in hot gas welded joints, only, if in conformance with 
the requirements of para. III-5. 1.3(A). 

(B.2) Butt-and-Wrapped Joints. Butt-and-wrapped 
joints in RTR piping shall be made with sufficient 
strength to withstand pressure and external loadings. 



256 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME 831,1-2007 



IH-2.4.3 Flanged joints 

(A) General Limitations. Unless limited elsewhere in 
para. III-2.4.3, flanged joints may be used, considering 
the requirements for materials in para. III-3.0, and for 
piping components in para. ffl-2,3, within the following 
limitations: 

(A J.) Joints With Flanges of Different Ratings. Where 
flanges of different ratings are bolted together, the rating 
of the joint shall be that of the lower rated flange. Bolting 
torque shall be limited so that excessive loads will not 
be imposed on the lower rated flange in obtaining a 
tight joint. 

(A.2) Metallic to Nonmetallic Flanged Joints. Where 
metallic and nonmetallic flanges are to be joined, both 
should be flat-faced. Full-faced gaskets are preferred. If 
full-faced gaskets are not used, bolting torque shall be 
limited so that the nonmetallic flange is not overloaded. 

lil-2.4.4 Expanded or Roiled Joints, Expanded or 
rolled joints are not permitted in nonmetallic piping 
systems. 

lti-2.4.5 Threaded Joints 

(A) General Limitations. Threaded joints may be used 
within the requirements for materials in para. III-3.0, 
and on piping components in para. III-2.3, within the 
following limitations: 

(A A) Threaded joints shall be avoided in any ser- 
vice where severe erosion or cyclic loading may occur, 
unless the joint has been specifically designed for these 
conditions. 

(A.2) Where threaded joints are designed to be seal 
welded, thread sealing compound shall not be used. 

(A3) Layout of piping should minimize reaction 
loads on threaded joints, giving special consideration to 
stresses due to thermal expansion and the operation of 
valves. 

(A A) Metallic-to-nonmetallic and dissimilar non- 
metallic threaded joints are not permitted in piping 
2\ in. NFS and larger. 

(A.5) Threaded joints are not permitted at design 
temperatures above 150°F. 

(B) Specific Limitations 

(B.l) Thermoplastic Resin Piping. Threaded joints in 
thermoplastic piping shall conform to the following 
requirements: 

(B.l.l) The pipe wall shall be at least Schedule 
80 thickness. 

(B.l. 2) Pipe threads shall conform to 
ASME Bl.20.1 NPT. Threaded fittings shall be compati- 
ble with that standard. 

(B.L 3) A suitable thread lubricant and sealant 
shall be specified. 

(B.l A) Threaded piping joints are not permitted 
in poly olefin materials 3 because of creep characteristics 
that must be considered. 



3 The polyolefin group of materials includes polyethylene, poly- 
propylene, and polybutylene. 



(B.2) Thermosetting Resin Piping, Threaded joints in 
thermosetting resin piping shall conform to the follow- 
ing requirements: 

(B.2.1) Threads shall be factory cut or molded on 
pipe ends and in matching fittings, with allowance for 
thread depth in accordance with para. III-2. 2.1(A). 

(B.2. 2) Threading of plain ends of piping is not 
permitted except where such male threads are limited to 
the function of forming a mechanical lock with matching 
female threads during bonding. 

(B.2. 3) Factory cut or molded threaded nipples, 
couplings, or adapters bonded to plain end components, 
may be used where necessary to provide connections to 
threaded metallic piping. 

ill-2.4.6 Caulked Joints. In liquid service, bell and 
spigot and other caulked joints shall be used within the 
pressure-temperature limitations of the joints and the 
components. Provisions shall be made to prevent disen- 
gagement of the joints at bends and dead ends and to 
support lateral reactions produced by branch connec- 
tions or other causes. 

ltt-2.4.7 Proprietary Joints. Metal coupling, 
mechanical, gland and other proprietary joints may be 
used within the limitations on materials in para. III-3.0, 
on components in para. III-2.3, and the following: 

(A) Adequate provisions shall be made to prevent the 
separation of joints under internal pressure, tempera- 
ture, and external loads. 

(B) Prior to acceptance for use, a prototype joint shall 
be subjected to performance tests to determine the safety 
of the joint under test conditions simulating all expected 
fluid service conditions. 

EEI-2.4.8 Metallic Piping Lined With Nonmetals 

(A) Welding is not permitted on lined components in 
the field. Welding performed by the manufacturer to 
produce pipe, fittings, and flanges to be used for joints 
in elastomeric lined piping systems shall be performed 
so as to maintain the continuity of the lining and its 
serviceability. 

(B) Flared Linings 

(B.l) General. Flared ends of linings made in accor- 
dance with the rules in para. III-5.5.2 may be used, sub- 
ject to material limitations. 

(B.2) Specific Requirements. Flaring shall be limited 
to applications that do not affect the serviceability of 
the lining. 

lii-2.5 Expansion and Flexibility 

111-2.5.1 General Concepts 

(A) Elastic Behavior. The concept of piping strain 
imposed by the restraint of thermal expansion or con- 
traction, and by externa! movements, applies in princi- 
ple to nonmetals. Nevertheless, the assumption that 



257 



Copyright © 2007 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.1-2007 



stresses can be predicted from these strains in a nonme- 
tallic piping system, based on the linear elastic character- 
istics of the material, is generally not valid. The variation 
in elastic characteristics between otherwise similar 
material types, between source manufacturers, and 
between batch lots of the same source material, can at 
times be significant. If a method of flexibility analysis 
that assumes elastic behavior is used, the designer must 
be able to demonstrate its validity for the system and 
must establish conservative limits for the computed 
stresses. 

(B) Overstrained Behavior. Stresses cannot be consid- 
ered proportional to displacement strains in nonmetallic 
piping systems where an excessive level of strain may 
be produced in a localized area of the system, and in 
which elastic behavior of the piping material is uncer- 
tain. (See unbalanced systems in para. 119.3 of the Code.) 
Overstrain must be minimized by effective system rout- 
ing in order to avoid the necessity of a requirement for 
special joints or expansion devices for accommodating 
excessive displacements. 

(C) Progressive Failure. In thermoplastics and some 
thermosetting resins, displacement strains are not likely 
to produce immediate failure of piping but may produce 
unacceptable distortion. Thermoplastics, particularly, 
are prone to progressive deformation that may occur 
upon repeated thermal cycling or under prolonged 
exposure to elevated temperature. 

(D) Brittle Failure. In brittle thermosetting resins, the 
materials are essentially rigid in behavior and may 
readily develop high-displacement stresses, to the point 
of sudden breakage or fracture, under moderate l